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Topic: Phrase structure rules

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In the News (Sat 16 Feb 19)

  Topological frames in
The rule should be interpreted basically in the same way as an HPSG grammar rule, it states one way in which a phrase can be formed, in this case one option for the expression of finite VPs in Swedish, with the lexical head linked to the V2-position and the complements linked to the C-position.
Thus, the relation between phrase structure and topology is accounted for by a specific mapping between the daughters of the phrase and the positions of the frame.
The corresponding rules of the string grammar are as in (14) and (15):
text.sics.se /bibliotek/nodalida/1993_sthlm/NODA93-02/NODA93-02.html   (2402 words)

  Linguistics 150, Week 2
The symbol(s) on the righthand side of the rule correspond to daughters of the node in (a).
Although combining phrase structure and lexical insertion rules correctly allows us to build structures for the sentences in (6), a serious problem with it was noted early on: it also incorrectly gives structures for the sentences in (7).
The empty complement node in the containing syntactic structure in (27a) is the target of adjunction and is replaced with the tree for the complement in (27b).
www.ling.upenn.edu /courses/Spring_1998/ling150/notes2.html   (2888 words)

 Linguistics: Methods of synchronic linguistic analysis: TRANSFORMATIONAL-GENERATIVE GRAMMAR: Chomsky's grammar.
In these rules, the arrow can be interpreted as an instruction to rewrite (this is to be taken as a technical term) whatever symbol appears to the left of the arrow as the symbol or string of symbols that appears to the right of the arrow.
The tree diagram, or phrase marker, may now be considered as a structural description of the sentence "The man hit the ball." It is a description of the constituent structure, or phrase structure, of the sentence, and it is assigned by the rules that generate the sentence.
The phrase marker shown in Figure 5 (left) may be described as underlying, and the phrase marker shown in Figure 5 (right) as derived with respect to rule (6).
www.ifi.unizh.ch /groups/CL/volk/SyntaxVorl/Chomsky.html   (1522 words)

 Linguistics 150, Chapter 2
But although the phrase structure rule for NP in (2b) implies that the article and the noun form a structural unit, nothing in the final result of the rewriting in (3c) reflects this.
In the terms of traditional grammar, the difficulty is that a purely rule-based approach to syntactic structure fails to distinguish among various subcategories of verbs, such as intransitive, transitive, and ditransitive verbs.
As we will see in a moment, the structures in (17) and (18) are oversimplified, but for now, they illustrate how it is possible to reconstruct trees like those in (8) without incurring the redundancy inherent in a system of phrase structure rules, lexical insertion rules, and subcategorization frames.
www.ling.upenn.edu /courses/Spring_2000/ling150/ch2.html   (4294 words)

 Phrase structure rules - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A number of theories of grammar dispense with the notion of phrase structure rules and operate with the notion of schema instead.
Here phrase structures are not derived from rules that combine words, but from the specification or instantiation of syntactic schemata or configurations, often expressing some kind of semantic content independently of the specific words that appear in them.
This approach is essentially equivalent to a system of phrase structure rules combined with a noncompositional semantic theory, since grammatical formalisms based on rewriting rules are generally equivalent in power to those based on substitution into schemata.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Phrase_structure_rules   (438 words)

Phrase structure will be derived as output of universal principles at each level of syntactic representation, rather than being stipulated as input.
A 'Licensed Structure' is a well-formed phrase structure derived from universal principles such as Case and Theta Theory.
In a principle-based Licensed Structure, the notions of 'specifier,' 'complement,' 'head,' 'maximality,' 'subject,' and 'topic' are consequently derived from non-phrase structure origins by means of the Licensing Principle.
ling.wisc.edu /abstracts/yskim.htm   (303 words)

 PC-PATR Reference Manual
Each rule consists of a context-free phrase structure rule and a set of feature constraints that is, unifications on the feature structures associated with the constituents of the phrase structure rules.
Rule 14 has two feature constraints that limit the co-occurrence of NP and VP, and two feature constraints that build the feature structures for S. This highlights the dual purpose of feature constraints in PC-PATR: limiting the co-occurrence of phrase structure elements and constructing the feature structure for the element defined by a rule.
After the rule has been applied, the feature structure has been changed to the one shown in figure 9 Note that all of the information in the output feature structure is from the input feature structure, but not all of the input feature information is found in the the output feature structure.
www.sil.org /pcpatr/manual/pcpatr.html   (7547 words)

 Reference: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Thesauri, Usage, Quotations, and more. Bartleby.com
Mawson’s modernization of Roget’s classic structure with over 85,000 hyperlinked cross-references and 2,900 quotations.
This reference work has remained a standard resource—serving generations of students and writers with commonsense rules of style and grammar.
Believing that one must first know the rules to break them, this classic reference book is a must-have for any student or writer.
www.bartleby.com /reference   (739 words)

