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Topic: Piezoelectricity

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In the News (Thu 20 Jun 19)

Although many crystal exhibit the piezoelectric effect, very few are useful, and quartz alone provides the necessary combination of mechanical, electrical, chemical, and thermal properties required for making piezoelectric elements for communication devices.
Piezoelectricity literally means "pressure electricity" and may be defined as the electric polarization produced by a mechanical strain in crystals (that belong to certain classes of crystals).
The piezoelectric effect is a convenient, built in transducer that converts mechanical movement to electrical signals and visa versa.
www.tedlind.net /Piezoelectricity.htm   (561 words)

 Piezoelectricity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Piezoelectricity is the ability of crystals to generate a voltage in response to applied mechanical stress.
Bone exhibits some piezoelectric properties, due to the apatite crystals: it has been hypothesized that this is part of the mechanism of bone remodeling in response to stress, as the electric fields on the apatite crystals stimulate further bone growth.
Piezoelectric transducers are used in electronic drum pads to detect the impact of the drummer's sticks.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Piezoelectricity   (2800 words)

 What is Piezoelectricity?
The property of piezoelectricity is dictated by both the atoms in the crystal and the particular way in which that crystal was formed.
Piezoelectricity is used in sensors, actuators, motors, clocks, lighters, and transducers.
Piezoelectric crystals are used in many high-performance devices to apply tiny mechanical displacements on the scale of nanometers.
www.wisegeek.com /what-is-piezoelectricity.htm   (366 words)

 Piezoelectricity, a Healing Property of Soft Tissue
These crystals are piezoelectric, meaning they generate electric fields when compressed or stretched.
Remember, fascial release causes the thixotropic gel to change to a liquid form, allowing the dehydrated gel to expel its toxins and return to the normal gel state, where freedom of motion is re-established.
A present-day method for treating slow-healing fractures is the use of piezoelectricity.
www.chiroweb.com /archives/20/25/08.html   (581 words)

 Piezo Systems - History of Piezoelectricity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In the scientific circles of the day, this effect was considered quite a "discovery," and was quickly dubbed as "piezoelectricity" in order to distinguish it from other areas of scientific phenomenological experience such as "contact electricity" (friction generated static electricity) and "pyroelectricity" (electricity generated from crystals by heating).
The Curie brothers asserted, however, that there was a one-to-one correspondence between the electrical effects of temperature change and mechanical stress in a given crystal, and that they had used this correspondence not only to pick the crystals for the experiment, but also to determine the cuts of those crystals.
Piezoelectricity was obscure even among crystallographers; the mathematics required to understand it was complicated; and no publicly visible applications had been found for any of the piezoelectric crystals.
www.piezo.com /tech4history.html   (1655 words)

 Piezoelectric Effect -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics
Certain crystals are called piezoelectric when they exhibit a relationship between mechanical strain (tension or compression) and voltage across their surfaces.
Specifically, when compressed or pulled, a piezoelectric crystal will build up alternate charges on opposite faces, thus acting like a capacitor with an applied voltage.
Cady, W. Piezoelectricity: An Introduction to the Theory and Applications of Electromechanical Phenomena in Crystals, New rev. ed., 2 vols.
scienceworld.wolfram.com /physics/PiezoelectricEffect.html   (296 words)

 Piezoelectricity - SkepticWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Piezoelectricity is the property of some materials to generate a voltage when deformed or to deform when a voltage is applied.
The piezoelectricity of crystals is often presented as evidence that they contain some sort of mystical energy.
Furthermore, the amount of power generated by a piezoelectric material is never greater than the amount of power expended in squeezing or bending it.
skepticwiki.org /wiki/index.php?title=Piezoelectricity&printable=yes   (159 words)

 Materials by Design: Piezoelectric Materials   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This phenomenon is known as electrostriction, or the reverse piezoelectric effect.
Piezoelectric materials are used in acoustic transducers, which convert acoustic (sound) waves into electric fields, and electric fields into acoustic waves.
A manufacturer has recently embedded piezoelectric materials in skis in order to damp out the vibrations of the skis and help keep the ski edges in contact with the snow.
www.mse.cornell.edu /courses/engri111/piezo.htm   (241 words)

