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Topic: Phonological hierarchy


  
  Phonology Summary
The principles of phonological theory have also been applied to the analysis of sign languages, in which it is argued that the same or a similar phonological system underlies both signed and spoken languages.
Phonological processes are unordered with respect to each other and apply simultaneously (though the output of one process may be the input to another).
Government Phonology, which originated in the early 1980s as an attempt to unify theoretical notions of syntactic and phonological structures, is based on the notion that all languages necessarily follow a small set of principles and vary according to their selection of certain binary parameters.
www.bookrags.com /Phonology   (3009 words)

  
  Phonology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Part of the phonological study of a language involves looking at data (phonetic transcriptions of the speech of native speakers) and trying to deduce what the underlying phonemes are and what the sound inventory of the language is.
Ordered phonological rules govern how this phonological representation (also called underlying representation) is transformed into the actual pronunciation (also called surface form.) An important consequence of the great influence SPE had on phonological theory was the downplaying of the syllable and the emphasis on segments.
Government Phonology, which originated in the early 1980s as an attempt to unify theoretical notions of syntactic and phonological structures, is based on the notion that all languages necessarily follow a small set of principles and vary according to their selection of certain binary parameters.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Phonology   (1381 words)

  
 Prosodic Phonology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
While the hierarchies put forward in these proposals are quite distinct, there appears to be general agreement on the need for levels corresponding to the intonational phrase and the prosodic (or phonological) word, and possibly an intervening level.
While the division of the speech chain into various phonological makes reference to structures found in the other components of the grammar, a fundamental aspect of prosodic theory is that the phonological constituents themselves are not necessarily isomorphic to any constituents found elsewhere in the grammar.
The restructuring rules, like the basic mapping rules, exhibit a correlation between the height of a constituent in the hierarchy and the generality and abstractness of the phonological phrase, the crucial notions are that of phrasal complement and the length of the complement as defined by its branchingness.
mails.fju.edu.tw /~phono/prosodic.htm   (2654 words)

  
 Phonological awareness defined   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Phonological awareness refers generally to the awareness of words, syllables, or phonemes (i.e., individual speech sounds), whereas phonemic awareness refers only to the awareness of individual sounds in words (such as the three phonemes /c/a/t/ in cat).
Phonological awareness is the key to transitioning from oral to written language and is a hallmark of good readers.
Fully developed phonological awareness skills and knowledge of the alphabetic principle (phonics) are required for successful decoding, which is translating individual letters into sounds to access the pronunciation of word.
www.cogcon.com /research/basis/definition_two.stm   (506 words)

  
 Hierarchical lexicons
Assume, for the moment, a conventional phonological framework in which all lexical entries are defined as having a phonological structure consisting of sequences of structured syllables, a syllable consisting of an onset (the initial consonant cluster), a peak (the vowel(s)) and a coda (the final consonant cluster).
As in the case of default phonological structure, this can be stated at the top of a (morphological) hierarchy.
Complete the inheritance hierarchy for English verbs indicating informally the classes you take to be necessary and what their defining characteristics are.
www.informatics.susx.ac.uk /research/nlp/polylex/polynode77.html   (405 words)

  
 Report on Prosodic Structure and Temporal Modelling
The phonological structure is organized as a prosodic hierarchy, with phonological information distributed across the structure.
Phonological pairs are distributed around the entire prosodic hierarchy rather than at just the terminal nodes (or even associated to just terminal nodes), as in many phonological theories.
According to this model, higher-level constituents in the hierarchy are compressed, and their daughter nodes are compressed in the same way.
www-users.york.ac.uk /~lang19/york/duration.html   (3985 words)

  
 details
The applicability of Dinnsen et al.'s implicational hierarchy to this data was examined.
The ability of the hierarchy to predict the route of development in this group of children was also examined.
Implications for the use of an implicational hierarchy in phonological assessment and treatment are discussed.
cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn /ChinaPaper/details.asp?PubMedID=11913031   (200 words)

