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Topic: Photovoltaic

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In the News (Sat 26 May 18)

  Renewable Energy - Solar Energy, radiant/light energy, heat/thermal energy
Photovoltaic energy is the conversion of sunlight into electricity through a photovoltaic (PVs) cell, commonly called a solar cell.
A photovoltaic cell is a nonmechanical device usually made from silicon alloys.
When DC from photovoltaic cells is used for commercial applications or sold to electric utilities using the electric grid, it must be converted to alternating current (AC) using inverters, solid state devices that convert DC power to AC.
www.eia.doe.gov /kids/energyfacts/sources/renewable/solar.html   (0 words)

 Solar Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic devices use semiconducting materials to convert sunlight directly into electricity.
Solar radiation, which is nearly constant outside the Earth's atmosphere, varies with changing atmospheric conditions (clouds and dust) and the changing position of the Earth relative to the sun.
This map shows solar photovoltaics resource potential on Federal lands and the lower 48 states.
www.eia.doe.gov /cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarphotv/solarpv.html   (213 words)

  The photovoltaic effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
The "photovoltaic effect" is the basic physical process through which a solar cell converts sunlight into electricity.
In 1839, nineteen-year-old Edmund Becquerel, a French experimental physicist, discovered the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with an electrolytic cell made up of two metal electrodes.
Special electrical properties of the solar cell Ña built-in electric field (thanks to a P-N junction) Ñprovide the voltage needed to drive the current through an external load (such as a light bulb).
encyclobeamia.solarbotics.net /articles/photovoltaic.html   (197 words)

  Photovoltaics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Photovoltaics or PV for short is a solar power technology that uses solar photovoltaic arrays or solar cells to provide electricity for human activities.
Photovoltaics is also the field of study relating to this technology.
Normally, photovoltaic modules have 25 years' warranty, but they should be fully functional even after 30-40 years.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Photovoltaic   (1584 words)

 Solar cell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A solar cell (or a "photovoltaic" cell) is a semiconductor device that converts photons from the sun (solar light) into electricity.
This conversion is called the photovoltaic effect, and the field of research related to solar cells is known as photovoltaics.
The most common configuration of this device, the first generation photovoltaic, consists of a large-area, single layer p-n junction diode, which is capable of generating usable electrical energy from light sources with the wavelengths of solar light.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Solar_cell   (5380 words)

 Photovoltaics - PV Basics
Photovoltaic modules consist of PV cell circuits sealed in an environmentally protective laminate, and are the fundamental building blocks of PV systems.
Photovoltaic power systems are generally classified according to their functional and operational requirements, their component configurations, and how the equipment is connected to other power sources and electrical loads.
Due to the diffuse nature of sunlight and the existing sunlight to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of photovoltaic devices, surface area requirements for PV array installations are on the order of 8 to 12 m^2 (86 to 129 ft^2) per kilowatt of installed peak array capacity.
www.fsec.ucf.edu /pvt/pvbasics   (2061 words)

 Photovoltaic shingle system - Patent 5575861
A photovoltaic roofing shingle includes a strip of roofing material having an overlap portion, and a plurality of tab portions depending therefrom and separated by embossed inactive regions.
Thin film photovoltaic devices are low cost and light weight and can be fabricated upon flexible substrates and comprise one particularly preferred group of devices which may be used in the practice of the present invention.
Additionally, the plurality of photovoltaic devices 82 may be spaced more closely to each other; that is, the photovoltaic devices can be located very close to the inactive region of the emboss.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5575861.html   (6203 words)

 different types of photovoltaic systems
Ribbon-type photovoltaic cells are made by growing a ribbon from the molten silicon instead of an ingot.
Because photovoltaic cells are electrical semiconductors, partial shading of the module will cause the shaded cells to heat up.
Photovoltaic modules mounted on buildings or other structures are subjected to downward force when the wind hits their front surfaces.
www.polarpowerinc.com /info/operation20/operation23.htm   (4672 words)

 Tremco Photovoltaic Roofing Solutions - Tremco Roofing
Photovoltaic technology has been around since the late 1950’s, when it was used to provide electric power for earth-orbiting satellites.
Tremco’s Photovoltaic Single Ply is a totally integrated photovoltaic roofing membrane that is a combination of twelve flexible 128 watt photovoltaic modules permanently fused to a 60 mil, ENERGY STAR® qualified, TPA membrane.
Photovoltaic is a patented PV solar roof tile that delivers clean, reliable electricity while insulating and protecting the roof.
www.tremcoroofing.com /photovoltaic.asp   (538 words)

 Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly - Patent 5746839
The assembly according to claim 11 wherein said photovoltaic assembly comprises means for interengaging said photovoltaic module, spacer, and insulation member to create an integral assembly for resisting the forces of wind uplift thus enabling lower installed weight per unit area.
The photovoltaic module portion is situated over the building rooftop in a manner to be exposed to solar radiation and electrically connected for transport of electricity.
By inclining the photovoltaic modules, natural convection using outside air as a convection fluid is enhanced, due to the facilitation of convective currents on the backside of a planar surface when that surface is inclined.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5746839.html   (6132 words)

 Photovoltaic Device
A revolutionary development in organic photovoltaics and photodetectors came in the mid 1990s with the introduction of a dispersed hetero-junction, where an electron accepting and an electron donating material are blended together.
The predicted trends for photovoltaic are mostly to achieve the current challenges based on blends of nano-particles or nano-crystals of inorganic semiconductor with conjugated polymers to improve the efficiency of electron extraction through tetra-pods and hoe transportation in polymers.
Recent research focuses on the synthesis and testing of new photovoltaic materials in established device structures, and the development of new structures where morphology is controlled through self assembly and processing conditions.
www.personal.psu.edu /students/s/x/sxp928/photovoltaic_device.htm   (5561 words)

 pvresources.com - photovoltaic application examples
Photovoltaic systems are an excellent solution to electricity production regardless of your whereabouts - even at high latitudes of Himalayas or in Antarctica photovoltaic systems have been build.
Despite of the grid connection, a photovoltaic system is used as a backup power supply source in case of grid malfunctions, which are caused by storms, snowfalls, ice and so on.
Often photovoltaic systems are realised in combination with wind or diesel generators wherever a 24 hours functioning of power supply system is necessary.
www.pvresources.com /en/application.php   (1402 words)

 Solar Energy Technologies Program: Photovoltaics
Photovoltaic technology makes use of the abundant energy in the sun, and it has little impact on our environment.
Photovoltaics can be used in a wide range of products, from small consumer items to large commercial solar electric systems.
Photovoltaic systems were an important power source for that mission.
www.eere.energy.gov /solar/photovoltaics.html   (0 words)

 photovoltaic technology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Photovoltaic (PV) technology, an inherently clean source of energy, produces no noise, smoke, acid rain, water pollutants, carbon dioxide or nuclear waste because it relies on the power of the sun for its fuel.
Advanced photovoltaic systems when innovatively integrated into the architecture of the building can result in dramatic, elegant and cost-effective building, which is also environment friendly.
Photovoltaic technology is in its infancy and more so in India, and its full potential is yet to be realised.
mhathwar.tripod.com /thesis/photovoltaic_technology.html   (1624 words)

 Photovoltaic Solar Energy
Sunlight is converted to electricity using photovoltaic or solar cells.
Photovoltaic (PV) cells are semiconductor devices, usually made of silicon, which contain no liquids, corrosive chemicals or moving parts.
Photovoltaic cells come in many sizes, but most are 10 cm by 10 cm and generate about half a volt of electricity.
www.newenergy.org /sesci/publications/pamphlets/photovoltaic.html   (894 words)

 SOLAR ENERGY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Photovoltaic (PV) cells are devices that convert sunlight to electricity, bypassing thermodynamic cycles and mechanical generators.
The photovoltaic cells were developed at Bell Labs in 1950 primarily initially for space applications.
Other than space satellites, the photovoltaic cells are being used in rural health clinics for refrigeration, water pumps for irrigation and for small scale power generation.
www.history.rochester.edu /class/solar/cells.htm   (357 words)

 Photovoltaic systems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Photovoltaic (PV) cells are made primarily of silicon, the second most abundant element in the earth's crust, and the same semiconductor material used for computers.
Crystalline Photovoltaic Materials flat plate collectors are the most developed and prevalent type in use today.
Concentrators use much less of a specialized photovoltaic material and employ a lens or reflectors to concentrate sunlight on the photovoltaic cell and increase its output.
www.corrosion-doctors.org /Solar/Photovolt.htm   (295 words)

