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Topic: Phosphine

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  Phosphine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phosphine is also used as a dopant in the semiconductor industry.
Perhaps because of its strong association with elemental phosphorus, phosphine was once regarded as a gaseous form of the element but Lavoisier (1789) recognised it as a combination of phosphorus with hydrogen by describing it as “hydruyet of phosphorus, or phosphuret of hydrogen”.
Given the heavy reliance on phosphine as a means of protecting grain from insect infestation, it is disturbing to note that high levels of resistance toward phosphine have become commonplace in many countries of Asia and in Australia as well.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Phosphine   (987 words)

 ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Phosphine
Phosphine is a colorless, flammable, and explosive gas at ambient temperature that has the odor of garlic or decaying fish.
Phosphine breaks down rapidly in the environment so the general population may only be exposed to small amounts of this compound by inhaling air, drinking water and eating foods.
Phosphine and metal phosphides are used to kill rats in areas used for grain storage, but should not be used in family dwellings.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /tfacts177.html   (922 words)

 ATSDR - MMG: Phosphine
Phosphine is a colorless, flammable, and toxic gas with an odor of garlic or decaying fish.
Phosphine gas may also be released when acetylene is made by the action of water on calcium carbide which is contaminated with calcium phosphide as is commonly the case.
Phosphine is a multisystem toxicant that causes acute pulmonary irritation, CNS depression, and cardiovascular collapse.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /MHMI/mmg177.html   (4337 words)

 Phosphine (PIM 865)
Phosphine and the metal phosphides have only been detected in the general environment in relation to the recent use of metal phosphides in pest control and in relation to a number of industrial activities.
In the rat, phosphine that is not excreted in the expired air is oxidized and appears in the urine, chiefly as hypophosphite and phosphite.
Phosphine inhibits insect catalase, though this appears to be an indirect effect and might be a consequence not a cause of toxicity.
www.inchem.org /documents/pims/chemical/pim865.htm   (8645 words)

 Manual of fumigation for insect control - Chemicals used as fumigants (cont.) - Phosphine
Phosphine or hydrogen phosphide (PH) is a low molecular weight, low boiling point compound that diffuses rapidly and penetrates deeply into materials, such as large bulks of grain or tightly packed materials.
Phosphine has an inhibitory effect on insect respiration and is unique in that it is only toxic to insects in the presence of oxygen - in the absence of oxygen it is not absorbed and is not toxic to insects (Bond et al 1967, 1969).
The concentration of phosphine is determined by measurement of absorption bands at either 4.2 µm or at 9.0 µm unless carbon dioxide is present; carbon dioxide interferes with analysis of phosphine at 4.2 µm and may need to be absorbed from the sample or the analysis may be done at 9.0 µm.
www.fao.org /docrep/X5042E/x5042E0a.htm   (4678 words)

 Phosphine | Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Web site | US EPA
Phosphine is used as an insecticide for the fumigation of grains, animal feed, and leaf-stored tobacco.
Phosphine is used as an insecticide for the fumigation of grains, animal feed, and leaf-stored tobacco, and as a rodenticide.
Phosphine is also used as an intermediate in the synthesis of flame retardants for cotton fabrics, as a doping agent for n-type semiconductors, a polymerization initiator, and a condensation catalyst.
www.epa.gov /ttn/atw/hlthef/phosphin.html   (1159 words)

 NTP: Executive Summary Phosphine: Section V through VI
Inhaled phosphine is readily absorbed by the lungs.
Ingestion of a metallic phosphide resulted in the release of phosphine in the acid medium of the stomach, followed by absorption through the gut; a certain portion of this compound may be exhaled unchanged [Baselt and Cravey, 1989].
Phosphine levels were found to range from 0.5 ppm in the living quarters, to 30 ppm in a void space on the main deck.
ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov /index.cfm?objectid=03E1A04D-AD0D-288C-7F37E424901AA44B&printFriendly=true   (4494 words)

 MedNets : A medical search engine and health portal
Phosphine is cytotoxic and causes profound changes in multiple organs with high oxygen demand--brain, kidneys, heart, and liver.
Phosphine interferes with enzymes and protein synthesis, primarily in the myocardial mitochondria and pulmonary cells.
In the absence of maternal toxicity, phosphine is unlikely to be a developmental hazard.
www.mednets.com /index.cfm/fuseaction/articles_phosphine_phosphide_poisoning_and_exposure_toxicology-Phosphine   (2789 words)

 aluminum phosphide (Phostoxin) Pesticide Tolerances 5/99
Phosphine is not mutagenic in bacteria but is clastogenic in vitro.
Based on the use pattern and the fact that phosphine is a gas, an end-point and risk assessment were not conducted for short- and intermediate-term, oral or dermal exposures.
Phosphine degrades in days (half-life is estimated to be 5 hours) and has a low exposure potential for contaminating ground and surface water because it is a gas.
pmep.cce.cornell.edu /profiles/fumigant/aluminum-phosphide/PhosphinePest.html   (8230 words)

