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Topic: Plant breeding

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  Plant breeding - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Domestication, classical plant breeding and genetic engineering are all processes that alter the genome of a plant to enhance its qualities as a crop.
Plant breeding is practiced worldwide by government institutions and commercial enterprises.
Plants are cultured on media containing the herbicide, and eventually some natural genetic mutation will arise that enables the plant to survive in the presence of the herbicide.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Plant_breeding   (1952 words)

 Plant breeding -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Plant breeding is practiced worldwide by (The organization that is the governing authority of a political unit) government institutions and commercial enterprises.
CMS is a maternally inherited trait that makes the plant produce (additional info and facts about sterile) sterile (The fine spores that contain male gametes and that are borne by an anther in a flowering plant) pollen, enabling the production of hybrids and removing the need for (additional info and facts about detasseling) detasseling.
The majority of commercially relased transgenic plants, commonly referred to as (additional info and facts about genetically modified organism) genetically modified organisms, are currently limited to plants that have introduced resistance to (Small air-breathing arthropod) insect (A persistently annoying person) pests and (A chemical agent that destroys plants or inhibits their growth) herbicides.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/p/pl/plant_breeding.htm   (2155 words)

 PAKISSAN.com; Biotechnology in plant breeding
Plant breeding is the practical application of genetic principles to the development of improved strains of agricultural and horticultural crops.
Plant breeders can adapt old crops to new areas and uses; increase yields; improve resistance to disease; enhance the nutritional quality and flavor of fruits and vegetables; and develop traits that are useful for storage, shipping, and processing of foods.
Plant breeders use numerous methods to develop new varieties, but their primary techniques of development are selection, hybridization, and the use of mutations.
www.pakissan.com /english/advisory/biotechnology/plant.breeding.shtml   (801 words)

 Sustainable organic plant breeding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Plant breeding should be open to greater participation from outside and should take into account the socio-economic consequences of organic farming principles.
Reducing plants to the level of the cell and culturing cells in the laboratory should be seen as an ecological detour, since adaptation to the organic farm situation must occur at a later phase in the breeding process.
Plant breeding at present is determined to a large extent by the social organisation in the agro- industrial production chain, which concentrates on economies of scale, productivity and uniformity.
www.ifgene.org /breed1.htm   (3590 words)

 Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Corn plants that had traditionally been allowed to cross-pollinate freely were artificially self-pollinated for generations and crossed to other self-pollinated lines in an effort to achieve a favorable combination of alleles.
Spontaneously occurring haploid plants, those having half the normal number of chromosomes, were discovered in the 1920s, but haploid breeding was not a practical technique until methods for the controlled production of haploid plants were developed.
Such a plant is valuable because the chromosomes that were created by artificial doubling are exact copies of the chromosomes that were present in the haploid plant.
www.colostate.edu /programs/lifesciences/TransgenicCrops/history.html   (1488 words)

 Read about Plant breeding at WorldVillage Encyclopedia. Research Plant breeding and learn about Plant breeding here!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
These early breeding techniques resuted in large yield increase in the United States in the early 20th century.
World War II a number of techniques were developed that allowed plant breeders to hybridize distantly related species, and artificially induce genetic diversity.
viruses to insert genetic constructs into plants is also a possibility, but the technique is limited by the host range of the virus.
encyclopedia.worldvillage.com /s/b/Plant_improvement   (1657 words)

Wild relatives of crop plants such as beans, wheat, and maize are not uniformly resistant to insect and disease pests.
Plant breeding thus set the stage for sequential cycles of pest resistance and pest susceptibility of crop plants.
The bad news was that the breeding was more difficult because several genes had to be transferred at one time, thus requiring larger populations for selection, as well as multiplying the usual problems with "linkage drag" (undesirable genes that are tightly linked to the desired ones).
www.isb.vt.edu /proceedings99/proceedings.duvick.html   (3347 words)

