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# Topic: Planetary orbit

###### In the News (Tue 21 May 19)

 Planetary orbit Summary Orbits are the pathways taken by objects under the influence of the gravity of another object. The third factor is the inclination of the orbit, or the angle between the plane of the orbit and the plane of Earth's orbit. The gravity of the orbiting object raises tidal bulges in the primary, and since below the synchronous orbit the orbiting object is moving faster than the body's surface the bulges lag a short angle behind it. www.bookrags.com /Planetary_orbit   (4861 words)

 BT Research - Orbit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19) Orbits were first analyzed mathematically by Johannes Kepler who formulated his results in his three laws of planetary motion. First, he found that the orbits of the planets in our solar system are elliptical, not circular (or epicyclic), as had previously been believed, and that the sun is not located at the center of the orbits, but rather at one focus. As two objects orbit each other, the periapsis is that point at which the two objects are closest to each other and the apoapsis is that point at which they are the farthest from each other. www.breathittteens.com /research.php?title=Orbit   (3019 words)

 Terms and Definitions The outermost part of a planetary magnetosphere; the place where the supersonic flow of the solar wind is slowed to subsonic speed by the planetary magnetic field. The inclination of a planet's orbit is the angle between the plane of its orbit and the ecliptic. The inclination of a moon's orbit is the angle between the plane of its orbit and the plane of its primary's equator. www.solarviews.com /eng/terms.htm   (4644 words)

 - Cosmonautics on edge of Centuries As the spacecraft's trajectory is bent by the planet's gravity, the command sequence aboard the spacecraft fires its engine(s) at the proper moment, and for the proper duration. An orbit of low inclination at the target planet is well suited to a system exploration mission, because it provides repeated exposure to satellites orbiting within the equatorial plane, as well as adequate coverage of the planet and its magnetosphere. In either case, during system exploration or planetary mapping, the orbiting spacecraft is involved in an extended encounter period, requiring continuous or nearly continuous support from the flight team members, the DSN, and other institutional teams. library.thinkquest.org /C006381/EP.shtml   (1289 words)

 Dawn Mission: Dictionary: Vocabulary Epicycle - Circular orbit of a body round a point that is itself in a circular orbit round a parent body. The (equatorial) inclination of a planet is the angle between the plane of its equator and that of its orbit. The inclination of the orbit of a planet in the Solar System other than Earth is the angle between the plane of that orbit and the ecliptic. dawn.jpl.nasa.gov /dictionary/index.asp   (2908 words)

 Planetary Positions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19) The planetary co-ordinate system is specific to a particular planet and so we should transfer to a representation which is common to all objects. 2: The orbit of a planet (ellipse) relative to the Earth (the Earth's orbit is in the ecliptic plane). The fictitious orbit is the circular orbit which has the same orbital period as the planet, and the point is that of the fictitious body (travelling at uniform speed) after a given amount of time since perihelion. www.met.rdg.ac.uk /~ross/Documents/OrbitNotes.html   (5100 words)

 Orbit (celestial mechanics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Orbits were first analyzed mathematically by Johannes Kepler who formulated his results in his three laws of planetary motion. As two objects orbit each other, the periapsis is that point at which the two objects are closest to each other and the apoapsis is that point at which they are the farthest from each other. An open orbit has the shape of a hyperbola (when the velocity is greater than the escape velocity), or a parabola (when the velocity is exactly the escape velocity). en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Planetary_orbit   (2787 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19) Budha is situated in the North East position in the form of a bow in the planetary orbit. A planetary orbit is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. Each orbit type is drawn in a different color, with the active orbits in red. www.lycos.com /info/planetary-orbit.html?page=2   (541 words)

 The Nine Planets Glossary the eccentricity of an ellipse (planetary orbit) is the ratio of the distance between the foci and the major axis. the inclination of a planet's orbit is the angle between the plane of its orbit and the ecliptic; the inclination of a moon's orbit is the angle between the plane of its orbit and the plane of its primary's equator. a planetary orbit) is 1/2 the length of the major axis which is a segment of a line passing thru the foci of the ellipse with endpoints on the ellipse itself. seds.lpl.arizona.edu /billa/tnp/help.html   (4989 words)