 Rice Audio® Piezoelectricity
Piezoelectricity refers to the characteristic exhibited by a small class of materials having the capability to directly convert mechanical energy that distorts the material into electrical energy and vice versa.
To understand why a piezoelectric material will generate electrical energy under varying mechanical strain, think of a sponge with water representing the free electrons at the boundary of the material and capillary action representing the balance of electrical charge within the bipolar material.
There are some useful applications of piezoelectric motors using incremental friction drive but particularly in scanning electron microscopes where tiny but very fast and precise mechanical movements are required.
mywebpages.comcast.net /riceaudio/html/Piezoelectricity.html   (808 words)

 Piezoelectric properties in biological systems by Dr. Christopher Kent   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Fukada [4] observed that piezoelectricity is demonstrated in a variety of biological materials, including polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA.
On a cellular level, piezoelectric activity is related to microscopic internal strain.
Lipinski [7] discussed the possible clinical implications of piezoelectricity on a biochemical level, noting that movements brought about by osteopathic manipulation and other movements may affect biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and mucopolysaccharides.
www.worldchiropracticalliance.org /tcj/2003/feb/feb2003kent.htm   (801 words)

 Piezoelectricity - APC International, Ltd.
Although the magnitudes of piezoelectric voltages, movements, or forces are small, and often require amplification (a typical disc of piezoelectric ceramic will increase or decrease in thickness by only a small fraction of a millimeter, for example) piezoelectric materials have been adapted to an impressive range of applications.
The inverse piezoelectric effect is used in actuation applications, such as in motors and devices that precisely control positioning, and in generating sonic and ultrasonic signals.
A traditional piezoelectric ceramic is a mass of perovskite crystals, each consisting of a small, tetravalent metal ion, usually titanium or zirconium, in a lattice of larger, divalent metal ions, usually lead or barium, and O2- ions (Figure 1.1).
www.americanpiezo.com /piezo_theory   (1053 words)

 Bone electricity
The piezoelectric properties of bone are of interest in view of their hypothesized role in bone remodelling (4.2.1).
Studies of the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of fully hydrated bone raise some doubt as to whether wet bone is piezoelectric at all at physiological frequencies (5.2).
Mechanical relaxation also occurs in piezoelectric materials and is important in applications: large damping is considered desirable in materials used to generate short acoustic pulses for flaw detection [8.10.6]; small damping (high mechanical Q) is desirable in stable resonators and high power transducers.
silver.neep.wisc.edu /~lakes/BoneElectr.html   (1706 words)

 eFunda: Overview of Piezoelectricity
Piezoelectricity is a coupling between a material's mechanical and electrical behaviors.
In the simplest of terms, when a piezoelectric material is squeezed, an electric charge collects on its surface.
Piezoelectricity was discovered by Jacques and Pierre Curie in the 1880's during experiments on quartz.
www.efunda.com /materials/piezo/general_info/gen_info_index.cfm   (189 words)

 Piezoelectricity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A piezoelectric lighter containing a ratchet mechanism, which cocks and strikes a piezoelectric crystal, produces a spark that travels several millimeters in air.
Piezoelectric lighters are found in gas furnaces, ovens, driers, and barbeque grills.
Application of a voltage to a piezoelectric device causes a small motion as can be seen in the movement of a reflected laser beam.
chemistry.beloit.edu /BlueLight/pages/piezo.html   (170 words)

 PIRA 5E60.00 PIEZOELECTRICITY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Ferroelectricity, hysteresis, Curie-point, and the direct piezoelectric effect are demonstrated with a Rochelle salt.
A piezoelectric gun is used to discharge a set of charged nylon strings.
One end of a piezoelectric crystal is attached to a needle point in the pistol.
www.physics.ncsu.edu /pira/5eandm/5E60.html   (216 words)

