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Topic: Photographic film

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  Photographic Film - Background, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing, Quality Control, Byproducts/Waste
Photographic film is a chemically reactive material that records a fixed or still image when the film is exposed to light.
The film is exposed to the image by opening a shutter in the camera body, and the combination of the speed of the shutter and the film speed (which is the chemical reactivity of the film) controls the amount of light that strikes the film.
Film that is packed in a cassette (35-millimeter film is typically packed this way) requires a metal spool, the protective metal canister, and plastic strips at the canister opening where the film emerges.
www.madehow.com /Volume-2/Photographic-Film.html   (2000 words)

 Photographic film-incorporated camera - Patent 5496687
The photographic film-incorporated camera as defined in claim 1, wherein a dye or a pigment is incorporated into the support of the photographic film in such amount that a transmission density of the support is increased by incorporation thereof by 0.005 to 0.2.
The photographic film-incorporated camera of the invention comprises a supply (feed) room in which an unexposed photographic film drawn from a cylindrical cartridge (patrone) is wound around a spool or wound by itself and a wind-up (winding) room with which the cartridge having no photographic film is enclosed.
In the photographic film-incorporated camera of the invention, the diameter of a spool or a vacant core (in the supply room) around which the photographic film is wounded preferably is in the range of 3 to 13.5 mm.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5496687.html   (11237 words)

 Photographic film - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Photographic film is a sheet of plastic (polyester, celluloid (nitrocellulose) or cellulose acetate) coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive silver halide salts (bonded by gelatin) with variable crystal sizes that determine the sensitivity and resolution of the film.
Over the active dynamic range of most films, the density of the developed film is proportional to the logarithm of the total amount of light to which the film was exposed, so the transmission coefficient of the developed film is proportional to a power of the reciprocal of the brightness of the original exposure.
Film leaves much to be desired as a scientific detector: it is difficult to calibrate for photometry, it is not re-usable, it requires careful handling (including temperature and humidity control) for best calibration, and it generally requires a physical object (the film itself) to be returned to the laboratory.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Photographic_film   (2323 words)

 Lens-fitted photographic film package - Patent 5181057
A lens-fitted photographic film package as defined in claim 1, wherein said light-shielding member is comprised by a front wall portion having said second rectangular opening therein, and two opposite side wall portions, and is attached to a front end of said exposure frame member.
A lens-fitted photographic film package as defined in claim 16, said rib means being annular and having a coaxial annular recess therein of a diameter less than the diameter of said spacing member, and an annular shutter cover disposed in said annular recess, said shutter being disposed between said recessed surface and said shutter cover.
The film container chamber 15 holds a film container 17 with a spool 17a, whereas the film roll chamber 16 holds a roll of film 18 which is pulled out from the film container 17 and wound into a roll at the factory prior to assembly of the package.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5181057.html   (5267 words)

 Preserving Your Collection of Film-Based Photographic Negatives
Recent research indicates that all cellulose-based film, whether it's a cellulose nitrate negative from the 1890's or a cellulose triacetate color transparency from the 1990's, share very similar deterioration mechanisms that are temperature and humidity dependent.
The new films were significant improvements (ignition temperature for safety film is in the region of 800o to 1000o F as compared with 300o F for nitrate film in good condition).
Though these films were introduced in 1955, manufacturing/engineering difficulties and the mistaken conviction that triacetate solved the problem of impermanence slowed their widespread use.
palimpsest.stanford.edu /byauth/messier/negrmcc.html   (3064 words)

 How Photographic Film Works
You would want a "faster" film in those cases where you were photographing fast moving objects and you wanted them to be in focus, or where you wanted to take a picture in dimly lit surroundings without the benefit of additional illumination (like a flash).
A tungsten balanced film is meant to be used indoors where the primary source of light is from tungsten filament light bulbs.
The film speed is the first factor, and most of today's cameras automatically sense what speed film is being used from the markings that are on the outside of a 35 mm cartridge.
www.unc.edu /~jimlee/film.htm   (4235 words)

 Photographic film
Photographic film (and paper) is basically a gelatin-like emulsion - which is loaded with silver salts (that are light sensitive) - on an acetate base.
When we developed the film - by chemically oxidizing those silver salts that were sensitized by the light - the numbers became very fl and the dark jersey, which reflected no light to the silver salts, came up clear and were washed away.
Color slides (transparencies) happen because the film basically has a few layers of silver salts that act as a negative and, during the processing, re-exposes the positive layers, thus giving you a positive image.
www.photographycourse.net /film.htm   (523 words)