 Planetary Satellites Planetary satellites (often called "moons") are not to be confused with man-made satellites (such as weather and communications satellites) in orbit around the Earth. Planetary satellites are small bodies in orbit about a planet (actually the planet's system barycenter). Although mean orbital elements are also available for planetary satellites, you are strongly discouraged from using them to generate your own ephemerides, as they will be highly inaccurate for many bodies. ssd.jpl.nasa.gov /?satellites   (286 words)

 Planetary Positions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19) The planetary co-ordinate system is specific to a particular planet and so we should transfer to a representation which is common to all objects. The orbit of a minor mass about a major body is an ellipse and the major mass would be positioned at one of the foci (called the occupied focus). The fictitious orbit is the circular orbit which has the same orbital period as the planet, and the point is that of the fictitious body (travelling at uniform speed) after a given amount of time since perihelion. www.met.reading.ac.uk /~ross/Documents/OrbitNotes.html   (5100 words)

 Virtual Solar System @ nationalgeographic.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19) The eccentricity (E) of an planetary orbit is given by the formula E=1 - P/M, where (P) is the distance of the planet from the sun at perihilion (closest approach) and (M) is the mean distance of the planet from the sun. When an orbiting body is clicked upon, the virtual clock adjusts to a rate that allows the most effective display of the motion of that body. The initial positions of planets and moons in their orbits are calculated from the system date and time when the virtual orrery is first loaded. www.nationalgeographic.com /solarsystem/technotes.html   (738 words)

 NASAexplores 9-12 Lesson: Planetary Orbits (Student Sheets) A Hohmann transfer is a fuel-efficient way to transfer from one circular orbit to another circular orbit that is in the same plane (same inclination) but at a different altitude. A spacecraft’s launch must be at a time and speed so that its orbit will intersect with the orbit of Mars when the planet is there. Hohmann Transfer Orbit describes the spacecraft's perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) will be Earth's orbit, and the aphelion (farthest distance from the Sun) will intercept the orbit of Mars at a single point. www.nasaexplores.com /show_912_student_sh.php?id=021220142253   (690 words)

 Basics of Space Flight Section III. Space Flight Operations As the spacecraft's trajectory is bent by the planet's gravity, the command sequence aboard the spacecraft places the spacecraft in the correct attitude, and fires its engine(s) at the proper moment and for the proper duration. An orbit of low inclination at the target planet (equatorial, for example) is well suited to a system exploration mission, because it provides repeated exposure to satellites orbiting within the equatorial plane, as well as adequate coverage of the planet and its magnetosphere. In either case, during system exploration or planetary mapping, the orbiting spacecraft is involved in an extended encounter period, requiring continuous or dependably regular support from the flight team members, the DSN, and other institutional teams. www2.jpl.nasa.gov /basics/bsf16-1.html   (1524 words)

 Venus Express Reaches Final Orbit - Planetary News | The Planetary Society The initial orbit -- or 'capture orbit' -- was an ellipse ranging from 330,000 kilometers (about 205,000 miles) at its furthest point from Venus surface or apocenter to less than 400 kilometers (about 250 miles) at its closest or pericenter. As of the 9-day capture orbit, Venus Express had to perform a series of further maneuvers to gradually reduce the apocenter and the pericenter altitudes over the planet. Venus Express entered its target orbit at apocenter on May 7, when the spacecraft was at 151 million kilometers (about 94 million miles) from Earth. www.planetary.org /news/2006/0509_Venus_Express_Reaches_Final_Orbit.html   (824 words)

 Orbital Mechanics ) is a nondimensional parameter of the orbit. In this case, the transfer orbit's ellipse is tangent to both the initial and final orbits at the transfer orbit's perigee and apogee respectively. When transferring from a smaller orbit to a larger orbit, the change in velocity is applied in the direction of motion; when transferring from a larger orbit to a smaller, the change of velocity is opposite to the direction of motion. www.braeunig.us /space/orbmech.htm   (6414 words)