 A Two-State Piezoelectric Model for Outer Hair Cell Motility -- Iwasa 81 (5): 2495 -- Biophysical Journal
assumed that piezoelectric response was primarily linear to the
that characterize piezoelectricity are estimated for the membrane
Piezoelectric models for describing the voltage-dependent motility of the outer hair cell have been reported earlier (Mountain
www.biophysj.org /cgi/content/full/81/5/2495   (4574 words)

 eFunda: Applications of Piezoelectricity
Applications where strongly-piezoelectric materials are used include buzzers inside pagers and cell phones, shakers inside ultrasonic cleaners, spark generators inside electronic igniters, and strain sensors inside pressure gages.
Piezoelectric materials also make inexpensive but fantastically accurate "clocks".
For example, the element keeping track of time inside a quartz watch is literally a small piece of vibrating quartz.
www.efunda.com /materials/piezo/general_info/applications.cfm   (76 words)

 Piezoelectricity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In a settup that wasn't expected to work, piezoelectricity was well observed in Rochelle salt crystals.
When the crystals were deformed (with the gentle tap of a piece of wood or hammer), short (on the order of 4 miliseconds) relatively hight voltage (maximum 20V peak to peak with 10M input Z to scope).
This first image is of a piezoelectric pulse on an oscilloscope set to 2 volts per division vertical and.1 milliseconds per division horizontal.
webphysics.davidson.edu /alumni/MiLee/JLab/Crystallography_WWW/piezo.htm   (226 words)

 Glasgow ePrints Service - Reply to Katzir's comment on 'Kelvin and piezoelectricity'
The author gives further support to his belief that Kelvin was instrumental in helping to establish the science of piezoelectricity.
Kelvin's instruments played an important role in its discovery and his theory on pyroelectricity, a phenomenon closely connected to piezoelectricity, served as a basis for developing the theory of piezoelectricity.
Controversial discussion on role of Kelvin in development of piezoelectricity in 19th century.
eprints.gla.ac.uk /519   (163 words)

 Glasgow ePrints Service - Kelvin and piezoelectricity
This paper presents a resume of the history of piezoelectricity during the 19th and 20th centuries.
By examining the experiments, concepts and theories presented in Lord Kelvin's scientific communications and those of his contempories, this paper aims to show that he played an important role in the development of piezoelectricity.
Kelvin's contribution was that he produced the measurement instrumentation that led to the discovery of piezoelectricity and laid some of of the essential theoretical groundwork that led to the important applications of piezoelectricity in the 20th century.
eprints.gla.ac.uk /402   (118 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Piezoelectricity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Find newspaper and magazine articles plus images and maps related to "Piezoelectricity" at HighBeam.
Piezoelectric motor.(motors and motion-control products in focus: A selection of motors and motion-control products available from suppliers.)(Brief Article)
More information is at your fingertips at HighBeam Research:
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Piezoelectricity   (147 words)

 Worldbond Piezo Electic Corp. - Products - Ceramic - Piezoelectricity Ceramic Pipe
Bring pressure to bear on the inside wall and outside wall of the piezoelectricity ceramic pipeĀ  transducer, the transducer will take place the axial direction transmutation and radial direction transmutation because the process of the d31 and d33.
The size of the transmutation can be confirmed by the formulary as follow.
Inside electrode is elicited from the outside surface of the pipe.
www.worldbond.com /cer-pipe.php   (93 words)

 Reverse Piezoelectricity
Piezoelectric Crystal Vibrates When Subjected To An Electric Pulse,
Those lighters on propane grilles are piezoelectric lighters.
When you push the button, you cause a a rod to slam into a set of piezoelectric crystals causing a voltage large enough to make a spark that ignites the gas.
www.physicsforums.com /showthread.php?t=74573   (408 words)

 Piezoelectricity in uniaxially stretched and corona poled polyvinylidene fluoride
Piezoelectricity in uniaxially stretched and corona poled polyvinylidene fluoride
The results show that the induced piezoelectricity in PVF
In particular, reselling and systematic downloading of files is prohibited.
stacks.iop.org /0022-3727/13/95   (254 words)

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