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Topic: Phylogeny


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In the News (Mon 25 Mar 19)

  
  Taxonomy and Phylogeny - EvoWiki
Phylogenies are established by what distinctive features their members share to the exclusion of more distantly related organisms.
One constructs phylogenies with this technique by trying to find the family tree that involves the fewest feature changes (steps), and thus the smallest amount of convergent evolution.
Related to this conundrum is organisms that have performed much lateral gene transfer, and sometimes even lateral genome transfer (endosymbiosis), as many one-celled organisms have done.
wiki.cotch.net /index.php/Phylogeny   (0 words)

  
  Phylogeny
Phylogenies are now becoming applied to more and more areas of biology, including such diverse topics as community ecology, molecular studies of development, functional anatomy, and population genetics.
Phylogenies are also being applied to very practical questions, such as identifying new diseases and their sources of transmission to humans.
Anthony Bledsoe focuses on the use of cladistic analysis to infer the phylogeny of two important groups of Neotropical passerine birds -- the ovenbirds (Furnariinae) and the tapaculos (Rhinocryptidae) -- based on a combination of myological, molecular, and behavioral data.
www.pitt.edu /~biohome/Dept/Frame/phylogeny.htm   (318 words)

  
 CiteULike: Tag phylogeny   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Autochthonous eukaryotic diversity in hydrothermal sediment and experimental microcolonizers at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Ebriid phylogeny and the expansion of the Cercozoa.
Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa
www.citeulike.org /tag/phylogeny   (1016 words)

  
 Phylogeny of the family Cichlidae
There is presently no well-supported comprehensive phylogeny for the Heroini tribe, but only old ones based largely on trophic morphology which is a bad character for this group due to their well documented morphological plasticity.
Phylogenies for the group based on molecular characters are partial and not comprehensive, usually part of a phylogeny of larger groups of cichlids or of Cichlidae in general.
Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of the family cichlidae: monophyly and fast molecular evolution of the Neotropical assemblage.
golab.unl.edu /projects/Cichlidae   (1488 words)

  
 A Comparison of Actual and Inferred Phylogeny
Since the actual phylogeny of the organisms being classified is almost always unknown (and probably unknowable); several techniques have been used to validate the inferred phylogeny.
The reconstruction of the phylogeny of the genus
The inferred phylogeny is mounted on the left side and rooted on the left.
home.earthlink.net /~colobus/aaas   (3157 words)

  
 COMPARISONS, HOMOLOGY AND PHYLOGENY OF VERTEBRATES
Phylogeny is not th e same as evolution, but is the result of the evolution of organisms.
The confidence in a particular phylogeny depends upon the types of observations used in the attempts to disprove it as well as the continu ed failure to disprove the phylogeny.
This is a phylogenetic definition of homology and is strictly noncircular in that homology is defined in terms of phylogeny and phylogeny is defined in terms of evolution.
www.columbia.edu /cu/biology/courses/w3002/vertebrate.html   (12205 words)

  
 Phylogeny
An accurate phylogeny for nematodes including their relationship to other animals has major consequences for our understanding of how diversity has evolved in morphology, genes, developmental mechanisms, behavior, and life history, but also for studies of comparative functional genomics.
We need species phylogenies to allow discrimination between orthologues and paralogues in gene phylogenies.Discriminating orthologues from paralogues enables us to make predictions about the functions of genes in a genome for which there is little or no experimental data.
Note that in detail, the phylogeny of this group, and its relationship to other groups, are likely to show much greater paraphyly than was recognized even in the phylogeny of De Ley and Blaxter (in De Ley and Blaxter, 2002).
www.wormatlas.org /handbook/phylogeny/phylogeny.htm   (0 words)

  
 G307.NOTES.CH3
The key to understanding the evolution and diversity of the dinosaurs is to determine their phylogeny (how they are related to each other and to the rest of the biota).
We use phylogeny (Greek: phylum = tribe, genos = birth or origin) to show relationships of ancestors to descendants, therefore, phylogeny explains the history of descent of organisms.
Based on the phenetic phylogeny (as discussed above), a stratophenetic phylogeny assumes that the evolutionary changes between ancestor and descendent is not so great as to seem implausible during the time interval between ancestor and descendent.
www.wvup.edu /ecrisp/lec4phylogeny.htm   (2988 words)

  
 Molecular Phylogeny
In addition, sequence length is a limiting factor, in that the average gene (coding) or protein sequence (~1,000 nucleotides, ~350 amino acids) is usually not long enough to yield a robust phylogeny or time estimate, and therefore many genes and proteins must be used" (Hedges 2002, p.
In many cases, phylogenies based on molecules are found to be robust and they are reinforced by subsequently discovered morphological or behavioural data.
"The horizontal transfer of genes is often difficult to confirm by phylogeny alone because the short length of typical proteins (~300 residues) usually precludes the construction of a robust tree, and different methods of detection do not always agree.
www.peripatus.gen.nz /Biology/MolPhy.html   (2652 words)

