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Topic: Photoelectric effect

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 Photoelectric Effect
This process is called the photoelectric effect (or photoelectric emission or photoemission), a material that can exhibit this phenomena is said to be photoemissive, and the ejected electrons are called photoelectrons; but there is nothing that would distinguish them from other electrons.
The photoelectric effect was first observed in 1887 by Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) during experiments with a spark-gap generator -- the earliest form of radio receiver.
The photoelectric current generated by this means was quite small, but could be measured with the microammeter (a sensitive galvanometer with a maximum deflection of only a few microamps).
hypertextbook.com /physics/modern/photoelectric   (2229 words)

 photoelectric effect - HighBeam Encyclopedia
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT [photoelectric effect] emission of electrons by substances, especially metals, when light falls on their surfaces.
Moreover, classical theory predicted that the photoelectric current should not depend on the frequency of the light and that there should be a time lag between the reception of light on the surface and the emission of the electrons.
The effect has a number of practical applications, most based on the photoelectric cell.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-photelef.html   (433 words)

 Photoelectric effect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from matter upon the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, such as ultraviolet radiation or x-rays.
The photoelectric effect helped further wave-particle duality, whereby physical systems (such as photons, in this case) display both wave-like and particle-like properties and behaviours, a concept that was used by the creators of quantum mechanics.
The effect was impossible to understand in terms of the classical wave description of light, as the energy of the emitted electrons did not depend on the intensity of the incident radiation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Photoelectric_effect   (2055 words)

 Photoelectric effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from a surface (usually metallic) upon exposure to, and absorption of, electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light and ultraviolet radiation) that is above the threshold frequency particular to each type of surface.
The photoelectric effect helped further wave-particle duality, whereby physical systems (such as photons in this case) can display both wave-like and particle-like properties and behaviours, a concept that was used by the creators of quantum mechanics.
The photoelectric effect helped propel the then-emerging concept of the dual nature of light (light exhibits characteristics of waves and particles at different times).
photoelectric-effect.iqnaut.net   (1641 words)

 The photoelectric effect
In this effect light is shone at a metal plate, and it is found that electrons are ejected.
This effect, which arises in devices such as automatic door openers, burglar alarms, light detectors, and photocopiers, cannot be explained using a wave picture of light.
For example, it is found experimentally that the photoelectric current depends critically on the frequency of the light being used.
theory.uwinnipeg.ca /mod_tech/node162.html   (235 words)

 What is the Photoelectric Effect?
The photoelectric effect refers to the emission, or ejection, of electrons from the surface of, generally, a metal in response to incident light.
That is, the average energy carried by an ejected (photoelectric) electron should increase with the intensity of the incident light.
The photoelectric effect is perhaps the most direct and convincing evidence of the existence of photons and the 'corpuscular' nature of light and electromagnetic radiation.
www.physlink.com /Education/AskExperts/ae24.cfm   (429 words)

 The Orgiastic Future: Photoelectric Effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In Einstein's model of the photoelectric effect he postulated that light comes in distinct "corpuscules" or grains.
The photelectric effect is the phenomenon whereby, shining light on a metal kicks electrons free from the metal.
This was due in no small part to the fact that Millikan studied the photoelectric effect experimentally in 1914 confirming Einstein's predictions.
www.astro.umd.edu /~kayhan/weblog/2005/03/photoelectric-effect.html   (262 words)

 Notes about the Photoelectric Effect Virtual Lab Software
First, though the photoelectric effect was observed by Heinrich Hertz in 1887, the electron itself was not discovered and isolated until 1897.
Merely establishing the properties of the particle that carried the electric charge was not enough, however, to explain the photoelectric effect.
Another application of the photoelectric effect is in devices known as "photomultiplier tubes" or PMTs.
ed.fnal.gov /projects/photoe_lab/student/background.html   (733 words)

 The Particle Nature of Light
After studying this section, you will (a) understand the basis for the photoelectric effect, (b) understand the reasons for the failure of the wave model for light and (c) understand Einstein's particle model for light, as well as Planck's Law.
Experiment 3:Observed Effect: If the zinc is initially positively charged, exposure to UV light does not lead to the discharge of the electroscope.
The wave model for light fails to account for the photoelectric effect because the energy transmitted by a wave is proportional to the amplitude.
www.physchem.co.za /Light/Particles.htm   (1111 words)

 The Photoelectric Effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Einstein noted that careful experiments involving the photoelectric effect could show whether light consists of particles or waves.
It seems to me that the photoelectric effect would still occur no matter which view is correct.
Yes, you're right--but the details of the photoelectric effect come out differently depending on whether light consists of particles or waves.
www.colorado.edu /physics/2000/quantumzone/photoelectric.html   (380 words)

 Photoelectric Effect: The Quantization of Energy and Light
and Einstein's equation for the photoelectric effect is:
A simple application of the Photoelectric Effect: A garage door sensor consists of a sending unit (infrared light beam) and a receiving unit (phototube), which produce a photoelectric current in the receiving unit.
A more sophisticated application of the Photoelectric effect: Charge-coupled devices, or CCDs, are arrays of insulating silicon dioxide, sandwiched between semiconducting silicon and electrodes.
www.physics.rutgers.edu /ugrad/labs/photoelectric.html   (1386 words)

