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Topic: Plant stem

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In the News (Thu 20 Sep 18)

 Defra, UK - Plant Health - Stem Nematode on Narcissus and Tulip
Stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, is one of the most serious plant-parasitic nematodes of temperate regions, including Europe and the Mediterranean area.
Stem nematode is a tiny thread-like, transparent and barely visible worm-like pest which is less than 1.3 mm long.
In general, stem nematodes cause swellings and distortion of leaves and stems, and necrosis or rotting of stem bases, bulbs, tubers and rhizomes.
www.defra.gov.uk /planth/pestnote/stemnem.htm   (900 words)

 Plant stem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A stem is the main axis of a vascular plant that is divided into nodes and internodes and has one or more leaves or buds at the nodes.
Dicot stems with primary growth have a pith in the center with vascular bundles in a distinct ring visible in cross section.
Medicines obtained from stems include quinine from the bark of cinchona trees, camphor distilled from wood of a tree in the same genus that provides cinnamon, and the muscle relaxant curare from the bark of tropical vines.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Plant_stem   (1302 words)

 BLT Research -- Plant Abnormalities
Although these stem nodes are often both laterally enlarged ("fatter") and longitudinally enlarged ("stretched"), it was determined that the node elongation (stretching) was a permanent effect related to the formation energies, and this is the parameter now used.
Marked bending of the plant stem nodes which occurs at the apical (1st node beneath the seed-head), penultimate (2nd node beneath the seed-head) or even the 3rd and/or 4th nodes down the plant stem.
A darkening of the stem node, particularly when expulsion cavities are present, is usually the result of the growth of an opportunistic fungus (Ustilago tritici) which quickly forms on the exudate released from inside the plant stem.
www.bltresearch.com /plantab.html   (1994 words)

 "Elephant's Foot," a Basal Stem Disorder in Greenhouse-Grown Bell Peppers
Plants that present temporary wilts have localized lesions at the basal stem region only, but the root system is white and fibrous (Fig.
Plants located at the end of the rows, where evapotranspiration is greater, and where salts accumulate in greater amounts at the top of the soilless media.
Recovery of pepper plants from temporary wilting is difficult, although partial recovery may be possible by reducing the amount of water and moving the irrigation emitter further from the base of the stem.
edis.ifas.ufl.edu /HS206   (2529 words)

 Horticulture, Article 4: Never throw away a cycad
I like to plant the stem cutting sideways, because I have found that new plants will be produced from both sides of the stem cutting.
Notice that all the plants are produced from the outside edge, and the center of the stem has rotted a long time ago.
Zamias, and other type plants, you can separate the small plants, or keep them the way they are to have a multi-headed plant.
www.plantapalm.com /vce/horticulture/neverthrowaway.htm   (1388 words)

 Leaf Spot and Stem Rot (Bacterial Blight) of Geranium (Pelagonium spp.)
Stem rot is often seen at the point where diseased leaves are attached to the stem.
Leaf spot and stem rot can develop rapidly when plants are exposed to high moisture levels and temperatures between 70 F and 80 F. The disease spreads quickly through greenhouse flats and field plots when these conditions occur.
In addition, plants grown outside are usually infected by the end of the summer, so if these plants are to be used for indoor propagation, cuttings should be taken early in the growing season.
www.ag.ndsu.edu /pubs/plantsci/landscap/pp739w.htm   (2020 words)

 Pea Plant Stem Growth Gene Cloned
ITHACA, N.Y. -- Plant scientists from Cornell University and the University of Tasmania, Australia, have successfully cloned one of history's first-studied genes -- the gene for stem growth in peas, according to a report in the latest issue of journal The Plant Cell, which was published today.
The plant scientists working at the University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, isolated, cloned and obtained the DNA sequence of Mendel's historic tallness gene, and showed that it codes for gibberellin 3-beta-hydroxylase, a biosynthetic enzyme crucial to the division and elongation of the cells in the plant's stem.
In the dwarf plants there is a change of one base in the DNA sequence, which leads to a change of one amino acid in the resulting protein.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/1997-09/CUNS-PPSG-030997.php   (652 words)

 Plant Propagation by Stem Cuttings: Instructions for the Home Gardener
Propagation by stem cuttings is the most commonly used method to propagate many woody ornamental plants.
A 3- to 5-inch piece of stem is cut from the parent plant.
On large-leafed plants, the remaining leaves may be cut in half to reduce water loss and conserve space.
www.ces.ncsu.edu /depts/hort/hil/hil-8702.html   (1330 words)

 Great Plant Escape - Plant parts
Stems carry water and nutrients taken up by the roots to the leaves.
Stems also provide support for the plant allowing the leaves to reach the sunlight that they need to produce food.
The space between the leaves and the stem is called the internode.
www.urbanext.uiuc.edu /gpe/case1/c1facts2b.html   (100 words)