  
 BioMed Central | Full text | The phylogeny of the social wasp subfamily Polistinae: evidence from microsatellite ...
The best estimator for a species phylogeny might therefore not necessarily depend on the sole use of one set of characters (morphological or molecular), but on a combination of different characters that can prove to be a better estimator of species trees [8,13,21-24].
The combined character phylogeny is partly congruent with the earlier phylogeny proposed by Carpenter in 1996, though there are some differences (Figure 7).
The combined character phylogeny is largely congruent with the earlier phylogeny proposed by Carpenter in 1991 (Figure 8).
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2148/4/8   (5428 words)

  
 Cichlid Research Home Page: Phylogeny
A phylogeny is an expression of the evolutionary relationships of a group of animals.
The purpose of a phylogeny is to illustrate which taxa (e.g., species, genera, etc) are most closely related to which other ones, and also, to illustrate the evidence that we have to support that relationship.
An important point to remember is that there is a SINGLE, TRUE phylogeny, i.e., there was a particular path which evolution took leading to the current diversity of organisms inhabiting the earth.
cichlidresearch.com /phylogeny.html   (1552 words)

  
 Phylogeny Programs
TreeIllustrator (16 June 2007) draws large trees and compares with a known phylogeny.
Note, however, that inferring phylogenies and making clusters are different tasks; the software described on that list will be of most use to people who are trying to cluster or classify but not as much for inferring phylogenies.
The phylogeny programs listings there are located within the categories for different operating systems.
evolution.genetics.washington.edu /phylip/software.html   (2327 words)

  
 phylogeny - Search Results - MSN Encarta
definition, theory that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, use in classification of species
The development of the field of molecular phylogeny in the 1970s changed our view of bacteria.
Part of the attraction of Darwin's work for Haeckel lay in its philosophical implications.
encarta.msn.com /phylogeny.html   (98 words)

  
 Bee Phylogeny
There are over 16,000 described species of bees and we are just beginning to understand the basal phylogeny of the bees, their historical biogeography, and the antiquity of bees.
This web site is meant to be a primer for anyone interested in understanding more about higher-level bee phylogeny (phylogeny at the level of genus, tribe, subfamily and family).
Phylogeny and molecular systematics of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).
www.entomology.cornell.edu /BeePhylogeny   (0 words)

  
 Phylogeny | World of Microbiology and Immunology
Phylogeny is the inferred evolutionary history of a group of organisms (including microorganisms).
A phylogeny is usually represented as a phylogenetic tree or cladogram, which are like genealogies of species.
Not only is phylogeny important for understanding paleontology (study of fossils), however, paleontology in turn contributes to phylogeny.
www.bookrags.com /research/phylogeny-wmi   (1015 words)

  
 Evolution - A-Z - Phylogeny   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Phylogenetic relations have to be inferred using homologies because the splitting events and common ancestors existed in the past and cannot be directly observed.
Species are arranged in a phylogeny such that the smallest number of evolutionary changes is required.
Distance (or similarity.) Species are arranged in a phylogeny such that each species is grouped with the other species that it shares the most characters with.
www.blackwellpublishing.com /ridley/a-z/Phylogeny.asp   (137 words)

  
 Biology 120 Phylogeny Exercise
Phylogenies are typically diagrammed as trees; the shape of these trees can vary, but all can be interpreted as follows.
The phylogenies they present provide a way of studying whether phylogenies based on different kinds of character agree with each other, and how studying more than one character can help resolve some difficulties present if only one kind of character is studied.
Phylogenies presented at the UCMP are based on analysis of DNA, the genetic material.
www.utm.edu /departments/cens/biology/rirwin/120/b120lab.htm   (2407 words)

  
 Molecular phylogeny
Molecular phylogeny employs nucleotide sequences (or some character depending on sequences) from several organisms to compute the tree requiring the fewest of steps.
Evolution required molecular phylogeny to be consistent with classical phylogeny.
In all respects molecular phylogeny amply confirmed the theory of evolution.
www.geocities.com /lclane2/phylo.html   (279 words)

  
 Phylogeny bibliography
Camp, C. L., and Smith, N., 1942, Phylogeny and function of the digital ligaments of the horse: Memoirs of the University of California, Berkeley, v.
Southward, E. C., 1975, Fine structure and phylogeny of the Pogonomorpha: Symposium of the Zoological Society, London, v.
Willner, E. N., 1975, The possible contribution of nemertines to the problem of the phylogeny of the protochordates: Symposium of the Zoological Society, London, v.
www.talkorigins.org /origins/biblio/phylogeny.html   (559 words)

