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Topic: Picocuries Per Liter


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In the News (Sat 19 Apr 14)

  
  Welcome to Upper Saucon Township
Parts per trillion (ppt) or Nanograms per liter (nanograms/l) - one part per trillion corresponds to one minute in 2,000,000 years, or a single penny in $10,000,000,000.
Parts per quadrillion (ppq) or Picograms per liter (picograms/l) - one part per quadrillion corresponds to one minute in 2,000,000,000 years or one penny in $10,000,000,000,000.
Picocuries per liter (pCi/L) - Picocuries per liter is a measure of the radioactivity in water.
www.uppersaucon.org /99water.html   (1135 words)

  
 Hydrogeology and Hydrology Program: Radium in ground water
This study was a follow-up to a 1997 pilot study of carcinogens in well water in Anne Arundel County, in which radium-226 plus radium-228 concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level of 5 picocuries per liter in 15 of the 20 wells sampled in the Magothy and Patapsco Formations.
Radium-226 plus radium-228 concentrations exceeded 5 picocuries per liter in 60 of 122 samples (49 percent) from wells in the Magothy, Patapsco, and Patuxent Formations in central and northern Anne Arundel County.
Ground-water radium, gross alpha-particle activity, and gross beta-particle activity were highest in the outcrop and updip areas of the Magothy Formation and the Potomac Group, where the aquifers are generally unconfined; radionuclide concentrations tended to be lower in the deeper, confined parts of these aquifers.
www.mgs.md.gov /hydro/radindex.html   (652 words)

  
 [No title]
Likewise, "millirems per hour" is a dose rate, or the amount of radiation energy deposited in a one hour period of time.
A picocurie is one trillionth of a curie.
It may also contain between 100 and 400 picocuries per liter of radioactive hydrogen, between 100 and 500 picocuries per liter of radioactive carbon, between 10 and 30 picocuries per liter of radioactive beryllium.
www.iem-inc.com /primrite.html   (2092 words)

  
 CCR Definitions - Texas Commission on Environmental Quality - www.tceq.state.tx.us   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
fibers per liter - the number of fibers found in one liter of water and is the unit of measurement for asbestos.
MFL is the abbreviation for million fibers per liter.
A pCi/l is equivalent to two atoms disintegrating per minute per liter.
www.tceq.state.tx.us /permitting/water_supply/pdw/ccr/ccr_definitions.html   (1780 words)

  
 Tritium plume appears benign
In 1999 and early 2000, technicians discovered a previously unsuspected concentration of 8 million picocuries of tritium per liter of ground water in a well just east of 618-11's fence.
The plume's highest tritium concentration recorded was 5.29 million picocuries per liter.
The report concluded the most likely travel time would be 70 to 80 years, and by then a benign concentration of 5,500 picocuries per liter would reach the Columbia.
www.tri-cityherald.com /news/2002/0302/story5.html   (425 words)

  
 Press Release
The average radon count was 6,099 picocuries per liter.
A picocurie, the unit of measure for radon, represents the natural decay of 2.2 radon gas atoms per minute in a liter of air.
In the meantime, Spruill is spending his time attempting to find a viable and affordable means of removing radon from the water that will enable these homeowners to continue using their wells.One technique, which employs the use of an air compressor, is proving successful.
www.ecu.edu /cs-lib/archives/pr_display.cfm?RenderForPrint=1&id=362   (1203 words)

  
 Lake Country Reporter
Hafner said radium levels cannot exceed 5 picocuries per liter, according to federal environmental protection standards that are enforced by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Hafner said the federal agency reduced from 20 picocuries per liter to five picocuries per liter the allowable levels of radium in drinking water.
He said if the levels are too high at the end of the year, the city might decide to dig a shallow well that will be connected to a reservoir so the water from the deep and shallow wells can be blended.
www.zwire.com /site/news.cfm?newsid=13135827&BRD=1399&PAG=461&dept_id=173065&rfi=6   (473 words)