 Climate change: Good for satellites in low Earth orbit? - The Planetary Society Blog | The Planetary Society The good news: the effect of carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere is to lower rather than raise the temperature there, with the result that Earth's upper atmosphere drops in elevation, so that for a given altitude, the atmosphere is less dense. This turns out to be beneficial for spacecraft in low Earth orbit (at elevations between 200 and 800 kilometers), including Hubble and the International Space Station. When the Sun is more active, ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles from the Sun act to heat and expand the thermosphere; when the Sun is less active, the thermosphere contracts. www.planetary.org /blog/article/00000794   (601 words)

 Earth orbit > the planetary oblivion Richard P Binzel is the editor of The NEO News and an associate professor of planetary science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The bright white line indicates the portion of the orbit that is above the ecliptic plane, and the darker portion is below the ecliptic plane. Likewise for the asteroid/comet orbit, the light blue indicates the portion above the ecliptic plane, and the dark blue the portion below the ecliptic plane. www.giantweed.com /orbits.html   (1346 words)

 [No title] High Orbit: This is the largest layer, and the farthest feasible distance to begin practical attacks on a planetary body. It extends from typical geosynchronous orbits (~35000km) to the upper regions of the exosphere (~10000km). Planetary Shielding Systems Planetary Shielding Systems are more or less the same as Defense Grids, except they are not disabled by lost sensor networks, and act as potent barriers against attackers, giving the defenders additional time to muster or summon reinforcements. www.geocities.com /azisien/PlanetaryDefenseandInvasion.doc   (8768 words)

 Talk:Orbit (celestial mechanics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This page was moved to orbit (physics) and turned into a disambig page for a bit; this does not really make sense, since almost all inbound links were in the gravitational orbit sense. Orbit (celestial mechanics) would still be a better title than the current one. Orbit (disambiguation) should be moved to Orbit, in that case. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Talk:Planetary_orbit   (1408 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19) The geosynchronous orbit is one where the orbital period equals the rotational period of the planet. This is an orbit whose plane matches the plane of the planet's equator, and therefore an orbiting body (such as Earth's Gateway on the orbital tower) appears to remain static to ground-based observers. Earlier tables covering Stellar and Planetary Orbits and Planets and Satellite Orbits enables calculations to be made regarding the size of the stl zones around stars, and around those planets which lie outside solar stl zones. www.bumply.com /astro.html   (1906 words)

 systemic - HD 149026 When a planetary system forms more or less quiescently, and more or less in isolation, then the final spin axis of the parent star should be nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane of the planets. If the stellar equator and the planetary orbital planes are far from alignment, then we have evidence that disruptive events occurred early in the history of the planetary system. Since the misalignment of our own sun is ~7 degrees relative to the net planetary orbital angular momentum, and because we believe that the solar system formed fairly quiescently, we are primarily interested in whether HD 149026 b sports a severe misalignment (say 40 degrees or more). oklo.org /?p=35   (1468 words)

 NASA's Cosmicopia -- Ask Us -- Planets and Moons For circular orbits the "year" increases like the radius to the 3/2 power, and the velocity decreases proportional to the square root of the radius of the orbit. Planetary alignments of one sort or another happen all the time and have for 5 billion years, and they have NO effect on the Earth, despite what some kooks and con artists say. If a planetary orbit is more elliptical than the Earth's (which is pretty circular), then you would get seasons as you moved closer and furthur from the star. helios.gsfc.nasa.gov /qa_plan.html#planorbit   (3996 words)

 Freelance Traveller - Doing It My Way - Planetary Assault Operations: A White Paper There are a number of references to planetary sieges and the taking/retaking of planets by opposing navies in the Traveller Canon, especially during the Frontier Wars. The orbit head(s) are the start points for ground attacks against defenders and can quickly transform into the equivalent of a class C starport. To increase their chances of securing an orbit head they are accompanied by a number of tools configured to resemble troop pods to sensors. www.freelancetraveller.com /features/rules/plntasslt.html   (3640 words)

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