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Topic: Phoenicians


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  Phoenicians
From 1200 to 800 B.C. the Semitic-speaking Phoenicians lived and prospered on the Mediterranean coast north of Palestine.
Phoenicians also used papyrus from Egypt to make scrolls, or rolls of paper, for books.
A few Phoenician traders braved the stormy Atlantic and sailed as far as England.
home.cfl.rr.com /crossland/AncientCivilizations/Middle_East_Civilizations/Phoenicians/phoenicians.html   (284 words)

  
 Phoenicia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread right across the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC.
Many of the most important Phoenician settlements had been established long before this: Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, Simyra, Aradus and Berytus all appear in the Amarna tablets; and indeed, the first appearance in archaeology of cultural elements clearly identifiable with the Phoenician zenith is sometimes dated as early as the third millennium BC.
The fishermen of Nazaré and Aveiro in Portugal are traditionally of Phoenician descent.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Phoenicia   (3146 words)

  
 The Phoenicians
Phoenician influence is also to be seen in the region of Cilicia at Zinjirli where King Kilamuwa, probably Aramaean in origin, chose the Phoenician language and script for a long inscription at the front of his palace.
The Phoenician cities furnish a large part of the fleet led by the Persian general Mardonius in the year 492 But heavy losses occur when the ships are dashed against the rocks of Mount Athos and most of the fleet sinks.
The first is the Phoenician cities' "methods of survival, the compromises they made to do so, and their varying responses to Greek and Macedonian power." The second theme is the fascinating issue of the cultural relationship between Phoenician and Graeco-Macedonian.
history-world.org /phoenicians.htm   (11829 words)

  
 Phoenicians
The Phoenicians occupied the cities of Simyra, Zarephath, Jubeil, Arwad, Byblos, Acco, Sidon, Tripolis, Tyre and Berytus.
Their most notable exports were the purple dye known as Tyrian purple, glass manufacture and the use of the Phoenician alphabet, which was the prototype for the western Roman and Greek alphabets.
Phoenician trade was made possible by its excellent navy, which in connection with its other city states made trade easily possible.
www.mnsu.edu /emuseum/prehistory/aegean/theculturesofgreece/phoenician.html   (308 words)

  
 Phoenicia
The Phoenician city states never constituted one political unity, but we believe that there was a cultural identity between the peoples, mainly because of a common language.
Phoenician language was a Semitic language of the Northwestern group, as well as of the Canaanite group.
In most cases, the Phoenicians used cuneiform script, but at Byblos they developed what for long was considered to be the very first alphabet in the 15th century BCE.
i-cias.com /e.o/phoenicia.htm   (1611 words)

  
 Phoenicians - History for Kids!
But in 539 BC the Phoenicians, like everybody else in West Asia, were conquered by the Persians.
Because the Phoenicians had been conquered, they could not run their colonies anymore, and so Carthage and the other Phoenician colonies became independent.
The Phoenicians and the West : Politics, Colonies and Trade, by Maria Eugenia Aubet (1993, revised 2003).
www.historyforkids.org /learn/westasia/history/phoenicians.htm   (509 words)

  
 The Ancient Phoenicians
The Phoenicians called themselves Canaanites, and modern researchers tell us they were the descendants of two groups, the early Canaanites who inhabited the coast of Lebanon, and the Sea People who invaded Lebanon about l200 B.C. The early Canaanites had a limited ship building technology, sailing only flat bottomed barges that hugged the shore.
The Phoenicians worshipped a triad of deities, each having different names and attributes depending upon the city in which they were worshipped, although their basic nature remained the same.- Pat Remler.
The Phoenicians reached the peak of their culture around l,000 B.C, when they had established trading colonies in Cyprus, Sicily, Sardinia, Africa and Spain, Their north African city of Carthage was founded about 800 B.C. and remained strong until the sack of the Romans in l46 B.C..
www.10452lccc.com /hist.geo/ancientphoenicians.htm   (1722 words)

  
 The Ancient Phoenicians
"'Phoenicia' and 'Phoenician' are somewhat artificial terms which were applied by the classical authors to the city-states of the narrow coastal strip that corresponds roughly to northern Lebanon, and the inhabitants who occupied them, from c.1200 BC onwards....Their chief cities were Tyre, Sidon and Byblos.
"Phoenician ritual is illustrated by an alabaster statuette from Tutugi (Galera), near Granada in Spain.
The Phoenicians and the Carthaginians expanded all across North Africa and western Europe.
www.mystae.com /restricted/streams/thera/phoenicians.html   (1119 words)