 E-101 Fall 2000
If (7) is the right phrase structure rule for English noun phrases, and if rule (10) does not exist, then a very strong claim is being made about possible English noun phrases; the claim is that they can never have any form other than the ones generated by the application of (7).
Call this level Deep Structure; the level you pronounce is Surface Structure, and Deep Structure has to be uncovered through investigation (the meaning is not "deep" in the sense of 'profound,' but in the sense of 'beneath the surface').
That it keeps the phrase structure rules simple is not a knock-down argument for adding a deletion rule to the grammar, but ultimately it turns out to be useful to adopt such rules.
www.hum.uit.no /a/svenonius/courses/e101/ch5notes/ch5notes2.html   (2339 words)

 Why Chomskean Linguistics is Mentalistic
The grammars of this time had phrase structure rules as well as certain movement rules, called transformations, which might for example transform phrase structures for active sentences into phrase structures for corresponding passive sentences.
In the 1960s grammars were devised that assigned deep structures resulting from phrase structure rules and surface structures resulting from the operation of the transformation rules to the deep structures.
Parameters in the model allow for differences in whether the head of a phrase comes at the beginning or the end of the phrase, whether sentences must have subjects, etc. In this approach grammars of particular languages no longer have phrase structure rules or transformation rules.
www.princeton.edu /~harman/Papers/Ling-Ment.html   (940 words)

 Syntactic Structure Representations
A syntactic category may have only one daughter, as in the rule NP N, wherein the noun phrase is the parent of a noun category; but in rules with more than one category label on their right-hand side, the ordering of the labels determines the order of the corresponding categories in the sentence.
For example, the rule VP V NP describes the verb phrase category as the parent of verb and noun phrase daughters with the verb preceding its noun phrase sister.
Because all the rules in the grammar illustrated here have a single left-hand side symbol, and the rules can be applied whenever there is a match for this symbol, without regard for whatever other symbols might be adjacent to it, a grammar such as G is described as context-free.
web.uvic.ca /~ling48x/ling484/notes/structures.html   (4797 words)

 LING 101: Syntax   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Notice that the strings of words that we have identified as phrases, "the park", "in the park" are valid answers to the question.
But strings of words which are not phrases, "lunch in", "in the", "lunch in the park" are NOT valid answers to the question.
In both cases "the door" is a noun phrase.
www.ling.udel.edu /idsardi/101/notes/syntax.html   (2283 words)

 : Class GrammarPhrases
Each phrase structure rule method constructs the phrase requested by combining words of the right category, syllable length, and, if required, rhyming key.
Returns a noun phrase with the same number of syllables as indicated in the parameter.
Returns a noun phrase with the same number of syllables as indicated in the parameter and the rhymingKey matched to the second adjective.
www.cs.ubc.ca /~condon/cpsc101/labs/Haiku_files/docs/poem/GrammarPhrases.html   (597 words)

 PC-PATR Reference Manual
Each rule consists of a context-free phrase structure rule and a set of feature constraints, that is, unifications on the feature structures associated with the constituents of the phrase structure rules.
With only the simple categories used by context-free phrase structure rules, a very large number of rules are required to accurately handle even a small subset of a language's grammar.
Rule 14 illustrates another important point about feature unification constraints: they are applied only if they involve the phrase structure constituents actually found for the rule.
www.ai.mit.edu /courses/6.863/doc/pcpatr.html   (10474 words)

 5 Phrase-structure Rules
Some important linguists argue that the structure of a word and the structure of a sentence are akin.
Therefore they apply rules which are used in sentence syntax to word syntax or the structure of words.
The rules we are concerned with are the phrase-structure rules.
coral.lili.uni-bielefeld.de /Classes/Summer96/Morphsem/skoelsch/node5.html   (929 words)

 Phrase Structure Grammar Laboratory Help
PSG Web Laboratory is designed as an aid for students to explore context-free phrase structure grammars for natural language.
Natural language phrases (and formulas in most formal languages) have both a linear order and a hierarchical structure.
A phrase structure grammar consists of a set of rules and a set of lexical entries.
www.ling.gu.se /~lager/Labs/PSG-Lab/help.htm   (542 words)

 section 5.3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
No such sharp or language-wide changes are observed; rather, as emphasised by Tomasello (1992) in his `verb island' hypothesis, different verbs (which are the locus of early phrase structure) seem to be learnt independently, so that the best predictor of a child's usage of any verb is her recent use of the same verb.
The rule probability s(R) of this m-script is acquired from the many examples, and is equal to the cue reliability.
This learning of exception rules will slowly acquire something related to the `conflict validity' of cues proposed by Bates, MacWhinney and their collaborators, and can be expected to account for some of the same effects; but conflict validity will not be a single number per cue.
dspace.dial.pipex.com /prod/dialspace/town/avenue/fab23/tll/long53.htm   (5044 words)