 Plant structure
1988: Trace the pathway in a flowering plant as the water moves from the soil through the tissues of the root, stem, and leaves to the atmosphere.
Explain how the concept of water potential is used to account for the movement of water from the plant stem to the atmosphere during transpiration.
Plant Seedling Mass (grams) Day 1 Day 30 Student A 4 24 Student B 5 35 Student C 4 64 a) Identify three different environmental variables that could account for differences in the mass of the seedlings at day 30.
apbio.biosci.uga.edu /exam/Essays/html/questions/plant_systems.html   (1050 words)

 Stems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The tracheids and possibly vessels of the plant stem serve as plumbing.
Conduct water and nutrients Sugars and amino acids from photosynthesis in the leaf are conducted by the phloem in the stem to the rest of the plant.
In other herbaceous plants and in young shoot ends of woody plants, the stems are often green and contribute in at least a minor way to the photosynthetic output of the plant.
koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu /Plants_Human/stems.html   (1783 words)

 Olympus Microscopy Resource Center: Mortimer Abramowitz Gallery of Photomicrography - Plant Stem Tissue
Generally, plant stems are thought to be vertical structures, but they may also lie on the ground, climb on rocks and other objects, or be completely subterranean.
The principal occupation of the stem is to sustain the leaves by conducting water, food, and minerals to them.
Water storage is particularly important to the stems of cacti since they must endure long periods with minimal amounts of rainfall.
www.olympusmicro.com /galleries/abramowitz/pages/plantstemsmall.html   (195 words)

 CNN.com - Singapore fast tracks Australian stem cell plant - August 21, 2001
Human stem cells are the undifferentiated precursors of all the cells in the human body.
Stem cells could potentially be used to create new, healthy tissue cures for such diseases as cancer and Parkinson's disease.
The Melbourne pilot plant would be funded by an Australian government grant to the National Centre for Advanced Cell Engineering at Monash University, the company said.
edition.cnn.com /2001/WORLD/asiapcf/08/21/sing.aust.stemcells   (341 words)

 Plant Structure II
Dicot stems have bundles in a ring surrounding parenchyma cells in a pith region.
Leaf phyllotaxy is the pattern exhibited (spiral, opposite, alternate, whorled) of leaf attachment to a stem.
Plant Biology (University of Maryland) Text, outlines, and images that are part of a general botany course.
www.emc.maricopa.edu /faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPLANTANATII.html   (929 words)

 Plant Pipes - Environmental Protection Agency
Materials: Slightly wilted house plant; clear plastic cups; red or blue food coloring; selection of plant stems in water such as woody twigs with and without leaves, herbaceous stems with and without leaves, celery with and without leaves, white carnations, white daisies, or stem of succulent plant or cactus.
Ask them to hold the plant stem up to a bright light to see whether they can determine and measure the height of the colored water.
To conclude, have the students cut thin cross sections of the various stems and observe the plant pipe patterns with a hand lens or microscope.
www.epa.gov /superfund/students/clas_act/summer/pipes.htm   (838 words)

 Plant Hormones/Nutrition
Auxin moves to the darker side of the plant, causing the cells there to grow larger than corresponding cells on the lighter side of the plant.
This produces a curving of the plant stem tip toward the light, a plant movement known as phototropism.
is the plant response to the relative amounts of light and dark in a 24 hour period, and controls the flowering of many plants.
www.emc.maricopa.edu /faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPLANTHORM.html   (2475 words)

 Plant Growth and Structure
While it was reporting this peculiar plant performance, the journal went on to mention that doctors in south Africa had found a little boy with a chrysanthemum seed growing out of one eye and a British woman who had a tomato plant growing out of her upper gum.
All plants have a special tissue that continues to divide called apical meristem which is generally found at the tip of roots or shoots.
In all vascular bundles the xylem is located toward the center of the stem and the phloem faces the epidermis.
home.earthlink.net /~dayvdanls/plant_structure.html   (1242 words)

 Plant Body Weight-Induced Secondary Growth in Arabidopsis and Its Transcription Phenotype Revealed by ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
All plants are the same age (8 weeks old) and have similar stem thickness, but differ in the height growth of inflorescence stems.
Basal level of the stem was cross-sectioned and stained with 2% phloroglucinol-HCl to visualize secondary xylem as red color in the lower section.
Plants cut at the basal level are shown and the arrows indicate the basal level.
www.plantphysiol.org /cgi/content/full/135/2/1069   (6745 words)