 Photoelectric Effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This experiment investigates the photoelectric effect, which can be understood in terms of the particle nature of light.
An experimental setup for studying the photoelectric effect is depicted in Fig.
The explanation of the photoelectric effect is due to Einstein.
www.cas.muohio.edu /~marcumsd/p293/lab1/lab1.htm   (2559 words)

 Photoelectric Effect
Finding the opposing voltage it took to stop all the electrons gave a measure of the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons in electron volts.
This would imply that higher modes would be less populated and avoid the ultraviolet catastrophe of the Rayleigh-Jeans Law.
The quantum idea was soon seized to explain the photoelectric effect, became part of the Bohr theory of discrete atomic spectra, and quickly became part of the foundation of modern quantum theory.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/mod2.html   (408 words)

 Wave and Particle Theory of Light applied to the Photoelectric Effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
It is generally argued that the photoelectric effect provides evidence for the particle nature of light as the photoelectrons are almost released instantaneously when the light hits the detector.
On the other hand, it is shown that the particle model would in fact not enable any photoelectric effect at all as the collisional energy transfer would be much too small.
The discrete nature of the photoelectric effect is clearly due to the properties of the material (i.e.
www.physicsmyths.org.uk /photons.htm   (973 words)

 Photoelectric Effect
This was the predominant theory of light before the definition of the photoelectric effect and the development of quantum theory.
Summarized, the photoelectric effect is the transfer of energy from a photon to an electron upon bombardment.
The flow of electricity causes a magnetic field, forcing electrons in the lower parts of the p-layer to move to the n-layer, instead of drifting to an atom within its parent layer.
www.princeton.edu /~ccaro/papers/photoelectric_effect.html   (1609 words)

 PIRA 7A10.00 PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A photoelectric effect apparatus based on the AD 515 electrometer op amp allows relatively inexpensive and easy direct measurement of the photopotential between anode and photocathode.
Several demonstrations and discussion sections for studying the photoelectric effect and measuring Planck's constant.
The photoelectric threshold demonstrator consists of a projected spectrum, a sample holder, and a translucent screen.
www.physics.ncsu.edu /pira/7modern/7A10.html   (525 words)

 Photoelectric effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The photoelectric effect is observed below some threshold wavelength which is specific to the material.
This light strikes the cathode (C) of a photoelectric cell and causes the emission of electrons (or not).
The indicated values refer to the frequency of the light and to the energy balance of the photoelectric effect.
www.walter-fendt.de /ph11e/photoeffect.htm   (398 words)

 The Photoelectric Effect
In this effect light is shone on a metal, and electrons are released.
This aspect of the photoelectric effect is impossible to understand within the wave picture of light, as within that picture the energy of the light beam which gives the electrons their energy does not depend on the frequency.
Einstein came up with an explanation of the photoelectric effect which built upon Planck's photon hypothesis.
theory.uwinnipeg.ca /physics/quant/node3.html   (331 words)

 BBC - h2g2 - Photoelectric Effect
It is however a simple explanation for why the photoelectric effect acts in the way that it does.
Using the photovoltaic effect (a special case of the photoelectric effect), that is generating a current by irradiating two dissimilar semiconducting materials, which have different conductivity properties, with light, it is possible to convert solar energy into electricity efficiently.
Also using the photoelectric effect, it is possible to detect minute amounts of light by amplifying a photoelectric current.
www.bbc.co.uk /dna/h2g2/A304183   (886 words)

 Wave-Particle Duality
The evidence for the description of light as waves was well established at the turn of the century when the photoelectric effect introduced firm evidence of a particle nature as well.
The details of the photoelectric effect were in direct contradiction to the expectations of very well developed classical physics.
Analysis of data from the photoelectric experiment showed that the energy of the ejected electrons was proportional to the frequency of the illuminating light.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/mod1.html   (401 words)

 The Photoelectric Effect
In photoelectric emission, light strikes a metal, causing electrons to be emitted.
Einstein adapted Planck’s theory to this effect by assuming that the light itself came in packets known as photons.
In 1921, after experiments showed this equation to be correct, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for his photoelectric theory.
bama.ua.edu /~stjones/Photoeffect.htm   (586 words)

 Theory: The Photoelectric Effect (SLAC VVC)
The photoelectric effect is a process whereby light falling on a surface knocks electrons out of the surface.
Einstein's paper explaining this effect was one of the earliest applications of quantum theory and a major step in its establishment.
To explain this effect one has to consider that light behaves like a stream of particles called photons.
www2.slac.stanford.edu /vvc/theory/photoelectric.html   (295 words)

 photoelectric effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The net EFFECT may involve an electron making a higher energy transition, but it isn't the electron that is doing the absorption, because without the atom, or the bulk material, there won't be ANY energy levels to allow for such a transition.
In the case of the photoelectric effect, the WHOLE PHOTON is absorbed by the cathode.
Search the Hyperphysics site for the photoelectric effect and the kinds of tests involved in such an experiment, and why these observations are consisted with the photon picture.
www.physicsforums.com /showthread.php?t=47903   (1217 words)

 Solar Energy Technologies Program: The Photoelectric Effect
Scientists eventually learned that the photoelectric or photovoltaic (PV) effect caused certain materials to convert light energy into electrical energy at the atomic level.
The photoelectric effect is the basic physical process by which a PV cell converts sunlight into electricity.
When light shines on a PV cell, it may be reflected, absorbed, or pass right through.
www.eere.energy.gov /solar/photoelectric_effect.html   (485 words)

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