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Topic: Phylloquinone

  Phylloquinone Day-Spas.org
Phylloquinone refers to a branch of Vitamin K which is a fat-soluble vitamin required for the normal clotting of the blood.
Vitamin K is found in two forms in nature: Phylloquinone or Vitamin K1 which is found in plants and Menaquinone or Vitamin K2 which can be synthesized by many bacteria.
Phylloquinone is present in a number of dietary sources that includes: green leafy vegetables such as spinach; green tea; cabbage; turnip greens; brussels sprouts; alfafa; eggs; soybean oil; canola oil; olive oil; soybeans; cheddar cheese; oats; cauliflower; asparagus; coffee; cow milk; and bacon.
www.day-spas.org /juniper-berries/phylloquinone.html   (538 words)

 PubMed medline query
To determine the influence of vitamin E on phylloquinone activity, one day-old chicks were raised on a masch diet supplemented with different amounts of vitamin E for 31 days.
In chicks fed a diet high in vitamin E (4000 mg allrac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg) but adequate in vitamin K (0.14 mg phylloquinone/kg) a threefold increase in prothrombin time and an increase in mortality rate (five out of twelve animals died from increased bleeding tendency) was observed.
Plasma and liver alpha-tocopherol levels correlated with dietary amounts of vitamin E. Increased phylloquinone levels in the diet did not significantly influence alpha-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and liver, but coagulopathy caused by high vitamin E intake could be reversed.
www.uni-hohenheim.de /~wwwin140/MITARB/frank/Orig6.html   (185 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, Vitamin Tolerance of Animals (1987)
Because of the expense of phylloquinone, var- ious water-soluble forms of menadione are the predominant sources used.
The metabolism of radioac- tive phylloquinone has now been studied in both the rat and in humans, and the glycones of the 5- and 7-carbon side chain carboxylic acid derivatives appear to be ma- jor excretion products.
Isolation and characterization of a new metabolite of phylloquinone in the rat.
www.nap.edu /books/030903728X/html/31.html   (2618 words)

 vitamin K
Subsequent works by Dam, rewarded with the Nobel prize for medicine in 1943 "for his discovery of vitamin K", with Doisy "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K", led to the characterization of the molecule he termed vitamin K (Koagulationsvitamin).
Vitamin K1 was named phylloquinone since it is an indirect product of photosynthesis in plant leaves where it occurs in chloroplasts and participates in the overall photosynthetic process.
It has the same physiological activity in vivo as phylloquinone by alkylation in position 2 with an isoprenoid chain in the liver.
www.cyberlipid.org /vitk/vitk0001.htm   (779 words)

 Nutrition Research Newsletter: Hydrogenating vitamin K-rich oils negatively impacts bone health - Nutrition and Bone ...
Phylloquinone (vitamin [K.sub.1]) is the primary dietary form of vitamin K and is abundantly found in green, leafy vegetables and certain plant oils, such as soybean and canola.
Plasma phylloquinone, serum total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time were assessed for all days on which blood samples were collected.
When compared with phylloquinone, dihyrophylloquinone was less absorbed and had no measurable biological effect on the measures of bone formation and resorption.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0887/is_1_21/ai_82605321   (687 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, ...
Phylloquinone, the plant form of the vitamin, contains a phytyl group; “long chain” menaquinones (MK-n), produced by bacteria in the lower bowel, contain a polyisoprenyl side chain with 6 to 13 isoprenyl units at the 3-position (Suttie, 1992).
Physiology of Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion Phylloquinone, the major form of vitamin K in the diet, is absorbed in the jejunum and ileum in a process that is dependent on the normal flow of bile and pancreatic juice and is enhanced by dietary fat (Shearer et al., 1974).
Plasma and Serum Phylloquinone Concentration Both phylloquinone and the menaquinones have been used to assess status, with phylloquinone as the vitamer usually studied because it is the primary source of dietary vitamin K in western countries (Booth and Suttie, 1998).
www.nap.edu /books/0309072794/html/162.html   (8306 words)