 Photovoltaic Systems: Harnessing the Power of the Sun
Photovoltaic systems primarily powered off-grid and remote applications in the early days of the technology, but engineers, architects, and designers are now powering large-scale residential developments and commercial high-rises with energy from the sun.
By fusing a thin film photovoltaic technology called amorphous silicon directly to the roofing membrane, no racks or other support structures are required, and no wires or cables are visible on the roof after the installation is complete.
The photovoltaic industry has experienced substantial growth in the last decade, but the prohibitive cost of solar cell manufacturing has slowed down the widespread adoption of the technology.
ecmweb.com /mag/electric_photovoltaic_systems/index.html   (2197 words)

 Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
The Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed will be a solar-cell calibration and measurement facility to fly on the International Space Station to test advanced solar cell types in the space environment.
Photovoltaic power systems are baselined as the primary power system of the International Space Station, and future missions such as a return to the moon and a human mission to Mars will also likely use photovoltaic power, which has a history as the workhorse power system for all extended-duration spaceflight.
Calibration and testing of cells in space is a necessary precursor to predicting the performance, thus allowing an engineering baseline for the use of the cells in flight.
powerweb.grc.nasa.gov /pvsee/publications/wcpec2/pet.html   (2221 words)

Each model of photovoltaic panel, where the panel is manufactured by a substantially different manufacturing process, for which a grant is requested from the SPMIGP is to be tested in compliance with the procedures and standards published in these guidelines.
All test equipment used by the photovoltaic panel manufacturer to determine the electrical performance of the panels is to be recalibrated on the schedule recommended by the test equipment manufacturer but at a minimum of once per calendar year, and by the standards referenced in 4.1.2.
Photovoltaic panels are to be selected for testing randomly from among all the photovoltaic panels manufactured since the preceding Electrical Performance Verification Test, or if there has been no preceding Electrical Performance Verification Test, from among all the photovoltaic panels manufactured since the start of production.
www.mme.state.va.us /de/smigguid.html   (2229 words)

 How do Photovoltaics Work?
In 1905, Albert Einstein described the nature of light and the photoelectric effect on which photovoltaic technology is based, for which he later won a Nobel prize in physics.
During the energy crisis in the 1970s, photovoltaic technology gained recognition as a source of power for non-space applications.
In other words, the photovoltaic response of single-junction cells is limited to the portion of the sun's spectrum whose energy is above the band gap of the absorbing material, and lower-energy photons are not used.
science.nasa.gov /headlines/y2002/solarcells.htm   (784 words)

 GEO - Photovoltaic Stock Watering   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Photovoltaic systems can operate in very remote areas, where power lines are nonexistent, or very expensive to maintain.
In remote areas, photovoltaic systems are relatively low in cost when compared with more traditional sources like electricity--or even windmills.
Photovoltaic panels have been developed that are efficient in converting the sun's rays to direct current (DC).
www.state.co.us /oemc/publications/pvstock   (496 words)

 1997 Building Publications - Photovoltaic Solar Water Heating System.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
This system used photovoltaic cells to generate electrical energy that is subsequently dissipated in multiple electric resistive heating elements.
Unlike other residential photovoltaic systems, the photovoltaic solar water heating system does not require an inverter to convert the direct current supplied by the photovoltaic array to an alternating current or a battery system for storage.
A photovoltaic solar hot water system eliminates the components most often associated with the failures of solar thermal hot water systems.
fire.nist.gov /bfrlpubs/build97/art018.html   (229 words)

 Energy - New and Renewable Energies - Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic industrialists would have been able to produce many more modules if it had not been for the current shortage of silicon, the principal raw material of solar cells.In 2005, the European photovoltaic market finally reached 644 MWp, bringing the cumulated total of installed European capacity to 1791.7 MWp.
This growth is explained by the improvement in photovoltaic electricity purchase conditions resulting from Royal Decree 436/2004 of March 2004.
In Italy, the new purchase price system adopted by decree on July 15th, 2005 was quickly found to be overextended with, at the end of 2005, 311 MWp in requests for connection to the power grid whereas the purchase price was only valid for the first 100 MWp.
ec.europa.eu /energy/res/sectors/photovoltaic_en.htm   (0 words)

 Photovoltaic systems - Sustainability Victoria
In addition, the inclusion of batteries in a photovoltaic system provides security and independence from any disruptions to the electricity network.
Photovoltaics can be used in a wide range of applications.
In rural areas, where there is a high cost to connect to the electricity network, a photovoltaic system with battery storage can be very cost-effective.
www.sustainability.vic.gov.au /www/html/1390-photovoltaic-systems.asp   (230 words)

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