  
 Sicilian Peoples: The Phoenicians - Best of Sicily Magazine - Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Phoenicia, Carthage, Palermo, ...
The Phoenicians' arrival in western Sicily, circa 800 BC, coincided with the Greek settlement of the island's eastern areas.
Bearing in mind that in Sicily the Phoenicians were essentially traders and the Greeks primarily colonists, it seems probable that the Greeks did indeed introduce the cultivation of edible olives on a wide scale, and perhaps grapes too.
The Phoenicians' forced alliance with Persia appears to have earned the antipathy of the Greeks of the central Mediterranean, and this resentment was directed toward the Phoenician societies of Carthage, Zis and Motya.
www.bestofsicily.com /mag/art150.htm   (2327 words)

  
 Gibraltar, the Pillars of the Phoenicians
The Eastern Mediterranean is not a windy sea and the Phoenicians' principal means of propulsion was the oar.
On arrival on the Atlantic coast of France the Phoenicians came for the first time upon tin, and either devised or learned the technology necessary to convert it to Bronze by combining it with Copper, which was freely available in the Middle East.
The Phoenicians had competitors in the Mediterranean, the Greeks in the Eastern Mediterranean and later the Etruscans in the Western Mediterranean, and customers, the Egyptians, it was important to keep them away from the secret of bronze, the source of their naval power.
www.phoenicia.org /gibraltar.html   (1989 words)

  
 Phoenicia. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
More often it refers to the heart of the territory where the great Phoenician cities, notably Tyre and Sidon, stood (corresponding roughly to the coast of present-day Lebanon).
B.C. the Phoenicians were well established as the navigators and traders of the Mediterranean world, enjoying the commerce that had once been in the hands of the Aegeans.
B.C. The Phoenicians were more or less under the intermittent influence and control of the Egyptians, but with the weakening of Egyptian power in the 12th cent., Phoenician seamen came to dominate the Mediterranean.
www.bartleby.com /65/ph/Phoenici.html   (774 words)

  
 Southern Federation of Syrian Lebanese American American Clubs
We know of two historic occasions when the Phoenicians, on the one hand, and their North African counterparts, the Carthaginians, on the other, could have wandered off the western coast of Africa and accidentally landed on the eastern coast of South America.
In the first instance, a Phoenician fleet was commissioned by the Egyptian pharaoh, Necho, around 600 BC to circumnavigate Africa, sailing out of the Red Sea and returning home by way of Gibraltar.
The Phoenicians stated that, as they sailed west around the tip of Africa, the sun was to their right: seamen from the Mediterranean who had not actually been to the southern hemisphere could not have imagined such a phenomenon.
www.sfslac.org /Library/PhoeniciansDiscoverAmerica.htm   (3049 words)

  
 The Phoenicians (1500–300 B.C.) | Thematic Essay | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The name Phoenician, used to describe these people in the first millennium B.C., is a Greek invention, from the word phoinix, possibly signifying the color purple-red and perhaps an allusion to their production of a highly prized purple dye.
The main natural resources of the Phoenician cities in the eastern Mediterranean were the prized cedars of Lebanon and murex shells used to make the purple dye.
Perhaps the most significant contribution of the Phoenicians was an alphabetic writing system that became the root of the Western alphabets when the Greeks adopted it.
www.metmuseum.org /toah/hd/phoe/hd_phoe.htm   (771 words)

  
 Phoenicians, Phoenix legend, history
The Canaanites who inhabited that area were called Phoenicians by the Greeks (from the Greek word phoinos, meaning ‘red’) in a reference to the unique purple dye the Phoenicians produced from murex seashells.
The Phoenicians gave the alphabet to the Greeks who adopted it; the evolution of the Phoenician Alphabet led to the Latin letters of present-day.
Zeus, the King of the gods according to Greek mythology, saw Europa, the beautiful daughter of the Phoenician king of Tyre ‘Agenor’, as she was gathering flowers by the Mediterranean sea and fell in love with her.
www.lgic.org /en/phoenicians.php   (1596 words)