 Chapter 10. Vitamin K
Once in the circulation, phylloquinone is rapidly cleared (10) at a rate consistent with its continuing association with chylomicrons and the chylomicron remnants which are produced by lipoprotein lipase hydrolysis at the surface of capillary endothelial cells (13).
Phylloquinone is the major circulating form of vitamin K but MK-7 is present in plasma at lower concentrations and has a lipoprotein distribution similar to phylloquinone (13).
Although phylloquinone in blood must have been derived exclusively from the diet, it is not known whether circulating menaquinones such as MK-7 are derived from the diet, intestinal flora, or a combination of these sources.
www.fao.org /DOCREP/004/Y2809E/y2809e0g.htm   (7544 words)

 THE MERCK MANUAL, Sec. 1, Ch. 3, Vitamin Deficiency, Dependency, And Toxicity
(phylloquinone) has a phytyl side chain in position 3 and is the only homologue of vitamin K found in plants.
The low phylloquinone content in breast milk is not due to deficient consumption and cannot be restored by eating fresh green leafy vegetables daily.
Phylloquinone is the preparation of choice and is marketed under the generic name of phytonadione.
www.merck.com /pubs/mmanual/section1/chapter3/3h.htm   (1279 words)

 Vitamin K
Phylloquinone is found in some oils, especially soybean oil, and in dark-green vegetables such as spinach and broccoli.
Randomized phylloquinone supplementation trials are needed to further understand the potential benefits of phylloquinone on bone acquisition in growing children.
Dietary phylloquinone intake as a potential marker for a heart-healthy dietary pattern in the Framingham Offspring cohort.
www.modern-psychiatry.com /vitamin_k.htm   (5193 words)

 ARS | Publication request: Feasiblity of Using Deuterium-Labeled Collard Greens for the Study of Vitamin K Absorption ...
A single bolus of 100 g (396±28 µg phylloquinone) of deuterium-labeled collard greens was fed with a breakfast containing 24 g fat to five healthy men [(mean±SD) 50±23 y, body mass index 25.5±2.8 kg/m2].
Phylloquinone concentrations in plasma and lipoprotein subfractions were measured using HPLC, and the ion abundances of deuterated and endogenous phylloquinone were determined using GC/MS.
Maximum enrichment of plasma and TRL phylloquinone with deuterium (88% and 89%, respectively) was reached at 6 h and the enrichment reduced to 50% and 69%, respectively, at 24 h (n=3).
ars.usda.gov /research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=147369   (480 words)

Williams R. Mieli-Vergani G. Intestinal absorption of mixed micellar phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is unreliable in infants with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia: implications for oral prophylaxis of vitamin K deficiency bleeding Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 2003; 88(2):113-8.
The uptake of lipoprotein-borne phylloquinone (vitamin K1) by osteoblasts and osteoblast-like cells: role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans and apolipoprotein E. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2002; 17(3):426-33.
Kohlmeier M. Phylloquinone transport and its influence on gamma-carboxyglutamate residues of osteocalcin in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.
www.hospital.org.uk /page1568.htm   (2199 words)

 Vitamin K substances   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Phylloquinone and menaquinones are absorbed from food into the lymphatic system and carried by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the blood.
Phylloquinone is rapidly cleared from the circulation by the liver, metabolized to metabolites with shortened side-chains and excreted in the bile and urine.
Phylloquinone rarely has toxic effects, and the few serious immunological complications observed have been attributed to the vehicle of solubilization.
monographs.iarc.fr /htdocs/monographs/vol76/vitamink.html   (525 words)

 A description of Vitamin K as a component in AMG Laboratories™ Multiple Sclerosis treatment products
A recommended range of total intake for infants is 5 µg of phylloquinone or menaquinone per day during the first 6 months and 10 µg during the second 6 months.
Phylloquinone is the preferred form of the vitamin for clinical use.
It is used for intravenous and intramuscular injections as a colloidal suspension, emulsion or aqueous suspension and as a tablet for oral use.
www.amgnetwork.com /ms/vit-k.htm   (1183 words)