  
 Interfacing Phonology with LFG
In order to integrate phonological representations into LFG, we posit a p(honological)-structure which feeds into a further phonological component in the same way that s(emantic)-structure feeds into a more elaborate semantics; that is, p-structure is the interface with those postlexical phonological processes that cannot be encoded in parallel with the syntactic analysis.
The default rule forms a phonological phrase out of the prosodic word of the head of a constituent which it c-commands together with the prosodic words that it c-commands, i.e., a syntactic constituent generally forms a phonological phrase.
In both cases the phonological properties of the string provide the necessary information for disambiguation: when the N-V or the V-V phrase together, the reading is that of the idiomatic ((8a)) or complex predicate ((9a)) construction; when the finite verb phrases separately, the b readings emerge.
csli-publications.stanford.edu /LFG/3/butt-king/butt-king.html   (5043 words)

  
 [No title]
The r-measure for a constraint hierarchy is determined by adding, for each faithfulness constraint in the hierarchy, the number of markedness constraints that dominate that faithfulness constraint.
Second, selecting the hierarchy with the largest r-measure is consistent with the spirit of ranking each of the markedness constraints ‘as high as possible’, i.e., with respect to all other constraints, both markedness and faithfulness.
If the differences in r-measure are among hierarchies generating identical grammars, then failure to find the hierarchy with the best r-measure is not a problem, so long as the hierarchy actually learned is one generating the restrictive language.
ruccs.rutgers.edu /ftp/pub/papers/PrinceTesarLPD54.doc   (13170 words)

  
 Articles at SpeechPathology.com: Improving Reading Fluency: Phonological Awareness Training
Phonological awareness can be thought of as the ability to think about and manipulate the speech sound segments of language (Swank & Catts, 1994).
With regard to auditory blending, students were moved along a hierarchy of syllables, phonemes, and blends similar to the one described for auditory segmenting.
It is difficult to determine which factors, phonological awareness instruction, or special education curriculum, had the greatest impact on gains in phonological awareness or reading fluency.
www.speechpathology.com /articles/article_detail.asp?article_id=68   (1512 words)

  
 [No title]
This means that all gestures in the surface realization of an item are present in their lexical representation; casual speech processes serve only to modify these gestures, in terms of diminution or deletion of the gestures themselves, or in terms of changes in overlap.
Whereas the parallel hierarchy approach requires that speakers have knowledge of multiple hierarchies, one for every attested output, the FC approach requires that speakers internalize only one hierarchy, in which a subset of the constraints are incompletely ranked relative to other constraints.
In (24a), X is part of the ranked hierarchy A » X » C, and Y is part of the hierarchy A » Y » C. In (24b), both rankings A » X » C and A » Y » C are partially ranked.
roa.rutgers.edu /files/292-0199/292-0199-MORRIS-1-0.DOC   (7861 words)

  
 UNIVERSITY OF MALTA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Each child's phonetic/phonological inventory was identified together with the various developmental phonological processes that were applied throughout the period of study.
The results obtained give clear indications of stages of phonological development which may be applied with a high degree of confidence for assessment and intervention purposes in speech therapy clinics as well as in allied professional settings.
Intervention for phonological impairment needs to be planned in parallel with the development of other sub-components of the language.
www.um.edu.mt /pub/hgrech1.html   (1725 words)

  
 Markedness and the Contrastive Hierarchy in Phonology
Markedness has long been assumed to be an important concept in phonological theory, but recently some phonologists have come to question whether it is active in synchronic phonological systems or whether markedness effects are merely the consequence of factors such as articulation, perception, and historical change.
The hierarchy tells us which features are required to mark the contrasts, but does not on its own tell us which member of a feature opposition is active in a phonological system.
The proposal addresses issues of broad phonological significance, with consequences for the analysis of individual languages, as well as for general principles of phonology, the interfaces of phonology with syntax and phonetics, and the study of child phonology and learnability.
www.chass.utoronto.ca /~contrast   (1997 words)

