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Topic: Phthalates

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In the News (Sat 17 Aug 19)

  Phthalates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are a group of chemical compounds that are mainly used as plasticizers (substances added to plastics to increase their flexibility).
Phthalates with small R and R' groups are used as solvents in perfumes and pesticides.
Phthalates are also frequently used in nail polish, adhesives, caulk, paint pigments, and sex toys made of so-called "jelly rubber." Some vendors of jelly rubber sex toys advise covering them in condoms when used internally, due to the possible health risks.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Phthalates   (1031 words)

 Environmental Information - Phthalates
Although phthalates are widely distributed in the environment, their levels are low because they are subject to rapid photochemical and biodegradation.
Phthalates are subject to both aerobic and anaerobic (in the presence, or not, of oxygen respectively) biodegradation.
Phthalates don't mimic natural oestrogens and there is no evidence to suggest that their presence in the environment reduces sperm counts in humans or wildlife
www.phthalates.com /index.asp?page=31   (850 words)

 Our Stolen Future: New questions about phthalates
Most phthalate researchers say the jury is still out on phthalate risks - particularly their threat to developing fetuses and children.
The phthalates found in largest quantities were DBP and DEP, which tend to be used in cosmetics and perfumes.
Phthalate opponents say that even without ironclad proof that low levels cause harm in humans, there is enough data to warrant a ban.
www.ourstolenfuture.org /Commentary/News/2003/2003-0304-Newsday-phthalates.htm   (1850 words)

 AlterNet: Are Your Beauty Products Killing You?
These women were found to have daily exposures of phthalates ranging from 2.5 to 22 times the normal for the rest of the general population, with 5 percent showing levels of 75 percent or higher of the acceptable daily amounts.
Phthalates have been shown to cause a wide array of health problems, from liver and kidney failure to heart, lung and blood pressure problems.
The biggest commotion over phthalates came in 1998, when the Danish government issued a well-publicized ban on toys containing phthalates because of concern that children were being exposed to toxic chemicals when they put toys in their mouths.
www.alternet.org /story/13530   (1592 words)

 EnviroHealthAction | Toxics and Health - Phthalates and Human Health   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Phthalates are a class of chemicals that are widely used in consumer products to soften plastics, as solvents, and as carriers for fragrances.
Certain phthalates have been shown to cause a wide range of adverse effects in laboratory animals, including reproductive and developmental harm, organ damage, immune suppression, endocrine disruption, and cancer.
Phthalates are emerging as a potentially serious health concern, based on the growing body of scientific evidence, and our continuous, daily exposure to these chemicals.
www.envirohealthaction.org /toxics/phthalates   (304 words)

 Health risks of phthalates
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) is funding a research project at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg under the leadership of Professor Jürgen Angerer that is studying the environmental uptake of phthalates in the population.
Phthalates such as the plasticiser di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) are among the most important industrial chemicals and are produced in great quantities.
Phthalates are also used in many other areas, however, such as in the production of toiletry products and textiles, and are thus omnipresent in the environment.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2004-03/df-hro031904.php   (507 words)

Phthalates are organic molecules with a variety of consumer and industrial applications.
And because phthalates have been around for so long, and are so widely used, they are also one of the most widely studied and well understood families of chemicals.
Phthalates have established a very strong safety profile over the 50 years in which they have been in general use.
www.omnova.com /businesses/decorative/phthalates.aspx   (459 words)

 Body Burden Case Study: Phthalates   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Phthalates cause a wide range of adverse health problems including liver, kidney and lung damage as well as reproductive system and sexual developmental abnormalities.
Humans are widely exposed to phthalates because vinyl is a ubiquitous plastic used to make anything from home furnishings (for example, flooring, wallpaper), medical devices (for example, catheters, IV- and blood bags), children's items (for example, infant feeding bottles, squeeze toys, changing mats, teethers) to packaging (for example, disposable bottles, food wrap).
Phthalates make their way from vinyl or PVC medical devices into solutions that are then fed into the patient.
www.chemicalbodyburden.org /cs_phthalate.htm   (1440 words)

 WDNR - Phthalates   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Phthalates are widely used in flexible polyvinyl chloride plastics, such as plastic bags, food packaging, garden hoses, inflatable recreational toys, blood-storage containers, intravenous tubing, children’s toys, and some pharmaceutical and pesticide formulations.
The different phthalates vary in their ability to produce the following effects in animal studies: testicular injury, liver injury, liver cancer, anti-androgenic activity, teratogenicity, and peroxisomal proliferation.
Effects of phthalates in people have not been well studied and most phthalates have not been completely classified with respect to their carcinogenicity (see http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/2nd/phthalates.htm (exit DNR).
www.dnr.state.wi.us /environmentprotect/pbt/chemicals/phthalates.htm   (558 words)

