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Topic: Pioneer Venus 1

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In the News (Fri 19 Apr 19)

  ninemsn Encarta - Venus (planet)
Pioneer Venus 2 sent four probes to the surface, while the remaining craft explored the upper atmosphere.
Pioneer Venus 1, an orbiter, continued to measure the upper atmosphere until it ran out of fuel and was destroyed on entering the Venusian atmosphere in August 1992.
Venus rotates very slowly on its axis, and the direction is retrograde (opposite to that of the Earth).
au.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761557158/Venus_(planet).html   (1575 words)

 Venus (planet) - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Venus has an atmosphere consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small amount of nitrogen, with a pressure at the surface about 90 times that of Earth (a pressure equivalent to a depth of 1 kilometre under Earth's ocean).
In addition to this unusual retrograde rotation, the periods of Venus' rotation and of its orbit are synchronized in such a way that it always presents the same face toward Earth when the two planets are at their closest approach (5.001 Venusian days between each inferior conjunction).
Venus is brightest when approximately 25% of its disk is illuminated; this typically occurs 37 days both before (in the evening sky) and after (in the morning sky), its inferior conjunction.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /venus_(planet).htm   (3904 words)

 MSN Encarta - Venus (planet)
Venus (planet), one of the planets in the solar system, the second in distance from the Sun.
Except for the Sun and the Moon, Venus is the brightest object in the sky.
Venus lacks a magnetic field of its own, but the solar wind seems to generate an induced magnetosphere around the planet, probably by a dynamo action involving its own magnetic field.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761557158/Venus_(planet).html   (1112 words)

Venus differs greatly from the Earth in having a thick and highly reflective cloud layer that perpetually hides the planet's surface and causes extremely high surface temperatures and pressure.
PIONEER Venus 1 orbited the planet, collecting data on surface heights and returning radar images, while Pioneer Venus 2 released three probes to the surface to collect atmospheric data.
The density of impact craters on Venus is similar to their density on Earth, indicating a surface age of about 800 million years and suggesting that the surface may still be undergoing active geological processes such as quakes and erupting volcanoes.
www.geocities.com /Wellesley/1792/venus.html   (1913 words)

 The Pioneer Venus Orbiter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Pioneer Venus consisted of two spacecraft to study Venus: the Orbiter and the Multiprobe.
The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe was launched on 8 August 1978.
The homogeneity of the burst source population in space was studied on the basis of a sample of 225 observed gamma-ray bursts between September 1978 and July 1988 from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter.
heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov /docs/heasarc/missions/pvo.html   (829 words)

 Pioneer program - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
There were a number of such missions in the program, but the most notable were Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11, which explored the outer planets and left the solar system.
Both carry a golden plaque (see Pioneer plaque), depicting a man and a woman and information about the origin and the creators of the probes, should any extraterrestrials find them someday.
Pioneer H - identical to Pioneers 10 and 11 (F and G) Pioneer Venus 1 - the Pioneer Venus Orbiter of the Pioneer Venus project (Pioneer 12)
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pioneer_program   (331 words)

 UCLA - IGPP Space Physics Tutorial - Pioneer Venus Missions
The orbiter observed the surface of Venus with a radar altimeter and crude radar imager.
Venus and the Earth are often called the twin planets, but, if they are twins, Venus could be considered to be the evil twin, the one who has gone bad along the way.
The radius of Venus is 6052 km versus the terrestrial 6371 km, 95% of the Earth's radius.
www-ssc.igpp.ucla.edu /ssc/tutorial/pvo_mission.html   (5610 words)

 Pioneer Venus project -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The Pioneer mission to (Type genus of the family Veneridae: genus of edible clams with thick oval shells) Venus consisted of two components, launched separately: an Orbiter and a Multiprobe.
From Venus orbit insertion to July 1980, ((astronomy) the point in as orbit closest to the body being orbited) periapsis was held between 142 and 253 km (at 17 degrees north latitude) to facilitate radar and ionospheric measurements.
In May 1992 Pioneer Venus began the final phase of its mission, in which the periapsis was held between 150 and 250 km until the fuel ran out and atmospheric entry destroyed the spacecraft the following August.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/P/Pi/Pioneer_Venus_project.htm   (1215 words)

 Pioneer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
As a result, the atmosphere of Venus today is left with a large proportion of deuterium-- the ghostly echo of an ocean long gone.
The Pioneer orbiter relayed to Earth radar data that were then transformed into facts about the altitudes on Venus that were accurate to 660 feet (200 meters).
Pioneer's orbit permitted it to view 93 percent of the planet's surface.
www.worldbook.com /features/venus/html/pioneer.html   (834 words)