  
 ProSynth Papers: ICSLP 98
ProSynth explores the viability of a phonological model that addresses phonetic weaknesses found in current concatenative and formant-based text-to-speech (TTS) systems, in which the speech often sounds unnatural because the rhythm, intonation and fine phonetic detail reflecting coarticulatory patterns are poor.
Not all features are stated at the terminal nodes in the hierarchy: [±voice], for instance, is a property of the rhyme as a whole in order to model durational and resonance effects.
Precise alignment of contour turning-points is constrained by the properties of units at lower levels in the hierarchy.
www-users.york.ac.uk /~lang19/papers/ICSLP98.html   (2372 words)

  
 What is the Role of Audition in Literacy?
Phonological processing disorders include problems storing, retrieving, and using phonological codes in memory as well as deficits in phonological awareness and speech production.
The phonological awareness skills of sound deletion, sound categorization, sound blending, and syllable segmentation are identified as the key ingredients in the identification of children in need of early intervention.
Neuroimaging studies of phonological processing in adult dyslexics who were performing a rhyme detection test under fMRI report a reduction or absence of activity in the left hemisphere temporoparietal cortex and neural disruption in phonological processing was noted.
www.asha.org /about/publications/leader-online/archives/2005/050927/f050927b.htm   (2313 words)

  
 Introduction
However, we presuppose a lexicon structured as a nonmonotonic inheritance hierarchy, in which information common to most or all of a set of lexical entries is defined at a shared higher point in the hierarchy.
have pioneered the use of default inheritance hierarchies for the representation of lexical phonology and morphophonology.
Although we make a distinction between phonological structure and morphotactics, and between attributes in the phonological domain and those in the morphological domain, we do not embrace the traditional notion of level of description, nor its concomitant notion of rule type (or process) mapping from one level to another.
www.ccl.kuleuven.ac.be /LKR/html/detsnode1.html   (1061 words)

  
 Personal Page Brigit van der Pas
Studies have shown that expressive phonological development in children with SLI is often problematic (e.g.
In order to test this prediction, an experiment was conducted that investigated a number of typical stumbling blocks in phonological acquisition: weak syllable omission, consonant cluster reduction, and fricative and dorsal avoidance.
This overlap suggests that expressive phonological development may indeed be a precursor of reading skills later in life.
www.let.uu.nl /~brigit.vanderpas/personal   (1467 words)

  
 Amazon.de: Rezensionen English Books: Consonant Strength: Phonological Patterns and Phonetic Manifestations (East Asia)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
While an elaborated sonority hierarchy best describes phonological weakening, it is a scaled-down hierarchy that captures phonetic weakening.
Phonologically, voicing and fricativization are common steps in lenition, but the phonetic studies find little evidence of either.
Because of their different effects, stress is argued to be a phonetic environment while word position is argued to be phonological.
www.amazon.de /exec/obidos/tg/stores/detail/-/books-intl-de/0815340443/reviews   (297 words)

  
 1
Phonological features are not an unorganized bundle, because if so, the features may freely combine in the construction of a phonemic inventory as well as in defining natural classes of segments in phonological rules and constraints.(PGG 145) On the other hand, following characteristics of phonological features supports the idea of hierarchical structure of feature organization.
It is claimed that phonological representation only specifies marked value of certain features, and the predictable one is unspecified in underlying lexical reps but it is supplied by default insertion at some point of derivation.
Syllable is linguistic universal—constituent in the universal prosodic hierarchy.
www.msu.edu /~machunhu/phonolgoy.htm   (11182 words)