 Community Monitoring Handbook Phthalates Case Study   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The levels of phthalate exposure in the general population are high enough to raise serious questions about their safe use in hundreds of consumer products to which we are regularly exposed.
Because phthalates have been shown to cause developmental effects in animals exposed to sufficiently high concentrations, there is concern for the safety of women of childbearing age who are being exposed to these compounds.
Phthalates are also principal component of flexible PVC products, pesticides, building maintenance products, lubricants, and a variety of personal care goods that surround consumers at home, work, and in hospitals.
www.chemicalbodyburden.org /hb_cs_phthalates.htm   (1211 words)

 Our Stolen Future: What are phthalates and why are there health concerns
Phthalates are a class of widely used industrial compounds known technically as dialkyl or alkyl aryl esters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid.
Phthalates crept into widespread use over the last several decades because of their many beneficial chemical properties.
Phthalate levels associated with the damage were well within the range experienced by many Americans.
www.ourstolenfuture.org /NewScience/oncompounds/phthalates/phthalates.htm   (1171 words)

Phthalates have been used as plasticisers in many plastics since the 1930's, with a quarter of the total plasticiser ever produced being diethylhexylphthalate (Kirk-Othmer's Encyclopaedia).
Phthalates are fat soluble, so tend to concentrate in materials such as butter, margarine and cheese.
A major human exposure to phthalates is believed to be from foods which have absorbed the chemical from their packaging, or from manufacturing processes.
website.lineone.net /~mwarhurst/phthalates.html   (1408 words)

 About Phthalates
Phthalates are technically in the class of chemicals known as dialkyl or alkyl aryl esters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, and about one billion pounds of them are produced each year.
Phthalates are included in toys, vinyl flooring, wire insulation, shower curtains, synthetic leathers, food packaging, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics, as well as medical devices such as blood bags, syringes, heart valves and medical tubing.
Everett Koop and including a number of so-called "distinguished scientific experts," concluded that phthalate use in medical devices “is not harmful to humans even under chronic or higher-than-average conditions of exposure.” ACSH is mostly funded by the corporations that it advocates for.
www.mindfully.org /Plastic/Plasticizers/About-Phthalates.htm   (1342 words)

 Survey No. 1 2001. Phthalates and organic tin compounds in PVC products
These additives are for example phthalates (softeners) and organic tin compounds (stabilisers), and both compounds have undesirable effects on humans and the environment.
The fish bag was made from transparent plastic with drawings of fish, the shoulder bag with zip was produced from a cloth-like material and the shoulder bag with press button was made from artificial leather.
Furthermore, the samples are characterised by large amounts of phthalates varying from 2.5% to 63%.
www.mst.dk /chemi/01080100.htm   (1053 words)

 Phthalates and Human Health: Demystifying the Risks of Plastic-softening Chemicals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Greenpeace, for example, suggests that two such chemicals, called phthalates (pronounced thall-eights), are suspect as human cancer-causing agents, could damage the liver and kidneys, might damage the development of reproductive organs, and might interfere with development by acting as a mimic of the sex hormone estrogen.
Greenpeace, for example, suggests that phthalates are suspected as human cancer-causing agents, could damage liver and kidneys, might damage the development of reproductive organs, and might interfere with development by acting as a mimic of the sex hormone estrogen.
For humans in occupational settings, inhalation of mixed phthalate levels at concentrations 1 and 60 milligrams of phthalate per cubic meter of air were observed to cause irritation to the nose and pharynx.
www.rppi.org /peg2.html   (9303 words)

 CNN - Battle over phthalates heats up - September 28, 1999
Phthalate plasticizers are used to soften plastic products such as IV bags and toys.
Phthalate plasticizers are thought to leach out of the products made with them, and the question is whether these chemicals cause harm to people who have been exposed to them.
Koop's gathering of medical and scientific experts convened in February to examine the issue of whether phthalates were harmful and released their results in June, saying that consumers did not need to worry about adverse effects.
www.cnn.com /NATURE/9909/28/phthalates.enn/index.html   (684 words)

 Toxic Phthalates in Infant Formula
Phthalates are considered to be part of a growing group of environmental toxins that are thought to mimic female hormones.
When male rats were exposed to low levels of BBP from 0.126 mg/kg/day to 0.370 mg/kg/day during gestation and early life, researchers reported(2) a reduction in their sperm production and reduced testes size.
The question of how much phthalate do infants consume and what is the impact of phthalates on the growth and development of infants needs to be asked.
www.infactcanada.ca /phthalat.htm   (768 words)

 Tox Town - Phthalates - Toxic chemicals and environmental health risks where you live and work - Text Version
Phthalates are a group of chemicals used to soften and increase the flexibility of plastic and vinyl.
Phthalates are also used in wood finishes, detergents, adhesives, plastic plumbing pipes, lubricants, medical tubing and fluid bags, solvents, insecticides, medical devices, building materials, and vinyl flooring.
People at the highest risk of exposure to phthalates are dialysis patients, hemophiliacs, or people who received blood transfusions from sources that use tubing or containers made with phthalates.
toxtown.nlm.nih.gov /text_version/chemical.php?name=phthalates   (602 words)