 World Almanac for Kids
Pioneer Venus 1, an orbiter launched in May 1978, and Pioneer Venus 2, consisting of five probes launched in August, both reached the planet in December.
The orbiter mapped nearly the entire surface of Venus, and the probes analyzed the surface temperature and composition, as well as the movement of the atmosphere and its interaction with the solar wind.
The surface temperature on Venus is highly uniform and is about 462° C (735 K/864° F), and the surface pressure is 92 bars (compared with 1 bar for earth).
www.worldalmanacforkids.com /explore/space/venus.html   (1309 words)

 Venus Introduction
Venus, the jewel of the sky, was once know by ancient astronomers as the morning star and evening star.
Venus, which is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty, is veiled by thick swirling cloud cover.
This beautiful image of Venus is a mosaic of three images acquired by the Mariner 10 spacecraft on February 5, 1974.
www.solarviews.com /eng/venus.htm   (2376 words)

 Pioneer 5 (P 2)
Pioneer 5 was a spin-stabilized space probe used to investigate interplanetary space between the orbits of earth and Venus.
The digital data were transmitted at 1, 8, and 64 bps, depending on the distance of the spacecraft from the earth and the size of the receiving antenna.
Pioneer 5 was originally intended as an Venus fly-by probe, but due to delays in the program, it was launched into a heliocentric orbit.
www.skyrocket.de /space/doc_sdat/pioneer-5.htm   (207 words)

 Planetary Society: Missions to Venus
Venera 7 arrived at Venus on December 15, 1970, deployed a parachute and began its descent to the surface.
Pioneer Venus 2 consisted of 4 separate atmospheric probes; one large probe (1.5 meters or 5 feet in diameter) which deployed a parachute to slow its descent, and three small probes (0.8 meters or 2.6 feet across) which plunged straight through the atmosphere.
Venera 11 arrived at Venus on December 25, 1978 and soft-landed on the venusian surface.
www.planetary.org /learn/missions/venusmissions.html   (1777 words)

 The Planets - Venus
Pioneer Venus 1, an orbiter, continues to measure the upper atmosphere.
The surface temperature on Venus is highly uniform and is about 462° C (736 K/864° F); the surface pressure is 96 bars (compared with 1 bar for earth); the atmosphere of the planet consists of nearly all carbon dioxide (CO2).
The radioactivity resembles that of granite and strongly suggests that the material of Venus is differentiated, or chemically separated, by volcanic activity.
www.hostultra.com /~starchives/planets/venus.html   (1550 words)

 Artemis Project: Pioneer Missions Summary
PIONEER 1 through 3 failed to meet their main objective - to photograph the Moon close-up - but they did reach far enough into space to provide new information on the area between Earth and the Moon, including new data on the Van Allen radiation belts circling Earth.
PIONEER 1 was launched on October 11, 1958, PIONEER 2 on November 8, and PIONEER 3 on December 6.
PIONEER 5 was originally designed to flyby Venus, but the mission was scaled down and it instead studied the interplanetary environment between Venus and Earth out to 36.2 million kilometers in 1960, a record until MARINER 2.
www.asi.org /adb/m/02/01/pioneer-mission-summary.html   (367 words)

 Pioneer Venus - Abstract
Pioneer 10 was targeted to fly by the planet at a minimum distance of 3 Jupiter Radii from the center or 2 RJ above the clouds.
Pioneer 11 was intended to fly even closer to Jupiter, but the exact targeting option were held open until after the Pioneer 10 encounter.
Pioneer 10 had gained speed from the gravity field of Jupiter and became the first craft to achieve the velocity needed to escape from the solar system.
www.tsgc.utexas.edu /archive/characterizations/pioneer_venus.html   (1326 words)

 Pioneer Home Page: Describes the missions of Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Pioneers 6 through 9   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Pioneer 10 was featured on the Star Date radio broadcast by the University of Texas McDonald Observatory on 2 March 2002 - the 30th anniversary of its launch.
Pioneer 6 was featured on the Star Date radio broadcast by the University of Texas McDonald Observatory on 16 December 2000 - the 35th anniversary of its launch.
Pioneer 6 is the oldest NASA spacecraft extant.
spaceprojects.arc.nasa.gov /Space_Projects/pioneer/PNhome.html   (1065 words)

Venus is the second planet from the Sun and the sixth largest.
Venus' rotation is somewhat unusual in that it is both very slow (243 Earth days per Venus day, slightly longer than Venus' year) and retrograde.
The pressure of Venus' atmosphere at the surface is 90 atmospheres (about the same as the pressure at a depth of 1 km in Earth's oceans).
www.nineplanets.org /venus.html   (1242 words)

 Venus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The second planet from the sun, Venus is a terrestrial planet that is sometimes referred to as Earth's sister because the two are very similar in size, mass and density.
Although Venus can be easily seen with the naked eye, the planet is enveloped in a dense cover of clouds and gases that make the surface difficult to study from Earth.
Based on data from Pioneer Venus 1, other probes and earth-based radar, scientists believe that the surface of Venus is a rolling plain.
www.devahelp.com /devademo/Planets/RPlanets/Venus.htm   (258 words)