  
 The Phoenecians   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Phoenicians were traders noted for their purple dye made from the murex snail.
Carthage (from the Phoenician Kart-Hadasht, New City), destined to be the largest Phoenician colony and in the end an imperial power, conformed to the pattern.
Unlike the Greek settlements, however, those of the Phoenicians long remained politically dependent on their homeland, and only a few were situated where the hinterland had the potential for development.
www.barca.fsnet.co.uk /phoenecians.htm   (736 words)

  
 History of Lebanon
The Phoenician cities were prosperous Sea ports, coveted by many people of the Mediterranean and the Middle East.
The Phoenicians were great adventurers, they explored all of the Mediterranean, went out of it into the Atlantic Ocean, travelled along the Atlantic European Coast, establishing colonies along the way.
Heliopolis in Roman -or Baalbeck, in Phoenician- was founded at a crossroads of the caravan routes, in the Beka'a.
www.mountlebanon.org /historyoflebanon.html   (4230 words)

  
 Age of Exploration - On-line Curriculum Guide - The Mariners' Museum - Newport News, Virginia
Little is known of the origins of this group of traders, though their roots are in the eastern Mediterranean.
Archaeologists have discovered that the Phoenicians used coastal and deep-water routes for both trade and voyages of discovery.
Hanno, a native of Carthage, a main Phoenician trading port, explored the western coast of Africa around 500 B.C. His coastal route took him from the Straits of Gibraltar (the Pillars of Hercules) around the western coast of Africa to modern Sierra Leone, and, when supplies ran low, returned to Carthage the way he came.
www.mariner.org /educationalad/ageofex/phoenicians.php   (332 words)

  
 Phoenicians - Trade Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Phoenicians, a Semitic people, spoke the Phoenician language, later called Punic since the Roman word for purple was Puniceus.
Phoenician ships ventured into the Atlantic ocean as far as Britain, where the tin mines in what is now Cornwall provided them with important material.
Though the Phoenicians are credited with developing the Phoenician alphabet, their alphabet is actually what is termed an abjad (different from an alphabet, in that it contains no vowels).
www.bestbuy.tiptophot.com /trade/index.php?title=Phoenicians   (2585 words)

  
 Phenicia (WebBible Encyclopedia) - ChristianAnswers.Net
The Phoenicians were the most enterprising merchants of the old world, establishing colonies at various places, of which Carthage was the chief.
The recent discovery, however, of inscriptions in Southern Arabia (Yemen and Hadramaut), known as Hemyaritic, in connection with various philogical considerations, has led some to the conclusion that the Phoenician alphabet was derived from the Mineans (admitting the antiquity of the kingdom of Ma'in, Judg.
Thus the Phoenician alphabet ceases to be the mother alphabet.
www.christiananswers.net /dictionary/phenicia.html   (508 words)

  
 Mr. Dowling's Phoenicians and Carthage Page
The Phoenicians came from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea in land we now call Lebanon.
Their homeland was arid and inhospitable for farming, so the Phoenicians turned to the sea to become the greatest travelers and traders of their time.
The Phoenicians chose Carthage because it was located in the center of North Africa, a short distance away from Sicily and the Italian Peninsula.
www.mrdowling.com /609-carthage.html   (323 words)

  
 Canaan & Ancient Israel @ University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
The name Phoenicians (phoinikes) was given to these people by the ancient Greeks and was related to the word for the red-purple color of the dye for which they were famous.
This royal purple dye was produced by removing, soaking and heating the glands of mollusks belonging to the genus Murex.
The Phoenicians were also responsible for the spread of the alphabet, which was quickly adopted by the Greeks and passed on to western Europe.
www.museum.upenn.edu /Canaan/Phoenicians.html   (350 words)

  
 Phoenician Encyclopedia: A Bequest Unearthed, Phoenicia and the Phoenicians, Punic, Canaanites -- Encyclopedia ...
The same is further aggravated by some fundamentalist Christian's British Israelism and the confusion over equating Dan, the lost tribe of Israel, with the Phoenicians, not to mention the preposterous fiction that is taught by the LDS Mormons or Anti-Semites.
Many historians and archaeologists of that persuasion claim that the Phoenicians Canaanites themselves were sub-Saharan African based on unscientific Biblical myths or some unfounded claims.
Phoenicians of the Eastern Mediterranean or the Western Mediterranean (such as famous Hannibal or the Phoenicians of Carthage, Spain, Portugal, Sicily...etc.), the Punic, were Semitic speaking Mediterraneans.*
www.phoenicia.org   (2272 words)

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