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Topic: Pioneer 11


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  Pioneer 11 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pioneer 11 was the second mission to investigate Jupiter and the outer solar system and the first to explore the planet Saturn and its main rings.
Pioneer 11 (also called Pioneer G), like Pioneer 10, used Jupiter's mass in a gravitational slingshot to alter its trajectory toward Saturn.
Pioneer 11's star sensor gain and threshold settings were modified, based on experience gained from the settings used on Pioneer 10.
www.encyclopedia-online.info /Pioneer_11   (620 words)

  
 Pioneer 11 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pioneer 11 (also called Pioneer G), unlike Pioneer 10 which only visited Jupiter, used Jupiter's mass in a gravitational slingshot to alter its trajectory toward Saturn.
During its closest approach, December 4, 1974, Pioneer 11 passed to within 34,000 km of Jupiter's cloud tops and obtained dramatic images of the Great Red Spot, made the first observation of the immense polar regions, and determined the mass of Jupiter's moon, Callisto.
Thus, Pioneer 11 was acting as a "pioneer" in a true sense of the word.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pioneer_11   (1100 words)

  
 Pioneer 11
However, because Pioneer 10 had achieved all its main mission objectives at Jupiter, Pioneer 11 was put on a trajectory by mission controllers that used Jupiter as a gravitational slingshot to redirect the probe on a course toward Saturn.
Pioneer 10 and 11 were recommended by the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences in 1968 as low-cost exploratory missions to the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, approved by NASA in February 1969, and launched three and four years later, respectively.
Pioneer 11 is headed in the direction of Aquila and may pass relatively near Lambda Aquila in about 4 million years.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/P/Pioneer11.html   (655 words)

  
 Pioneer 10 & 11
The third stage was required to rocket Pioneer 10 to the speed of 51,810 kph needed for the flight to Jupiter.
In September 1995, Pioneer 11 was at a distance of 6.5 billion kilometers from Earth.
Pioneer 11 carries 12 instruments, only 3 of which were still in use when communications ended in late 1995.
www.solarviews.com /eng/pn10-11.htm   (1303 words)

  
 The Perils of Pioneer 11
Pioneers 10 and 11 were originally conceived in 1969 as small, simple, spin-stabilized spacecraft for humanity's first venture into the outer Solar System.
The Pioneers would be the first spacecraft to fly through the asteroid belt; there was no significant chance of hitting a large asteroid, but hitting a few hundred grains of sand would be almost as bad, and nobody knew how many small particles might lurk undetected in the belt.
Pioneer 11 was on its way to Saturn, but it wasn't out of the woods yet.
www.geocities.com /CapeCanaveral/Launchpad/2099/9711.html   (1986 words)

  
 Pioneer 10 and 11 - Explore the Cosmos | The Planetary Society
Pioneer 10 was Earth’s first space probe to an outer planet, encountering Jupiter on December 4, 1973.
Pioneer 11 followed its sister ship to Jupiter, and continued on to encounter Saturn on September 1, 1979.
Pioneer 10 became the first human artifact to pass beyond the orbit of the farthest known planet, Pluto, in June 1983.
planetary.org /explore/topics/past_missions/pioneer_10_and_11.html   (423 words)

  
 Pioneer program - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pioneer 10 and 11 are the most famous probes in the Pioneer program, the first probes to visit the outer planets, and the first to go beyond the orbit of Pluto
There were a number of such missions in the program, but the most notable were Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11, which explored the outer planets and left the solar system.
He suggested "Pioneer" as the name of the probe since "the Army had already launched and orbited the Explorer satellite and their Public Information Office was identifying the Army as 'Pioneers in Space,'" and by adopting the name the Air Force would "make a 'quantum jump' as to who really [were] the 'Pioneers in space.'"
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pioneer_program   (734 words)

  
 Pioneer Home Page: Describes the missions of Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Pioneers 6 through 9   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Pioneer 10 was featured on the Star Date radio broadcast by the University of Texas McDonald Observatory on 2 March 2002 - the 30th anniversary of its launch.
Pioneer 6 was featured on the Star Date radio broadcast by the University of Texas McDonald Observatory on 16 December 2000 - the 35th anniversary of its launch.
Pioneer 6 is the oldest NASA spacecraft extant.
spaceprojects.arc.nasa.gov /Space_Projects/pioneer/PNhome.html   (1083 words)