 Phylloquinone Information and Resources Online at The Drug Database - Find Useful Articles and Websites on ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is the primary dietary form of vitamin K found in green, leafy...
A high phylloquinone intake is required to achieve maximal...
Phylloquinone and ten menaquinones (MK-1MK-10) were measured in liver and eight...
www.thedrugdatabase.com /directory/P/Phylloquinone   (353 words)

 VitaK Inc: About Vitamin K   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Phylloquinone (also known as vitamin K1) invariably contains in its side chain four isoprenid residues one of which is unsaturated.
Phylloquinone has a phytyl side chain, whereas in menaquinone the side chain is composed of a varying number of isoprenoid residues.
Human volunteer studies have shown that the absorption of phylloquinone from vegetables is low (between 3 and 10%), and depends on the concomitant fat intake.
www.vitak.com /about.htm   (2786 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The plasma transport of stable isotope-labeled phylloquinone at physiologic doses from food was studied.
A single bolus of 100 g (396 +/- 28 microg phylloquinone) deuterium-labeled collard greens was fed with a breakfast containing 24 g fat to 5 men (26 to 71 years).
Phylloquinone concentrations in plasma and lipoprotein subfractions were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the ion abundances of deuterated and endogenous phylloquinone were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).
www.find-health-articles.com /article-14767874-plasma-transport-vitamin-k-deuterium-labeled-collard-greens.htm   (413 words)

 Blood VITAMIN K Newborn
Phylloquinone (2-Me-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) from plants and a series of bacterial menaquinones (2-Me-3-polyisoprenyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone) are natural forms.
Excellent sources of phylloquinone in the diet are dark green vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, and kale.
Large amounts of phylloquinone can be consumed over extended periods with no toxic effects.
www.eagle-min.com /faq/faq113.htm   (400 words)

 Dietary Intake and Adequacy of Vitamin K1 -- Booth and Suttie 128 (5): 785 -- Journal of Nutrition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Structures of important forms of vitamin K. Phylloquinone (I), 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone is produced by plants.
absorption of phylloquinone in spinach was observed by Garber
of dietary phylloquinone to tissue menaquinone-4 in rats is not
www.nutrition.org /cgi/content/full/128/5/785   (3445 words)

 46F-14 Phylloquinone (Vitamin K) content of vegetables and vegetable products   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Phylloquinone was determined by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection.
The values on the phylloquinone content of vegetables, and those for other foods, will be added to USDA Databases.
These values will enable investigators to monitor dietary intakes of phylloquinones and for the first time to assess the impact of vitamin K intake on specific health conditions.
ift.confex.com /ift/2002/techprogram/paper_11731.htm   (332 words)

 HDCN: Review of article by Kohlmeier et al. Bone health of adult hemodialysis patients is related to vitamin ...
The authors studied the incidence of fracture and prevalence of hyperparathyroidism in a group of hemodialysis patients as a function of serum phylloquinone concentrations.
They found that the patients who fractured had significantly lower phylloquinone levels than those that did not fracture and that the degree of hyperparathyroidism was inversely correlated to the serum phylloquinone concentration.
A single determination of phylloquinone can not be used to establish a relationship between vitamin K status and long term bone disease or the incidence of fractures.
www.hdcn.com /7/704kikoh.htm   (363 words)

 Vitamin K: Another Reason To Eat Your Greens
Phylloquinone, the most common form of vitamin K, was the researchers' benchmark for vitamin K intake.
Booth says that as much as 30 percent of total vitamin K intake may come in the form of dihydrophylloquinone, but it is less biologically active than phylloquinone.
This increased their phylloquinone intake to around 400 µg/day—five to six times the RDA.
ars.usda.gov /is/AR/archive/jan00/green0100.htm?pf=1   (977 words)

 25th National Nutrient Databank Conference - Abstracts
Phylloquinone is the predominant dietary source of vitamin K in the US diet and is found primarily in green leafy vegetables, followed by plant oils.
Among the plant oils, the highest concentrations of phylloquinone are found in canola, soybean and olive oils.
Thus foods that are generally considered poor sources of phylloquinone, such as meat and root vegetables, may in fact be moderate sources based on the addition of these oils in cooking.
www.nal.usda.gov /fnic/foodcomp/conf/NDBC25/ndbc25_abs.html   (2074 words)