 Word list
A method of plant propagation where a cut is made in the stem of the plant, wrapped with sphagnum moss in a water proof material, and the plant will form roots at this point., 2.
a class of plants that flower and the seeds are enclosed in a fruit, 3.
Members of the plant kingdom consisting of nonvascular plants in the Hepaticophyta (Liverworts), Anthocerotophyta (Hornworts) and Bryophyta (Mosses) plant divisions.
www.plantstogrow.com /Botany/alpa_list/list_2.htm   (3535 words)

Sometimes, to figure out whether a plant part is a root or a modified stem, you have to analyze it.
The "classical stem" is a tree trunk, which in a no-nonsense manner simply rises from the ground and supports the tree's leafy branches -- like the Winged Sumac shown at the left.
Clumped stems tend to protect one another from cold wind and hot sun, plus, if one stem breaks, it's less loss to the plant because other stems are available.
www.backyardnature.net /stems.htm   (734 words)

 Max Planck Researchers Make Breakthrough in Plant Stem Cell Research
All above ground parts of a plant - leaves, stem, flowers, and seeds - ultimately are derived from cells of a small tissue at the tip of the shoot.
Biologists call this tissue the "apical meristem", and it contains totipotent stem cells that are active throughout the life of the plant.
Unlike the stem cells of animals, which can only produce specific kinds of tissue after the animal is past its embryonic stage, plant stem cells remain their totipotency and, therefore plants can continue growing over many years, developing new organs.
www.monsanto.co.uk /news/ukshowlib.phtml?uid=9722   (738 words)

 Stem Cell Plant to Bring Treatment to Thousands   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
VesCell consists of a patient’s own adult stem cells harvested from approximately ½ pint of the patient’s own blood and is used to treat heart disorders.
TheraVitae is a private, multinational company focused on using stem cells from the patient's own blood in order to treat a variety of disorders, especially cardiovascular diseases.
The company has developed a proprietary stem cell technology called VesCell that is currently being used by hospitals in Thailand to treat patients with heart disease.
www.emediawire.com /releases/2005/10/emw296296.htm   (559 words)

 Regulation of WUSCHEL Transcription in the Stem Cell Niche of the Arabidopsis Shoot Meristem -- Bäurle and Laux 17 ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
stem cell niche are present (Figures 2A, 3I, and 3J).
Lenhard, M., and Laux, T. Stem cell homeostasis in the Arabidopsis shoot meristem is regulated by intercellular movement of CLAVATA3 and its sequestration by CLAVATA1.
Schoof, H., Lenhard, M., Haecker, A., Mayer, K.F.X., Jürgens, G., and Laux, T. The stem cell population of Arabidopsis shoot meristems is maintained by a regulatory loop between the CLAVATA and WUSCHEL genes.
www.plantcell.org /cgi/content/full/17/8/2271   (4485 words)

 Jade Plant (crassula) stem problem - UBC Botanical Garden Forums
It is planted in good soil, and is watered in accordance with it's care instructions.
However, the stems appear to be drying out in places, as though the joint cracked (the stems have multiple 'joints') and then allowed that part of the stem to start getting air, and dying.
I hear that this may happen if the plant has been watered a little too frequently (not enough to cause rot) and is grows a scraggily.
www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org /forums/showthread.php?t=12186   (325 words)

 Nikon MicroscopyU: SMZ1500 Fluorescence Digital Image Gallery - Herbaceous Plant Stem
The stems of herbaceous plants are soft and flexible and are typically found on annuals, which are plants that grow for only one season (such as most vegetables).
The herbaceous stem is composed of vascular bundles (xylem and phloem) arranged in a circle around a central core of spongy tissue; this spongy tissue is composed of parenchyma cells and is called the pith.
Surrounding the xylem and phloem is a layer known as the cortex, which varies in thickness from species to species; surrounding the cortex is the outermost layer of cells, which is called the epidermis.
www.microscopyu.com /galleries/smz1500/herbaceousandwoodystemsmall.html   (135 words)

 Plant stem cell breakthrough made   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology have now uncovered a feedback mechanism, involving a growth-enhancing hormone and a regulatory protein, which controls the number of stem cells the plant produces.
Lohmannâ?TMs team now carried out elaborate genetic and biochemical experimentation, and thereby identified four genes, which might serve as a mechanistic connection between plant hormones and the genetic regulatory elements in meristem.
The researchers in T?n used gene expression analysis to show that the genes ARR5, ARR6, ARR7 and ARR 15, "Arabidopsis Response Regulators", are subject to genetic regulation via the WUSCHEL gene.
www.news-medical.net /?id=15109   (762 words)

 Max Planck researchers make a breakthrough in plant stem cell research
Max Planck researchers make a breakthrough in plant stem cell research
Foreground: a wild type seedling with functional meristem.
s team now carried out elaborate genetic and biochemical experimentation, and thereby identified four genes, which might serve as a mechanistic connection between plant hormones and the genetic regulatory elements in meristem.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2005-12/m-mpr122205.php   (747 words)

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