  
 Space Today Online -- The Pioneer spacecraft still are outbound
Pioneer 10 reached the speed of 32,400 mph needed for the flight to Jupiter, making it the fastest human-made object to leave the Earth — fast enough to pass the Moon in 11 hours and to cross the orbit of Mars 50 million miles away from Earth in just 12 weeks.
After Pioneer 10 emerged from the Asteroid Belt, its companion probe, Pioneer 11, was launched from Earth on a similar trajectory.
Pioneer 11, built to be a backup if Pioneer 10 failed, was launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on April 5, 1973, on an Atlas-Centaur rocket, on a trajectory similar to Pioneer 10.
www.spacetoday.org /SolSys/ThePioneers.html   (1693 words)

  
 Pioneer
The Pioneer 11 spacecraft was launched a year later and used a gravity assist from Jupiter to visit Saturn.
Pioneer 12 used radar to map the planet's surface, while Pioneer 13 deployed its four probes that were carried through the Venutian atmosphere by parachutes.
Pioneer 12 orbited Venus for 14 years until it entered the atmosphere of Venus in 1992 and was destroyed.
www.windows.ucar.edu /tour/link=/space_missions/pioneer.html&edu=high   (393 words)

  
 :: NASA Quest > Archives ::   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Pioneer 10 demonstrated that this was not the case, thereby opening the door for all future outer planetary missions.
Pioneer 10 was the first ever to encounter Jupiter survive its intense radiation, and was the first probe to leave the realm of the planets and enter the edges of interstellar space for the first time in history!
Prior to Pioneers 10 and 11, the effect of the solar wind was thought to extend to the vicinity of Jupiter or perhaps a bit farther.
quest.arc.nasa.gov /pioneer10/mission   (1500 words)

  
 Pioneer 10 & 11 - Abstract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Pioneer 10 was targeted to fly by the planet at a minimum distance of 3 Jupiter Radii from the center or 2 RJ above the clouds.
Pioneer 11 was intended to fly even closer to Jupiter, but the exact targeting option were held open until after the Pioneer 10 encounter.
Pioneer 11 had used the pull of Jupiter to bend its trajectory inward, aiming it across the solar system toward the Saturn.
www.tsgc.utexas.edu /archive/characterizations/pioneer10_2.html   (1304 words)

  
 Pioneer 10, 11 Quicklook
Pioneers 10 and 11 were the first spacecraft to visit Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11 only).
At the same time Pioneer 11 was 44.7 AU from the Sun and heading outward at 2.5 AU/year.
Pioneer 11's mission ended on September 30, 1995 when its RTG power level was insufficient to operate any experiments and the spacecraft could no longer be controlled.
leonardo.jpl.nasa.gov /msl/QuickLooks/pioneer10QL.html   (415 words)

  
 Pioneer10
Pioneer 10 reached a speed of 32,400 mph needed for the flight to Jupiter, making it the fastest human-made object to leave the Earth; fast enough to pass the moon in 11 hours and to cross Mars' orbit, about 50 million miles away, in just 12 weeks.
Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to pass through the asteroid belt, considered a spectacular achievement, and then headed toward Jupiter.
The strange behaviour of the Pioneers was discovered by John Anderson and Slava Turyshev of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena and Michael Martin Neito of the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
www.geocities.com /blobrana/features/pioneer.htm   (1544 words)

  
 Pioneer 10-11
Pioneers 10 and 11 were the first spacecraft to fly by Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11 only).
As of Jan. 1, 1997 Pioneer 10 was at about 67 AU from the Sun near the ecliptic plane and heading outward from the Sun at 2.6 AU/year and downstream through the heliomagnetosphere towards the tail region and interstellar space.
Pioneer 10 was at 82 AU, or 12.3 billion km from Earth.
www.astronautix.com /craft/pior1011.htm   (1226 words)