 GRDC - Advice Sheets - Keep phosphine safe (July 2000)
Phosphine fumigation using tablets of aluminium phosphide, is commonly used to control weevils in grain.
Phosphine is flammable and explosive at high concentrations.
Use phosphine safely and responsibly - DO NOT treat grain in transit or just prior to handling or you may suffer the costs of your grain delivery being rejected and be liable for an offence against the label.
www.grdc.com.au /growers/as/phosphine.htm   (1089 words)

 Phosphine (HSG 28, 1989)
Phosphine levels in air may be determined by trapping phosphine by absorption or reaction, and subsequently analysing the desorbed or reacted sample with mercury (II) chloride, followed by the addition of potassium iodide and then excess standard iodine solution.
The phosphine is released for gas chromatographic analysis by treatment with alkaline sodium borohydride solution or is oxidized (using a hot acid permanganate solution) to phosphate, which is measured using the phosphomolybdate colorimetric technique.
Phosphine is used in the synthesis of organophosphines and organic phosphonium derivatives and as a dopant in the manufacture of semiconductors.
www.inchem.org /documents/hsg/hsg/hsg028.htm   (3986 words)

 CYTEC >> Phosphine Chemicals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Phosphine and its derivatives are used as solvent extraction reagents, chemical and catalyst intermediates, specialized catalysts, flame retardants, reagents in mineral ore recovery and in diverse pharmaceutical, agricultural and electronics applications.
Cytec's newest growth markets for phosphines and its derivatives are the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, where organophosphines are increasingly used as catalyst ligands for a variety of products or chemical processing operations.
Phosphine derivatives are used as solvent extraction reagents, chemical intermediates, catalysts, flame retardants, and mineral ore processing collectors.
www.cytec.com /business/SpecialtyChemicals/phosphinechemicals.shtm   (609 words)

 phosphine gas Registration of New Pesticide Product 6/01
This is because phosphine is very volatile and food commodities are aerated for a period of time after treatment and are cooked, shelled, washed or otherwise prepared before consumption.
Because phosphine is an inorganic compound, a New York State general drinking water standard of either 5 micrograms per liter for a "principal organic contaminant" or 50 micrograms per liter for an "unspecified organic contaminant" (10 NYCRR Part 5, Public Water Systems) is not applicable.
To further minimize exposure to phosphine gas, the product is designed to be used outside of the enclosed area to be fumigated, where the gas is released into the structure by tubing rather than by placing phosphine gas-generating pellets throughout the structure.
pmep.cce.cornell.edu /profiles/fumigant/phosphine-gas/phosphine-gas_reg_601.html   (1707 words)

 Sampling and Analytical Methods: Phosphine (1003)
Phosphine generated in situ by the reaction of atmospheric moisture with pelletized calcium, aluminum, or magnesium phosphide is used as a fumigant in, for example, grain silos.
The concentration of phosphine was at the target concentration with an absolute humidity of 14.8 milligrams of water per liter of air (86.3% at 19.9and176;C).
The ability of the mercuric chloride-treated filter to collect phosphine from a relatively dry atmosphere was tested by sampling an atmosphere containing 12.2 nmol/L (one times the target concentration) of phosphine at an absolute humidity of 4.6 milligrams of water per liter of air (22.2% relative humidity at 23.3°C).
www.osha.gov /dts/sltc/methods/mdt/mdt1003/1003.html   (3930 words)

 Phosphine Data Sheet
Phosphine is a colorless, flammable highly toxic gas with a fishy or garlic-like odor.
It should also be recognized that phosphine is highly flammable and may spontaneously ignite in air or even explode when mixed with oxygen.
Phosphine coming in contact with oxidizers, halogenated hydrocarbons, or even aluminum and copper may cause the same.
www.indsci.com /sup_gi_tox_ph3.asp   (148 words)

 Organometallic HyperTextBook: Phosphine Complexes
While phosphine ligands are ubiquitous in transition metal chemistry and afford extremely reactive and versatile homogeneous catalysts, a process called phosphine degradation tends to limit their industrial application.
Phosphine degradation typically involves an oxidative addition of the phosphine ligand which deactivates the metal center towards further catalysis.
The primary component is sigma donation of the phosphine lone pair to an empty orbital on the metal.
www.ilpi.com /organomet/phosphine.html   (571 words)