 Hybridization (from plant breeding) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
This is accomplished by selecting plants found to be economically or aesthetically desirable, first by controlling the mating of selected individuals, and then by selecting certain individuals among the progeny.
Breeding procedures involve the application of several basic sciences, chiefly reproductive physiology, genetics, and statistics.
The pickaback is a popular houseplant, particularly notable for its curious reproductive abilities: the leaves of the parent plant arise from an underground stem and, when mature, they produce new plantlets from buds at the base of their leaf blades.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-67744?tocId=67744   (843 words)

 AllRefer.com - plant breeding (Agriculture, General) - Encyclopedia
plant breeding, science of altering the genetic pattern of plants in order to increase their value.
Increased crop yield is the primary aim of most plant-breeding programs; advantages of the hybrids and new varieties developed include adaptation to new agricultural areas, greater resistance to disease and insects, greater yield of useful parts, better nutritional content of edible parts, and greater physiological efficiency.
Traditionally, plant breeders have made genetic changes in crops by using various crossing and selection methods; attempts have also been made to introduce favorable mutations by the use of ultraviolet or gamma rays.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/P/plantbre.html   (250 words)

 Biodiversity - Plant Breeding vs Plant Genetics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
This enables plant scientists to select for the traits that were most suitable for the crops they are growing without having to go through the long and tedious procedures of growing the crops and selecting for the traits that are within that population.
Plant scientists have been able to overcome the slow reproductive phase involved in growing plants and have been able to produce plants that can grow in half the time with much better results.
Plant science is a growing field that is constantly evolving to promote changes that benefit both the industry and accommodate the growing populations that we are facing.
www.bioteach.ubc.ca /Biodiversity/PlantBreedingvsPlantGenetics/index.htm   (1502 words)

 Plant Breeding as a Hobby
Breeding plants to create new varieties and improve upon old ones is a hobby that nearly everyone can engage in.
In garden plants, asexual reproduction occurs when a part of the plant is separated from the parent plant and develops into a complete plant, as when strawberries produce runners which take root and form new strawberry plants.
Plants that originate from asexual reproduction are usually identical to the parent plant.
www.ag.uiuc.edu /~vista/html_pubs/PLBREED/pl_breed.html   (6847 words)

 ERS/USDA Data - Plant Breeding Research and Development
According to a 1994 national survey, 2,241 scientist years (SYs) were devoted to plant breeding research and development in U.S. public and private sectors that year—1,499 SYs in private companies, 529 in state and territorial agricultural experiment stations (SAES), and 213 associated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Public Sector Plant Breeding in a Privatizing World—Intellectual property protection, globalization, and pressure on public budgets in many industrialized countries have shifted the balance of plant breeding activity from the public to the private sector.
Public sector involvement in plant breeding may have benefits to society that the private sector's activities may not, fostering greater sharing of information and more work on traits of plant varieties that may be under-researched by private breeding programs.
www.ers.usda.gov /data/plantbreeding   (791 words)

 NESPAL - Biotechnology and Plant Breeding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Plants that enable growers to cut down on the number of trips across the field will save labor, materials and equipment.
For the plant breeder, that means breeding varieties that require less time and effort to grow.
Using both traditional and biotechnology breeding techniques, we are targeting improvements in the plant's ability to resist the environmental and biological stresses of the Southeastern U.S. Today, due to increased competition, there are more plant types and varieties to choose from, promotion is more intense and quality is key.
nespal.cpes.peachnet.edu /biotech   (118 words)

Occasionally, though, in conventional breeding, plant breeders will cross a wild relative of a crop (usually a different species within the same genus) in order to transfer particular traits from that wild relative (such as resistance to a given disease) to the crop.
A promoter from a plant virus is used because viruses are genetic parasites that have the capability to infect a plant cell and hi-jack its cellular machinery to make multiple copies of itself in a short period of time.
In some cases the plants dropped their cotton bolls, in others the tolerance genes were not properly expressed, so that the GE plants were killed by the herbicide (Fox, 1997).
www.biotech-info.net /wide_crosses.html   (6055 words)