While high levels of phthalates appear to be leaching from products such as medical devices, toys and packaging (products coming directly in contact with humans or food), these are just a small part of the widespread dispersion of phthalates into the environment.
The Swedish EPA estimates that "the greatest spread of phthalates should occur from the outside use of coated fabric and coated plating, and from (automobile) underseal compound.
Phthalates are also found in leachate from landfills (released from buried PVC).
www.ecomall.com /greenshopping/rachellart2.htm   (1019 words)

 Medications as a Source of Human Exposure to Phthalates   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Monoester phthalate metabolites were measured because of potential sample contamination from the parent diester and because the metabolites are considered the biologically active toxicant (Li et al.
Phthalates such as DBP, BBzP, and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate are also used in residential building materials such as floorings, paints, carpet backings, adhesives, and wallpaper and in PVC products such as auto parts and interiors (ATSDR 1995, 2000).
Because phthalates may be used in a variety of medications, a complete record of all medications used and the date the prescription was filled are needed to begin to describe human exposure.
www.ehponline.org /members/2004/6804/6804.html   (2708 words)

 The Phthalate Esters Panel responds to claims about the health effects of phthalates
To the contrary, a recent preliminary study on teenagers, who probably had received higher-than-average amounts of the phthalate DEHP when infants, found sex hormone levels and reproductive organ size in males to be normal.
The levels of phthalates found in the subjects in the three studies were not unusually high.
The Phthalate Esters Panel of the American Chemistry Council is composed of all major manufacturers and some users of the primary phthalate esters in commerce in the United States.
www.news-medical.net /print_article.asp?id=2799   (1033 words)

 HCWH | HCWH in the News | FDA Scrutinizing Family of Chemicals; Phthalates, in Items from Health Aids to Pesticides, ...
Phthalates have been used for decades to soften polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, and plastics and to fulfill other roles in a variety of consumer products, from hairsprays to pesticides.
Last year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that phthalates were almost ubiquitous in the blood and urine of 1,029 adults and children who participated in a national exposure survey.
Noting that millions of tons of phthalates are produced annually, the report faults the FDA and other federal agencies for taking a shortsighted approach to chemical regulation, treating each exposure as a singular event.
www.noharm.org /details.cfm?type=news&ID=21   (1177 words)

 Male Reproductive Development Affected by Common Man-Made Chemical, Phthalates
Phthalates are also found in soft vinyl plastic toys, medical tubing and fluid bags, and a variety of cosmetics such as perfume, lotion, shampoo, make-up, nail polish, and hairspray.
Higher levels of four phthalate metabolites (mono-ethyl phthalate [MEP], mono-n-butyl phthalate [MBP], mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP], and mono-isobutyl phthalate [MiBP]) were found to correlate with a higher-than-expected number of abnormalities in genital development including smaller anogenital distance, scrotum, and penis, and an increased likelihood of undescended testicles.
The study also noted that the median concentration of phthalate metabolites associated with adverse male genital development was below the levels found in one in four women in the United States, based on a nationwide sample.
www.medicalnewstoday.com /medicalnews.php?newsid=25230   (605 words)

 US FDA/CFSAN - Cosmetics - Phthalates and Cosmetic Products
Phthalates are a group of chemicals used in hundreds of products, such as toys, vinyl flooring and wall covering, detergents, lubricating oils, food packaging, pharmaceuticals, blood bags and tubing, and personal care products, such as nail polish, hair sprays, soaps, and shampoos.
The panel concluded that exposures to phthalates from cosmetics are low compared to levels that would cause adverse effects in animals.
While the CDC report noted elevated levels of phthalates excreted by women of child-bearing age, neither it nor the other data reviewed by FDA established an association between the use of phthalates in cosmetic products and a health risk. As a result, FDA determined that there was insufficient evidence upon which to take regulatory action.
www.cfsan.fda.gov /~dms/cos-phth.html   (628 words)

 CHEC Chemical Summary: phthalates
Phthalates are a class of chemicals used as softeners, or plasticizers, in polyvinyl chloride (PVC, vinyl) products, including children’s toys, decorating and building products, and blood bags, and solvents and other additives in a wide range of consumer products, including cosmetics, personal care products, wood finishes and insecticides.
In laboratory animals, exposure to some phthalates prior to or after birth caused damaged, shrunken, undescended, or atrophied testicles; reduced sperm production; destruction of Sertoli cells, which produce sperm; and lowered testosterone levels in offspring.
However, the World Health Organization considers the two phthalates to be “not classifiable” as to their carcinogenicity to humans.
www.checnet.org /healthehouse/chemicals/chemicals-detail.asp?Main_ID=281   (517 words)

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