  
 IEER Report | Bad to the Bone
By this standard, the 15 picocuries per liter limit for transuranic radionuclides is obsolete, not protective of public health, against the spirit of the Safe Drinking Water Act, and, as shown above, not in accord with the intent of the initial regulation.
The error at 0.01 picocuries per liter, the recommended detection limit, is estimated by Argonne National Laboratory to be 10 percent.
The limit of 30 micrograms per liter of uranium is set on the basis of heavy metal toxicity.
www.ieer.org /reports/badtothebone/III.html   (1504 words)

  
 Radon-222 Concentrations in Ground Water and Soil Gas on Indian Reservations in Wisconsin
Radon-222 concentrations in 29 ground-water samples collected from the sand and gravel and sedimentary and crystalline bedrock aquifers range from 260 to 22,000 picocuries per liter with a median concentration of 560 picocuries per liter.
Radon-222 concentrations in soil gas range from 130 to 7,810 picocuries per liter with a median concentration of 560 picocuries per liter.
The coefficient of determination of the regression of radon-222 in ground water and soil gas is 0.19 and the root mean square error of the regression line is 271 picocuries per liter.
wi.water.usgs.gov /pubs/WRIR-95-4088/index.html   (2768 words)

  
 Radium Levels & Drinking Water   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
The reported concentration of 6.4 picocuries per liter is most likely for the radionuclide radium-226 (226Ra).
The reported concentration of 6.4 picocuries per liter for 226Ra in your water is less than the concentrations found in many other drinking water supplies in the United States.
Please be assured that I would not be concerned about drinking water containing 226Ra at 6.4 picocuries per liter or would I have any concern for my family to drink such water.
www.plainfield-il.org /ht_waterquestion.htm   (527 words)

  
 t-TEST OF HYPOTHESIS ABOUT mu
The EPA has issued a regulation that sets the maximum level for naturally occurring radiation in drinking water at 5 picocuries per liter.
To see if a city’s water supply is safe, a random sample of 16 water specimens is selected, and the radiation in each specimen is measured in picocuries per liter.
Interpretation: Testing at the.01 level of significance there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the mean level of radiation is less than 5 picocuries per liter.
www.nku.edu /~statistics/t_Test_of_Hypothesis_about_mu.htm   (154 words)

  
 Chapter
A level of four picocuries per liter (pCi/L) of air has been identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the level at which remedial action should be taken.
A picocurie is a very small amount of radioactivity equal to one quintillionth (1/1018) of an ounce of radon.
In studies of uranium miners, workers exposed to radon levels of 50 to 150 picocuries of radon per liter of air for about 10 years have shown an increased frequency of lung cancer.
www.wlwv.k12.or.us /DistrictDepts/Operations/sf_dsrctSafety/CRESTMANUAL/Ch4Radon.htm   (16121 words)

  
 WRI 00-4286: Investigation of Ground-Water Availability and Quality in Orange County, North Carolina
The median dissolved solids concentration was 125 milligrams per liter, and the median specific conductance was 175 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius.
Nitrate was detected in 82 percent of the samples at concentrations ranging up to 7.2 milligrams per liter, although the median concentration was 0.49 milligram per liter; all other samples had a concentration of 2.9 milligrams per liter or less.
When evaluated by individual hydrogeologic units, the median radon activity was highest in the phyllite unit (1,080 picocuries per liter in 2 samples) and the felsic metaigneous unit (571 picocuries per liter in 13 samples).
nc.water.usgs.gov /reports/wri004286   (680 words)

  
 Las Vegas SUN: Water experts baffled by increase in Lake Mead radiation levels
A picocurie is a trillionth of a unit of radiation called a curie, which measures radioactivity in the environment.
To be considered unhealthful, and trigger enforcement, the alpha radiation levels would have to reach 15 picocuries per liter in treated water.
The highest reading the agency recorded in Lake Mead was in January 1994, when gross alpha measured 16 picocuries per liter, Davis said, adding "I'm very suspicious of that reading." A month later the levels dropped to 4.4 picocuries per liter, and the agency switched laboratories doing the analysis.
www.lasvegassun.com /sunbin/stories/text/1998/nov/10/507987475.html   (943 words)