Most of us at least know that we must use a specific size (or format) of film for our camera, but a lot of folks don’t realize they have a tremendous choice of film, don’t know what the differences among their choices are, and have no idea when to use one film over another.
Other factors include the type of camera to be used, how a photographer wishes to photograph the subject to achieve the kind of images he or she wishes to capture, the subject’s illumination, whether the final image will be a fl and white or color print, or a slide, and so on.
A good photographer is a kind of artist and, like the painter, must understand the fundamentals of his or her tools and materials, including film, in order to make better pictures.
www.photographytips.com /page.cfm/133   (484 words)

 Clavius: Environment - radiation and photographic film
Although Dr. Groves gives figures for the x-ray dosage to which he submitted his test films, he does not in any way show that this is the expected amount of x-ray energy that exists anywhere in cislunar space or on the lunar surface.
It is unclear whether he left the film inside its magazine as the Apollo astronauts would have done.
Since the Hasselblad magazines were modified to provide thicker material for the casing, and the film was kept in the magazines during the entire mission, it is not clear whether Dr. Groves' procedure constitutes an adequate comparison.
www.clavius.org /envradfilm.html   (807 words)

 Photographic process workers and processing machine operators
Film process technicians operate machines that develop exposed photographic film or sensitized paper in a series of chemical and water baths to produce negative or positive images.
Photographic process workers, sometimes known as digital imaging technicians, use computer images of conventional negatives and specialized computer software to vary the contrast of images, remove unwanted background, or combine features from different photographs.
Photographic process workers and processing machine operators generally spend their work hours in clean, appropriately lighted, well-ventilated, and air-conditioned offices, photofinishing laboratories, or 1-hour minilabs.
www.bls.gov /oco/ocos241.htm   (1499 words)

 Photographic Process Workers
Photographic process workers generally spend their work hours in clean, appropriately lighted, well-ventilated, and air-conditioned offices, photofinishing laboratories, or 1-hour minilabs.
Photographic process workers held about 63,000 jobs in 1998; almost three quarters of the jobs were for machine operators and tenders.
Photographic process machine operators perform work similar to that of other machine operators, such as computer, peripheral equipment, and printing press operators.
www.umsl.edu /services/govdocs/ooh20002001/87.htm   (1271 words)

 A History of Photography, by Robert Leggat: PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The following year George Eastman produced roll film, designed for a new camera called the Kodak; after exposure the film would be returned still in the camera for processing.
Daylight loading film was produced by Eastman Kodak in 1894.
The early films were highly inflammable, and gradually became replaced by non inflammable cellulose acetate in the 1930s.
www.rleggat.com /photohistory/history/film.htm   (267 words)

 Focus! - chemists developing better photographic film Discover - Find Articles
Niepce's camera was a cubical wooden box, about a foot on a side; his film was a tin or stone plate coated with asphalt, which hardened where the light struck it.
Film is basically a lot of silver halide crystals suspended in gelatin on a plastic backing.
Film today thus requires 10 or more photons to make its quota of four silver atoms per crystal--that is, it wastes 60 percent of the light.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m1511/is_8_21/ai_63583781   (863 words)

 Japanese Barriers on Imported Photographic Film and Paper
The consumer photographic film and paper industry was identified from the outset as a principal target for liberalization countermeasures.
As a complement, the Government established a regulatory environment to ensure that importers of foreign photographic film and paper would not be able to offer more advantageous transaction terms which might undermine those necessary to systematize distribution under the domestic manufacturers.
Specifically, the JFTC has deputized members of the domestic photographic industry to enforce price and promotion countermeasures through "fair competition codes." These measures have protected the dominant Japanese producers from competition from imports and have closed off the two most important remaining means of gaining a foothold in the market: discount pricing and aggressive marketing.
www.dbtrade.com /casework/film/summarya.htm   (9603 words)

 TSA: Photographic Equipment & Film
You may carry one (1) bag of photographic equipment in addition to one (1) carry-on and one (1) personal item through the screening checkpoint.
High speed and specialty film should be hand inspected at the security checkpoint.
To facilitate hand-inspection, remove your undeveloped film from the canister and pack in a clear plastic bag.
www.tsa.gov /travelers/airtravel/assistant/editorial_1248.shtm   (139 words)