 Phosphine Toxicity: Ethical Questions
Sciences International was engaged in 1998 by a coalition of companies with an interest in the fumigation uses of phosphine to provide an evaluation of phosphine acute toxicity for consideration in the U.S. EPA phosphine reregistration process.
The changes made to phosphine usage were significant, including the requirement for site-specific fumigant management plans, training and certification requirements, and additional label modifications to reduce harmful exposures.
In the case of phosphine, our focus was on the proposed risk mitigation measures that were deemed of primary concern for the tobacco industry: the more stringent worker exposure standard, the buffer zone, and the notification requirements.
www.ehponline.org /docs/2006/8707/letter.html   (1687 words)

 Phosphine [factsheet]
* Phosphine occurs as a colorless, flammable gas that is slightly soluble in water.
* Phosphine is used as an insecticide for the fumigation of grains, animal feed, and leaf-stored tobacco, and as a rodenticide.
* Phosphine is also used as an intermediate in the synthesis of flame retardants for cotton fabrics, as a doping agent for n-type semiconductors, a polymerization initiator, and a condensation catalyst.
www.lakes-environmental.com /toxic/PHOSPHINE.HTML   (779 words)

 Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs) - 7803512
It has been stated that 290 to 430 ppm is dangerous to life after 1 hour, and 100 to 200 ppm is the maximum amount for 0.5 to 1 hour [Henderson and Haggard 1943].
Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for phosphine is 50 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Jones et al.
Acute and subacute inhalation toxicities of phosphine, phenylphosphine, and triphenylphosphine.
www.cdc.gov /niosh/idlh/7803512.html   (248 words)

 Aluminium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aluminium nitride, AlN, can be made from the elements at 800°C. It is hydrolysed by water to form ammonia and aluminium hydroxide.
Aluminium phosphide, AlP, is made similarly, and hydrolyses to give phosphine.
Aluminium oxide, Al, occurs naturally as corundum, and can be made by burning aluminium in oxygen or by heating the hydroxide, nitrate or sulfate.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Aluminum   (4963 words)

 Detector Tube monitors phosphine in acetylene gas., Draeger Safety, Inc.
July 8, 2003 - Phosphine 0.1/b in acetylene tube, 8103341, features 0.1—1 ppm and 1—15 ppm scales for ease of use and interpretation.
Phosphine is a contaminant that compressed gas manufacturers must check for in acetylene.
The Draeger Phosphine 0.1/b in acetylene, 8103341, tube features two scales 0.1 to 1 ppm and 1 to 15 ppm for ease of use and interpretation.
news.thomasnet.com /fullstory/24264   (455 words)

 Proper Insect Control Boosts Australia Cut Flower Exports to Japan and USA - Short Report
The higher tolerance of phosphine by insect eggs and pupae suggests the likelihood of survival in these stages.
Phosphine treatment also provides an alternative to insecticidal dips which may leave undesirable residues on flowers.
Phosfume« is a cylinder gas phosphine formulation (2% phosphine with carbon dioxide as a carrier gas).
www.rirdc.gov.au /pub/shortreps/sr31.htm   (1151 words)

 CYTEC >> Phosphine and Phosphorus Specialties   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Cytec is the global leader in the manufacture of phosphine and alkylphosphine derivatives.
Cytec is the pioneer in phosphine research with 35 years of phosphine manufacture at the ISO-9002 Niagara Falls, Ont. site.
This is the world's largest, most advanced phosphine chemicals manufacturing facility.
www.cytec.com /business/phosphine   (347 words)

 Glindemann : Phosphine, Organometal and PTFE Sealing Rings for Glass Joints (Kimble Kontes, Aldrich))
Applying a new developed gas chromatographic trace analytical technique we got extensive knowledge concerning the existence and formation mechanisms of phosphine in the earth’s environment.
We discovered phosphine in waste gas, marsh gas, biogas, landfill gas, wetland sediment, soil, intestinal tract of mammals, faecal sludge, animal manure, landfill, technical metals, industrial waste, stone minerals, food and cosmic fall down.
A biochemical pathway of how microorganisms could produce enzymes to reduce phosphate to phosphine is still not discovered.
www.phosphine.net /index.htm   (471 words)

 Phosphine Monitor provides maintenance-free operation., Draeger Safety, Inc.
Low-profile design allows unit to be worn on lapel, shirt pocket, or belt to warn of presence of hazardous gas concentrations.
The MicroPac Plus Phosphine Monitor is ideal for monitoring worker exposure in the chemical, semi-conductor, and agricultural industries providing two-years of worry free monitoring without the need for calibration or battery replacement.
Jul 8, 2003 - Detector Tube monitors phosphine in acetylene gas.
news.thomasnet.com /fullstory/27217/2401   (662 words)

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