  
 Water Department
Parts per million (ppm) or Milligrams per liter (mg/l) - one part per million would be the same as one minute in two years or a single penny in $10,000.
Parts per billion (ppb) or Micrograms per liter - one part per billion would be the same as one minute in 2,000 years, or a single penny in $10,000,000.
We monitor for some contaminants less than once per year, because concentrations for those contaminants are not expected to vary significantly from year to year.
www.town.brewster.ma.us /dept/water/quality2001.html   (2440 words)

  
 Exelon | Newsroom
By way of context, a person drinking 2 liters of water a day at that upper limit would receive an annual radiation exposure roughly equal to an airplane flight across the country, about 4 millirem.
To date, the next highest concentration found outside of the plant’s boundaries was about 59,000 picocuries per liter, from a test well 75 feet north of the property line, the only other well off of the property to show tritium levels above federal drinking water limits.
Water from the 25-acre pond measured 2,400 picocuries per liter.
www.exeloncorp.com /NR/exeres/2BA881A5-8AA3-4B22-BDFC-8160792F8517.htm   (960 words)

  
 Press Releases
Tritium concentrations for the second perched zone were 106 picocuries per liter - more than 20 times lower than preliminary sample results released in December by the Laboratory for this zone.
Tritium concentrations for the three lower perched zones and for the deep aquifer were lower than the baseline concentration of 50 picocuries per liter - the concentration of naturally derived tritium found in alluvial groundwater upslope of Laboratory operations.
Tritium concentrations for the three lower zones and for the deep aquifer are 2.7 picocuries per liter, 30.3 picocuries per liter, 13.9 picocuries per liter and 14.
www.lanl.gov /worldview/news/releases/archive/98-058.shtml   (1343 words)

  
 EPA Seeks To Regulate Radon in Water
EPA officials said the combined water and air approach – using the 4,000 picocuries per liter standard – would be much less expensive and likely more beneficial because scientists believe radon in indoor air poses the greater health threat.
In the past it has recommended that households reduce indoor radon levels to a maximum of 4 picocuries per liter of air.
The EPA estimated that it would cost the economy $86 million to meet the 4,000 picocuries drinking water standard, and $407 million a year to meet the more stringent 300 picocuries standard.
www.washingtonpost.com /wp-srv/aponline/19991019/aponline204713_000.htm   (392 words)

  
 Radon Gas Upper Marlboro, Maryland
When inhaled, Radon is trapped in the lungs where it decays emitting radioactive particles that adversely affect the cells in the lungs contributing to the development of lung cancer.
The EPA estimates that the risk of dying from lung cancer is as the result of an annual radon level of four picocuries is equivalent to the risk from smoking two packs a day while a level of 100 pCi / L equates to 2,000 chest x-rays a year.
It is estimated that most homes will contain from one to two picocuries of Radon per liter of air.
www.uppermarlbororealestate.com /article_archive/radon_gas_maryland.html   (998 words)

  
 [Sustainable] Fwd: Offering a free resource on drinking water standards for plutonium and similar radionuclides ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
The careful scientific analysis in this report shows that the present Maximum Contaminant Limit of 15 picocuries per liter for gross alpha contamination, which includes plutonium-239 and other alpha-emitting, long-lived transuranic radionuclides, no longer fulfills the letter and intent of the drinking water regulations in terms of protection of public health.
The limit today is a hundred times greater - 15 picocuries per liter in the absence of any other alpha-emitting radionuclides in the water.
Specifically, we are asking you to adopt its central recommendation that the combined MCL for alpha-emitting, long-lived transuranic radionuclides be set at 0.15 picocuries per liter.
www.urbanoptions.org /pipermail/sustainable_urbanoptions.org/2005-August/000395.html   (989 words)

  
 Rockford's Newspaper Rock River Times | rockford illinois news information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Exelon reported that water in the Byron vaults was tested and found to contain tritium concentrations of 86,000 picocuries per liter.
Test wells 10 to 20 feet away from the center indicate tritium levels dropping to 20,000 picocuries per liter or less.
Tritium is present in surface waters at levels ranging from 10 to 30 picocuries per liter.
www.rockrivertimes.com /index.pl?cmd=viewstory&cat=2&id=12495   (914 words)