  
 5
For example, ‘the units of the lexical’ and ‘phonological hierarchies often have borders in common’, though not ‘every word’ is a ‘phonological’ ‘unit’ (LB 567) (cf.
To prevent pormanteaus from unduly clouding his hierarchy, Pike stipulates that a level counts as ‘higher in the hierarchical scale’ when ‘some’ of its ‘units’ ‘are larger than the longest units in the next lower’ level (LB 364, 404f) (cf.
The complexity of language had to be reconstructed by multiplying levels or hierarchies and justifying them by the (at least partially) different borders of the respective units (5.36ff 41).
www.revista.discurso.org /beaugrande/5-Pike.htm   (15527 words)

  
 Citations: The role of prosodic categories in English word stress - Selkirk (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Phonological theory and the development of prosodic structure..
In this framework, all (mature) phonological grammars are seen to contain the following prosodic units at and below the level of the word.
It is essentially an artifact of commitment to the idea that phonological representations are literally built by rule, and indeed rules of string manipulation.
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /context/642021/0   (1560 words)

  
 Implosive Phenomena in PR Spani
Section 2.0 is a discussion of the prosodic hierarchy in Spanish and Section 3.0 looks at the behaviour of two syllable final phenomena: /s/ deletion, and the alternation of [r] and [l].
A single string of phonological phrases can be divided into intonational phrases in a variety of ways, depending on the style of speech employed, and the particular intonational pattern used by the speaker.
By the same token, the phonological utterance, as the largest constituent in the phonological hierarchy, need not share its boundaries with the sentence simply because the latter is the largest constituent in the syntactic hierarchy.
weber.edu /tmathews/articles/resylab.htm   (2588 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Language: (Hong Kong) Cantonese Assuming that prosody can be understood in terms of structure, the current intonational hierarchy of Cantonese, proposed based on the Hong Kong variety, has two levels: the syllables level and the larger intonational phrase.
Furthermore, the morphology of Cantonese is condusive to thinking phonologically in terms of the syllables: Cantonese has a strong one-to-one correspondance between syllables and words.
Above the syllables is the intonational phrase, which is marked by some characteristic phonological markers.
www.ling.ohio-state.edu /~pwong/ICPhS03_diss/q3.txt   (604 words)

  
 Margaret Martin
The other pattern that the experimenters found in their data was that children were able to detect phonological manipulations at an earlier stage of development than they were able to elicit those manipulations themselves.
However, while the pattern shown was hierarchical, the experimenters noted that the pattern was “a quasi-parallel development (of phonological sensitivity skills),” indicating that while there is a hierarchy to the development, some of the phonological sensitivity skills are learned and refined simultaneously.
Due to this, the authors theorize that “particular stages of phonological sensitivity may be associated with particular stages of word reading,” and suggest that phonological sensitivity skills be taught in a similar hierarchy to that in which they develop.
people.colgate.edu /mmartin/portfolio/phono_response.htm   (759 words)

  
 Implosive Phenomena in PR Spani
Section 2.0 is a discussion of the prosodic hierarchy in Spanish and Section 3.0 looks at the behaviour of two syllable final phenomena: /s/ deletion, and the alternation of [r] and [l].
A single string of phonological phrases can be divided into intonational phrases in a variety of ways, depending on the style of speech employed, and the particular intonational pattern used by the speaker.
By the same token, the phonological utterance, as the largest constituent in the phonological hierarchy, need not share its boundaries with the sentence simply because the latter is the largest constituent in the syntactic hierarchy.
faculty.weber.edu /tmathews/articles/resylab.htm   (2588 words)

  
 ULCL - PhD Defences 2001-2004
It aims at a phonological representation that is constrained in its structure and limited in the number of phonological distinctions.
First, fewer phonological contrasts are needed by removing the form elements that are predictable on phonetic grounds, on the basis of perception and articulation.
For the representation of the consonant phonotactics of Georgian, a phonological hierarchy is introduced in which the stem domain is intermediate between the segment and the word domain.
www.ulcl.leidenuniv.nl /index.php3?m=8&c=12   (5804 words)

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