  
 Introduction to Phylogeny
The context of evolutionary biology is phylogeny, the connections between all groups of organisms as understood by ancestor/descendant relationships.
Not only is phylogeny important for understanding paleontology, but paleontology in turn contributes to phylogeny.
UCMP's exhibit on the phylogeny of life explores the history and diversity of life on earth.
www.ucmp.berkeley.edu /exhibit/introphylo.html   (0 words)

  
 Phylogeny of Therevidae
Although the family Therevidae occupies only a relatively small portion of that tree, our study of the family combines revisionary taxonomic work with morphological and molecular phylogenetic data collection to assess relationships within the family, and among its closest relatives.
Find out what phylogeny is and something about the world of phylogenetic systematics.
Yeates, D.K. and Wiegmann, B.M. Congruence and controversy: toward a higher-level phylogeny of the Diptera.
www.inhs.uiuc.edu /cee/therevid/phylogeny.html   (208 words)

  
 Deep Green - Green Plant Phylogeny Research Coordination Group
An improved understanding of their phylogeny will not only allow the intellectual satisfaction of discovering the "roots" of this major component of the world's biotic diversity, but will have important practical benefits as well.
A well-supported and detailed phylogenetic framework is critical to the solution of major open questions such as the evolutionary origin of multicellularity, diversification of life-history strategies, the conquest of land, the nature of the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny, and modes of evolution at the molecular level.
Addressing a phylogenetic study of this enormous scale has also necessitated improvements in data handling and analysis that have broad applicability to phylogenetic studies of other organisms.
ucjeps.berkeley.edu /bryolab/GPphylo   (281 words)

  
 Amazon.ca: Ontogeny and Phylogeny: Books: Stephen Jay Gould   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Ontogeny and Phylogeny by Stephen Jay Gould is an enlightening book filled with facts, history, knowledge, science, sociology, biology and mixed with this is the Gould Factor.
The same has to be said about Ontogeny and Phylogeny, as the development of the individual leads to the development of the whole (type).
The illustrative bits of science follow as he discusses heterochrony and paedomophosis, showing how phylogeny relates to ontogeny, which I will grossly oversimplify: ontogeny selectively draws from phylogeny with occasional complete departures that may or may not be helpful (which is also true of the retained bits of phylogeny).
www.amazon.ca /Ontogeny-Phylogeny-Stephen-Jay-Gould/dp/0674639413   (1862 words)

  
 Tree of Life: What is Phylogeny
Evidence from morphological, biochemical, and gene sequence data suggests that all organisms on Earth are genetically related, and the genealogical relationships of living things can be represented by a vast evolutionary tree, the Tree of Life.
New lineages generally retain many of their ancestral features, which are then gradually modified and supplemented with novel traits that help them to better adjust to the environment they live in.
The Tree of Life thus provides a rigorous framework to guide research in all biological subdisciplines, and it is therefore an ideal model for the organization of biological knowledge.
tolweb.org /tree/learn/concepts/whatisphylogeny.html   (0 words)

  
 Ontogeny and Phylogeny (Stephen Jay Gould) - review
Ontogeny and Phylogeny is a rather different kind of book (it has more in common with Time's Arrow, Time's Cycle than the essays), but it still has the characteristic Gould feel to it.
The idea that the development of individuals is a progression through adult ancestral forms, epitomised in the saying "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny", has played an important part in the history of biology.
Since the rejection of recapitulationist ideas in the early part of this century, however, the study of links between development and evolution has been relatively neglected.
www.dannyreviews.com /h/Ontogeny_and_Phylogeny.html   (491 words)

  
 Phylogeny
The final goal of such an analysis is to prepare an evolutionary tree describing the relationship of the various taxa with respect to each other.
Most methods for the inference of phylogeny yield trees that are unrooted.
To find out what is the difference between Cladistics and Phenetics and to read about the differences between the various phylogeny inference methods, click here.
www.icp.ucl.ac.be /~opperd/private/phylogeny.html   (1346 words)

  
 Tephritidae phylogeny
Although much remains unknown about fruit fly phylogeny, many groups of Tephritidae have been analyzed to at least some degree, especially during the past decade, when rigorous cladistic studies and molecular methods were first utilized within the family.
Relationships among the subfamilies and tribes of Tephritidae were analyzed by Korneyev (1999b,c) based on morphology, and by Han and McPheron (1994, 1997, 1999) based on DNA sequence analysis.
Hancock (1986) also proposed a phylogeny that included most tribes of Trypetinae and Phytalmiinae, but some of the lower clades are not supported by apomorphic characters.
www.sel.barc.usda.gov /Diptera/tephriti/TephPhyl.htm   (2661 words)

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