  
 THE PADUCAH SUN - DOE: Tritium detected at plant but at safe levels - By Joe Walker
DOE spokesman Walter Perry said the amounts discovered in May 1990 ranged from 23 to 3,800 picocuries per liter - a measurement of radioactivity in liquid - in five outfalls where treated effluent is discharged into ditches and creeks.
Perry said the drinking-water standard for tritium is 20,000 picocuries per liter.
A picocurie is one-trillionth of a curie, which measures radioactivity in disintegrations per second.
www.state.nv.us /nucwaste/news2000/nn10518.htm   (528 words)

  
 Radon in Water
One may care about radon in water not because of the direct effects, but because of off-gassing that may occur when the water is agitated or aerated such as during laundry, dishwashing or showering.
The rule of thumb is that 10,000 picoCuries per liter (pCi/l) of water translates into about 1 pCI/l average concentration in air.
Water regulations have traditionally been set to achieve at most 1 in 100,000 lifetime fatality risk, leading to a standard on the order of 300 picoCuries per liter of water (roughly equivalent to 0.03 pCi/l in air, or less than 10% of typical fresh air radon content).
www.radonpro.com /RadonInwater.htm   (313 words)

  
 TRITIUM from Nuclear Power Plants: Its Biological Hazards - NIRS
The average natural concentration of tritium in environmental waters has been estimated to range from 3.2 to 24 picocuries per liter of water.
In fact, releases of tritium from nuclear power plants to the atmosphere have reached as high as tens of thousands of curies in one year, and releases to bodies of water have measured as high as tens of millions of picocuries per liter.
The NRC translates one million picocuries of tritium per liter as the equivalent of 50 millirem/year (10 CFR Part 20, Introductory Notes to Appendix B, Table 2, Column 2).
www.nirs.org /radiation/tritium/tritiumhome.htm   (555 words)

  
 NorthernStar Online | News Front   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
A spokeswoman for the Illinois EPA said the maximum amount of radium in water is set lower than necessary to decrease public health risks, but the fact remains that Sycamore has violated the standards.
The radium standard for drinking water is 5.0 picoCuries per liter.
The risk doubles to 88 per million when the radium levels are at 10 picoCuries per liter.
www.star.niu.edu /articles/?id=4482   (242 words)

  
 Drinking Water Radon Reduction Air Water Testing Kits Test Kits Lab Services
One pCi is equal to the decay of about two radioactive atoms per minute and curie is the amount or radiation given off by one gram of radon.
One of the problems with understanding the amount of risk due to a specific radon level measurement is that the risk statistics are based on an average lifetime (70 years) spent in an exposed area, even though the average American moves every 7 years, and is thus exposed to many different radon levels.
For instance, a house having 4 picocuries of radon per liter of air (4 pCi/L) has about 8 or 9 atoms of radon decaying every minute in every liter of air inside the house.
www.webdesignpros.net /watertesting/radonwater.htm   (1249 words)

  
 Radon in home raises lung cancer risk
Nearly 60% of radon concentrations taken from the basements of homes of both groups exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations of 4 picoCuries per liter, investigators found.
We feel 4 (picoCuries per liter) is the best we can do," she said.
Radon concentrations depend on how a home was built and the part of the country in which a person lives, Miller explained.
www.personalmd.com /news/n0526103504.shtml   (470 words)

  
 (Delaware Valley Radon Technology Inc. - New Britain, PA) FAQ   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
However, the EPA recommends homes be fixed if an occupant's long-term exposure will average 4 picoCuries per liter (pCi/L) or higher.
A pCi is a measure of the rate of radioactive decay of radon.
If the levels are 4 pCi/L (picoCuries per liter, the EPA's recommended action level), there will be approximately 12,672 radioactive disintegrations in one liter of air during a 24-hour period.
verizonsupersite.com /delvalradoncom/faq   (833 words)

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