 Pioneer Venus Multiprobe   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The spacecraft was the Bus portion of the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe mission.
On this mission four instrumented atmospheric entry Probes were carried by this Bus to the vicinity of Venus and released for descent through the atmosphere to the planetary surface.
On this mission four instrumented atmospheric entry probes were carried by a spacecraft bus to the vicinity of Venus and released for descent through the atmosphere to the planetary surface.
www.ugcs.caltech.edu /~marcsulf/html/pvprobes.html   (936 words)

 Space Today Online -- Solar System -- Planet Venus
Venus is similar in diameter and mass to Earth, yet that planet has evolved differently, with a surface temperature hotter than a kitchen oven — in fact, hot enough to melt lead.
Venus is enveloped by a thick atmosphere that is a choking mixture of noxious gases.
Pioneer 13, or Pioneer-Venus 2, was one big probe carrying four smaller probes to be dropped into the atmosphere of Venus.
www.spacetoday.org /SolSys/Venus/VenusProbes.html   (905 words)

 [No title]
Pioneer Venus is the case study we use for the first project + poster session.
Pioneer Venus Orbiter was by no means the first satellite sent to Venus, but it was the first satellite which did the extensive radar mapping of Venus.
The comparison between planetary radiuses between Earth, the Moon, Mars and Venus suggest that Venus is similar to Moon in terms of the distribution.
carnap.umd.edu /phil250/250F98/underdetermination.html   (2177 words)

 Remote Sensing Tutorial Introduction - Part 1 Page 19   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
These projects were the Magellan spacecraft, which was to be sent to the Planet Venus, and the Galileo probe that was to be sent to the Planet Jupiter.
Venus was last explored by American spacecraft Pioneer-Venus 1 and 2 and had performed low-resolution radar traces of almost the whole planet.
This had been done before on the Pioneer 10 and 11 series, the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, and the Mariner 10 probes.
rst.gsfc.nasa.gov /appA/Part1_19.html   (549 words)

 Venus orbit Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Venus Orbit are great for when you're looking to get better at venus orbit for selfish purposes.
Transit of Venus 2004: The radius of Venus' orbit
The surface of Venus remained hidden until 1978 when the Pioneer Venus 1 spacecraft arrived and went into orbit about the planet on December...
venus.1infochest.info /venus-de-milo/venus-orbit.html   (247 words)

The encapsulated Pioneer Venus-A spacecraft was lifted for mating with its Atlas Centaur launch vehicle at Complex 36, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, today.
Pioneer Venus-A, to be renamed Pioneer Venus-1 following launch, is one of two NASA scientific spacecraft to be launched to Venus in 1978 for study of the planet's atmosphere.
Pioneer Venus-B, a multi-probe spacecraft, is scheduled for launch from Cape Canaveral on August 7.
science.ksc.nasa.gov /gallery/photos/1978/xml/KSC-78PC-0136.xml   (106 words)

 Pioneer Vehicle Descriptions
GE-18, No. 1, January 1980 By George J. Nothwang I. Introduction The Pioneer Venus mission objectives dictated the requirement for two spacecraft designs designated the Orbiter and the Multiprobe.
Orbit insertion was achieved with an orbit inclination of 105 degrees with respect to the equator and a nominal orbit period of 24 h.
Commandable heaters are provided to maintain the orbit insertion motor and safe and arm device within their specified temperature ranges, to prevent possible freezing and hydrazine monopropellant, and to make up heat balance should there occur an inadvertent trip of nonessential spacecraft loads.
www.friends-partners.org /oldfriends/jgreen/pionveh.html   (1542 words)

Venus, one of the planets in the solar system, the second in distance from the sun.
ATMOSPHERE The surface temperature on Venus is highly uniform and is about 462° C (736 K/864° F); the surface pressure is 96 bars (compared with 1 bar for earth); the atmosphere of the planet consists of nearly all carbon dioxide (CO2).
SURFACE FEATURES Venus rotates very slowly on its axis, and the direction is retrograde (opposite to that of earth).
www.angelfire.com /pa5/apdwax/PAGE20.HTML   (1290 words)

 Pioneer program - InformationBlast
The American Pioneer program of unmanned space missions was designed for planetary exploration.
Pioneer 0 - Lunar orbiter, destroyed in launcher failure
Pioneer 1 - Lunar orbiter, missed Moon due to launcher failure
informationblast.com /Pioneer_program.html   (148 words)

 Venus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Venus (vê´nes), in astronomy, 2d PLANET from the sun, at a mean distance of 67.2 million mi (108.2 million km).
The entire surface of Venus is opaquely covered by a dense cloud layer, a primary component of which is sulfuric acid.
SPACE PROBES that have encountered Venus include Mariners 2, 5, and 10 (1962, 1967, and 1974); Pioneer-Venus 1 and 2 (1978); and numerous Soviet Venera spacecraft.
members.aol.com /s2jrston2/planets/venus.htm   (180 words)

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