  
 Pioneer 11
Pioneer 11, like Pioneer 10, used Jupiter's mass in a gravitational slingshot to alter its trajectory toward Saturn.
As of the end of 1995, when its mission ended, the spacecraft was located at 44.7 AU from the Sun at a nearly asymptotic latitude of 17.4 degrees above the solar equatorial plane and was heading outward at 2.5 AU/year.
Like it's sister ship, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11 carried a plaque with a message from mankind.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/pi/Pioneer_11.html   (471 words)

  
 ScienceMaster - JumpStart - Pioneer - Going, Going...
The Pioneer 10 weak signal continues to be tracked by the DSN as part of a new advanced concept study of chaos theory.
It will take Pioneer over 2 million years to pass by one of the stars in the constellation.Launched on 5 April 1973, Pioneer 11 followed its sister ship to Jupiter (1974), made the first direct observations of Saturn (1979) and studied energetic particles in the outer heliosphere.
Pioneer 11 may pass near one of the stars in the constellation in about 4 million years.
www.sciencemaster.com /jump/space/pioneer.php   (1240 words)

  
 Pioneer 10 & 11 - Abstract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Pioneer 10, which was launched in 1972, was the first probe sent to the outer planets.
Before Pioneer 11 was launched, the gain and threshold settings of its starlight sensor were modified to improve performance on the basis of experience gained during the first few months of Pioneer 10's flight.
Pioneer's path was calculated by use of celestial mechanics, and the radio data provided information to keep the trajectory updated and to determine the masses of planetary bodies the Pioneers encountered.
www.tsgc.utexas.edu /archive/characterizations/pioneer10.html   (1489 words)

  
 CNN.com - A distant Pioneer whispers to Earth - Dec. 19, 2002
Pioneer 10 became the first craft to navigate the asteroid belt, which some scientists thought was impossible.
Pioneer 10 and its sister ship Pioneer 11, which took off in 1973, more than lived up to their names during decades of groundbreaking space exploration.
But Pioneer 10, now more than twice the distance from the sun as Pluto, continues to serve a valuable scientific function as it approaches the edge of the solar system.
archives.cnn.com /2002/TECH/space/12/18/pioneer.contact   (493 words)

  
 Pioneer 11 Images of Saturn   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Pioneer 11 made its closest approach to Saturn on September 1, 1979 at a distance of 20,900 km.
This image was taken by Pioneer 11 on September 1, 1979 from a distance of 505,000 km.
This is an intensity synthesis of two Pioneer 11 images as viewed from the north pole of Saturn on September 1, 1979.
www2.jpl.nasa.gov /saturn/pio_images.html   (295 words)

  
 Pioneer Program
Pioneer 0, 1, and 2 were the United States' first lunar attempts.
Pioneers 6,7,8, and 9 were the world's first solar monitoring network and provided warnings of increased solar activity which could affect Earth orbiting satellites and ground systems.
The Pioneer Venus mission, consisting of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (Pioneer 12) and Pioneer Venus Multiprobe (Pioneer 13), was the United States' first long-term mission to observe Venus and studied the structure and composition of the Venusian atmosphere.
leonardo.jpl.nasa.gov /msl/Programs/pioneer.html   (265 words)

  
 NASA to Contact Oldest Spacecraft on 35th Anniversary
NASA will use a mammoth 231-foot (70-meter) antenna in Goldstone, California in an attempt to downlink data from the solar-powered probe, originally launched on what was to have been a fleeting six-month mission to measure the solar wind, solar magnetic field and cosmic rays.
The Pioneer family of spacecraft, with probes 6-9 represented at far left, joined by Pioneers 10, 11 and the Venus orbiter.
Since then, Pioneer has steadily orbited the Sun at a mean distance of 0.8 AU, or 74 million miles (119 million kilometers).
www.space.com /news/spaceagencies/pioneer_6_contact_001129.html   (500 words)

  
 Aerospaceguide.net - Pioneer 11
* Pioneer 11 was launched on 5 April 1973 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA, like Pioneer 10, on a three-stage Atlas-Centaur rocket.
* The Pioneer 11 mission ended on 30 September 1995, when the last transmission from the spacecraft was received.
Pioneer 11 carries a gold plaque engraved with a message of goodwill and a map showing the Earth's location in the solar system.
www.aerospaceguide.net /pioneer11.html   (206 words)

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