 Public and private plant breeding

A survey conducted by Ken Frey at Iowa State University shows that plant breeding research and development in the public sector has decreased 2.5 scientist-years per year from 1990 to 19941.
The availability of Plant Variety Certificates, plant patents, and the extension of utility patents to cover new varieties as well as plant tissues and genes has contributed to industrial interest in the area.
I have spoken with several plant breeders who have told me that difficulties associated with obtaining "protected genetic stocks" from companies has harmed plant breeding in the public sector.
www.biotech-info.net /public_private.html   (554 words)

 Plant Improvement, Breeding, and Research (from domestication of plants) --  Britannica Student Encyclopedia
Scientific plant breeding did not begin until the discovery of the principles of heredity and genetics.
Domestic plants differ from their wild ancestors because they have been modified by human labor to meet specific human needs.
Crop plants are frequent victims, and crop diseases can result in enormous agricultural and economic losses.
www.britannica.com /ebi/article-206660   (892 words)

 Colin Leakey - Plant Breeding
With permission to use for study and hybridisation in the NS bean breeding programme I acquired this material as part of a deal on the dissolution of N and S. This is a straight selection from the N and S bulk and was used during its re-selection years as a seed parent.
Stop has a plant type that is a short and compact bush habit and holds its many pods throughout the plant well clear of the ground as the plant matures.
When the plant matures its pods tend to 'flop' to near the ground and for this reason it is best suited to early harvest by bean 'rodders' and wind-rowing technology rather than leaving the plants until later to mature fully in the field.
www.colinleakey.com /pages/plantbreeding.htm   (4641 words)

 Plant Breeding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The mission of the department, particularly noted for excellence in research, is the genetic improvement of crop plants for the benefit of society.
Their research efforts are supplemented by those of postdoctoral fellows, research associates, visiting scientists, technicians, research support specialists and faculty members housed in other Cornell departments who participate in the Graduate Field of Plant Breeding.
The Graduate Field of Plant Breeding has about 50 graduate students, with about 60% from outside the U.S. This field offers M.S., M.P.S. and Ph.D degrees aimed toward students pursuing careers in directing or leading plant breeding research at private companies or public institutions either nationally or internationally.
www.mannlib.cornell.edu /collections/policies/plbr.html   (757 words)

 Plant Breeding Symposium
The loss of plant breeding programs is of great concern to both our domestic plant breeding industry and the international community.
A substantial proportion of the plant breeders in developing nations were trained at U.S. Universities, and almost all the private North American breeders attended Land Grant Universities.
The bottom line is that we must find a way to keep a critical mass of applied geneticists and plant breeders at public institutions in the U.S. and around the world, if we are to maintain our training programs in plant breeding.
www.hrt.msu.edu /PBSymp   (573 words)

 Agronomy Department :: Plant Breeding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Plant Breeding involves improvement of crop plants through the study and application of quantitative genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, agronomy, related sciences.
Management and operation of commercial breeding programs Research on plant breeding methodology and technology to improve breeding effectiveness Field oriented cultivar development Application of biotechnology to crop improvement
Faculty who have field-oriented plant breeding programs, teach plant breeding courses, and mentor plant breeding students are part of the Raymond F. Baker Plant Breeding Center.
www.agron.iastate.edu /academic/graduate/plantbreeding.asp   (501 words)

 Plant Breeding Abstracts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Plant Breeding Abstracts is a fully searchable abstracts database of internationally published research.
Plant Breeding Abstracts brings you the latest information on plant breeding, genetics and biotechnology, from wild relatives to new cultivars, from protoplast isolation to transgenic plants, from gene expression to inheritance.
Plant Breeding Abstracts is updated weekly online and is also available monthly in print.
www.cabi-publishing.org /JOURNALS/Abstract/PBA/Index.asp   (222 words)

 The 1998 Canadian Encyclopedia: Plant Breeding@ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Plant breeding is the science of modifying plant species to
developments in that science has led to plant breeding being
provide new and exciting tools for plant breeding.
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1P1:28750295&refid=ip_encyclopedia_hf   (183 words)

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