 TFS Grammar Rules
This creates difficulties in formalizing the concept of structure sharing across most general satisfiers of daughters in the same rule.
In this formalization, a rule is regarded as a feature structure with multiple roots, where each root corresponds to the root of the rule's mother and daughters.
A phrase structure rule can now be seen as a MRS, where each constituent is a TFS in the MRS.
www.cs.toronto.edu /~mcosmin/publications/thesis/node31.html   (268 words)

 Phrase Structure Rules   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Phrase structure (PS) rules defined in these two files are not directly used to parse sentences.
X-rules are rules with symbol variables, not ground symbols.
These are used to encode families of phrase structure rules.
dingo.sbs.arizona.edu /~sandiway/pappi/refman/ps/ps.html   (112 words)

 7. Grammars and Parsing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
That is, it includes an identifier for the original sentence, the head of the relevant verb phrase (i.e., including), the head of the verb's NP object (three), the preposition (with), and the head noun within the prepositional phrase (cancer).
Apart from their compactness, grammars usually capture important structural and distributional properties of the language, and can be used to map between sequences of words and abstract representations of meaning.
For a phrase structure tree to be well-formed relative to a grammar, each non-terminal node and its children must correspond to a production in the grammar.
nltk.sourceforge.net /lite/doc/en/parse.html   (6261 words)

 Linguistics 482 - Typing Queries
% % The Prolog rule comprising this predicate may be % construed as a translation of the following % phrase-structure rule: % % NP --> N % % Note that the phrase-structure rule may be % translated into English as the assertion that % % A noun phrase consists of a noun.
Note that the np(X) and np(X, Y) structures are each called the head of their respective np/1 and np/2 rules.
As a consequence this unification, the atom dogs is instantiated on the variable X in the argument of the np(X) structure.
web.uvic.ca /~ling48x/ling482/prolog/queries.html   (1599 words)

This means that P1 is really two rules and P2 not just three, but actually a total of 13 different ways to rewrite a PN.
The given name phrase may consist of one or two given names connected with an explicit connector, or as many given names as required without connectives.
Note that these rules are designed for English.
userpages.burgoyne.com /bdespain/angs/angs21b.htm   (148 words)

 LING200 Section 0301   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Our brain capacity is finite, able to store only a finite number of categories and rules for their combination.
But, as structures grow longer and longer they become increasingly difficult to produce and understand.
Despite the differences in detail, all grammars of all languages have the type of rule we are calling a phrase structure rule, which characterizes the structure of phrases, sentences and syntactic categories of the language.
www.ling.umd.edu /pablos/sem_h1.htm   (726 words)

 Rules for Comma Usage
The parenthetical element is sometimes called "added information." This is the most difficult rule in punctuation because it is sometimes unclear what is "added" or "parenthetical" and what is essential to the meaning of a sentence.
But "his wife" and "Eleanor" are so close that we can regard the entire phrase as one unit and leave out the commas.
An absolute phrase is always treated as a parenthetical element, as is an interjection.
grammar.ccc.commnet.edu /grammar/commas.htm   (1956 words)

 Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG 2006)
Abstracts are solicited for 20 minute presentations (followed by 10 minutes of discussion) which address linguistic, foundational, or computational issues relating to the framework of Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar.
Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar is particularly well-suited to address such issues, due to its lexicalist orientation and to its extensive use of types and inheritance hierarchies.
Morphology and morphology-syntax interface: Flickinger's dissertation on lexical rules and the structure of the lexicon (Flickinger 1987); Nerbonne and Krieger's work on the organization of the lexicon and on inflectional morphology (Nerbonne and Krieger 1993); Riehemann's corpus-based study of derivational morphology (Riehemann 1998); Malouf's constructional approach to English gerunds.
www.bultreebank.org /HPSG06   (529 words)

 Python Success Stories
Both SGML and XML have similar nested structures of tags and the same logical structure for the DTDs and DSLs.
However, the XML rules were still under development during 2001, so I chose the more reliable and mature SGML rule set.
These abstract classes can be inherited in code that defines particular document structures, and can be nested arbitrarily, so that each maps to a different level or part of the output document's structure.
www.python.org /about/success/honeywell   (1843 words)

Hence, rule P4 describes two main constituencies for the number phrase (NUM).
This means that P4 is really three rules and P1 not just four, but actually a total of eleven different ways to rewrite a DNP.
The intended interpretation for the elements corresponding to these symbols, while appearing in brief in the previous paragraph, are found in more detail in the glossary.
userpages.burgoyne.com /bdespain/angs/angs234.htm   (98 words)

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