 Photographic Film Base
The finest quality film base for fl and white or color photographic film is produced at the most sophisticated manufacturing plant, using experienced and highly skilled personnel.
The film base is produced in many different thicknesses.
The film base can also be colored in various transparent colors as required by the customer.
www.islandgroup.com /PhotographicFilmBase.html   (137 words)

 Pre-Flashing Photographic Film
Pre-flashing film and film hypering are two methods to alter the characteristics of film to achieve greater sensitivity and desired properties.
Briefly, even before 35mm cameras made their debut in 1925, photographers had the "sunny sixteen rule" to guide them in providing exposures and when we got Koachrome ten years later, this served quite well when photographing front sunlit subjects, but the conditions were to limited.
Essentially, the film is exposed to a brief (extremely brief) "flash" of pure light which can either pre-sensitize the film for additional effective film speed, or increase the threshold of a film's characteristic curves to spread out the tonal range, thus allowing for the ability to capture a more contrasty scene than normally possible.
medfmt.8k.com /mf/preflashing.html   (6524 words)

 Care & Identification of Film-Base Photographic Materials   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Neither cellulose nitrate or cellulose diacetate appear to deteriorate significantly faster than other cellulosic film materials.(l l) This research suggests that negative condition and not negative type should be the criterion for duplication.
The float test may be used to identify film base types due to their differing densities.
For example, cellulose nitrate was the only film material produced before the 1920's, and polyester was not made before the mid-1950's.
palimpsest.stanford.edu /byauth/fischer/fischer1.html   (2964 words)

 photographic @ge - News Release - Fuji Velvia 100
The first new Velvia film in more than a decade is a color transparency film that brings the ultra-high-saturated color of Fujifilm's renowned Velvia to the ISO 100 speed class.
Fuji Photo Film U.S.A., Inc. is the U.S. marketing subsidiary of Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. of Tokyo (FUJIY), a leading global manufacturer in three business segments, including Imaging Solutions, Information Solutions and Document Solutions.
Statistical density fluctuations in film granularity are measured, and then converted into numerical values.
www.photographicage.com /content/news_flash/film/velvia_100.htm   (1218 words)

 KODAK Photographic Film, Photo Paper, Photographic Chemicals
If hand agitation is used, insert film rack quickly into the developer tank and tap rack on the tank bottom sharply for 5 seconds to dislodge any air bells on the film surface.
High concentrations of dust particles in the area of the film causes "pinholes" in processed negatives and fl spots on the photographic film.
Although the film reaches equilibrium very quickly with the air humidity, it is a good idea to avoid sudden movements of the film that might cause friction and possible static discharge.
www.tedpella.com /photo_html/photo1.htm   (956 words)

 Area of Study: Photographic, Film, and Video Technology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Photographic, film, and video technology programs teach people to operate cameras and lighting equipment.
Photographic, film and video technology programs teach you how to be one of these people.
Most programs in photographic, film, and video technology are certificate or associate degree programs.
www.iseek.org /sv/22030.jsp?id=170200   (384 words)

 9474¬†Photographic and Film Processors   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Photographic and film processors process and finish still photographic film and motion picture film.
They are employed in film processing laboratories and retail photofinishing establishments.
Inspect rolls of photographic prints for conformance to specifications; or motion picture film to detect defects in developing and printing.
www23.hrdc-drhc.gc.ca /2001/e/groups/9474.shtml   (211 words)

 Research & Reports - X-Ray   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
As the trade association for the international imaging industry whose members include most of the manufacturers of sensitized photographic material worldwide, I3A is already in contact with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to participate in the review of these procedures as they relate to film products.
The machines only affect unprocessed film — the rolls of film that you have not sent or brought in for processing, and only those in your checked baggage.
Your film and cameras containing film should be placed in your carry-on luggage.
www.i3a.org /x-ray.html   (457 words)

 Howstuffworks "How Photographic Film Works"
People have been using camera and film for more than 100 years, both for still photography and movies.
Despite its long history, film remains the best way to capture still and moving pictures because of its incredible ability to record detail in a very stable form.
In this article, you'll learn all about how film works, both inside your camera and when it is developed, so you can understand exactly what is going on!
science.howstuffworks.com /film.htm   (150 words)

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