 Vitamin K, Linus Pauling Institute's Micronutrient Information Center
Coagulation refers to blood clotting, because vitamin K is essential for the functioning of several proteins involved in blood clotting (1).
A meta-analysis of the results of 11 published studies found that oral anticoagulation therapy was associated with a very modest reduction in bone density at the wrist, and no change in bone density at the hip or spine (28).
In Japan, intervention trials in hemodialysis patients and osteoporotic women using very high pharmacologic doses (45 mg/day) of menatetrenone (MK-4) have reported significant reductions in the rate of bone loss (29, 30).
lpi.oregonstate.edu /infocenter/vitamins/vitaminK   (3039 words)

 vitamin K2 as a life extender?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Activation of these proteins via carboxylation depends on the availability of vitamin K. We examined whether dietary intake of phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) and menaquinone (vitamin K-2) were related to aortic calcification and coronary heart disease (CHD) in the population-based Rotterdam Study.
Phylloquinone intake was not related to any of the outcomes.
These findings suggest that an adequate intake of menaquinone could be important for CHD prevention.
www.cryonet.org /cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=25536   (490 words)

 Comparison of Phylloquinone Bioavailability from Food Sources or a Supplement in Human Subjects -- Garber et al. 129 ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Phylloquinone (K) absorption was assessed in 22- to 30-y-old
phylloquinone from a tablet was rapid and resulted in peak concentrations
Serum phylloquinone concentrations in human subjects after ingestion of a 500-µg phylloquinone tablet, or 495 µg phylloquinone as raw spinach.
www.nutrition.org /cgi/content/full/129/6/1201   (2056 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition (1989)
Serum phylloquinone values decreased during this period, but prothrombin time remained in what was considered the normal range.
By the end of the period of vitamin K restriction, however, there was a significant increase in the ratio of abnormal prothrombin to active prothrombin.
The supplement of 50 µg of phylloquinone did not raise plasma phylloquinone levels to prerestriction levels, although the 500 µg supplement was effective in raising serum phylloquinone levels to about double normal values.
www.nap.edu /books/0309046335/html/110.html   (626 words)

 ARS | Publication request: Appearance of Labeled Beta-Carotene, Lutein, Retinol, and Phylloquinone in Plasma after ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Technical Abstract: To investigate the bioavailability of nutrients from a green, leafy vegetable, isotopically-labeled kale was produced and used in a human feeding trial.
Peak concentrations (mean+/-SD) of labeled analytes were found to be as follows: 0.063+/-0.031 micromolar for beta-carotene, 0.077+/-0.029 micromolar for retinol, 0.39+/-0.08 micromolar for lutein, and 1.55+/-0.76 nanomolar for phylloquinone.
The inter-individual variability in area under the plasma analyte concentration-time curves were as follows: 41% for beta-carotene, 37% for lutein, 30% for retinol, 67% for phylloquinone.
www.ars.usda.gov /research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=161794   (309 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, ...
In this study, phylloquinone absorption from fresh spinach, broccoli, or romaine lettuce did not differ and was highly variable between subjects.
It is apparent from these limited studies that until more data are available, the bioavailability of phylloquinone from vegetable sources should not be considered to be more than 20 percent as available as phylloquinone consumed as a supplement.
Although direct measures of bioavailabilty have not been reported, a recent study reported no difference in fasting plasma phylloquinone concentrations when 400 μg of phylloquinone as broccoli or as phylloquinone-fortified oil was added to a diet containing 100 μg of phylloquinone (Booth et al., 1999a).
www.nap.edu /books/0309072794/html/174.html   (923 words)

 A high phylloquinone intake is required to achieve maximal osteocalcin {gamma}-carboxylation -- Binkley et al. 76 (5): ...
A high phylloquinone intake is required to achieve maximal osteocalcin {gamma}-carboxylation -- Binkley et al.
Mean percentage of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) in subjects in substudy A after incremental phylloquinone doses of 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 µg/d.
Food sources and dietary intakes of vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone) in the American diet: data from the FDA total diet study.
www.ajcn.org /cgi/content/full/76/5/1055   (3058 words)

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