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Topic: Platonic realism


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  Platonic realism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Platonism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals after the Greek philosopher Plato who lived between c.
Plato's own articulation of the realism regarding the existence of universals is expounded in his The Republic and elsewhere, notably in the Phaedo, the Phaedrus, the Meno, and the Parmenides.
The response reconciles Platonism with empiricism by contending that an abstract (and thus not real) object is real and knowable by its instantiation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Platonic_realism   (1194 words)

  
 Realism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Realism is commonly defined as a concern for fact or reality and a rejection of the impractical and visionary.
As a word in common use, however, realism is employed to suggest a wide variety of meanings, the choice among them depending on the context of use and the pertinent community of interpretation, from the arts, especially film, literature, and painting, to philosophy, politics, and international relations.
Realism holds that in pursuit of that security, states will attempt to amass resources, and that relations between states are determined by their relative level of power.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Realism   (552 words)

  
 SEP: Realism
Benacerraf argued that platonism faces difficulties in squaring its conception of the subject-matter of arithmetic with a general causal constraint on knowledge (roughly, that a subject can be said to know that P only if she stands in some causal relation to the subject matter of P).
Rather, Field conceives what is potentially a far more powerful challenge to platonic realism when he suggests that not only has the platonic realist no recourse to any explanation of reliability that is causal in character, but that she has no recourse to any explanation that is non-causal in character either.
Platonic realism is committed to the existence of acausal objects and to the claim that these objects, and facts about them, are independent of anyone's beliefs, linguistic practices, conceptual schemes, and so on (in short to the claim that these objects, and facts about them, are language- and mind-independent).
plato.stanford.edu /entries/realism   (11740 words)

  
 Realism
In Western art and literature, realism generally denotes a mid-19th century French cultural movement, characterized by the rejection of the allegories, mythologies and fantasies of academic art in favour of rendering subjects realistically for aesthetic or political reasons.
Realism began as a reaction to romanticism, in which subjects were treated idealistically.
Realism in the visual arts can refer the way a subject is depicted (life-like as opposed to fantastical) or to the choice of subject matter (everyday life as opposed to mythology).
www.jahsonic.com /Realism.html   (525 words)

  
 YourArt.com >> Encyclopedia >> Plato   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Platonism has traditionally been interpreted as a form of metaphysical dualism{{fact}}, sometimes referred to as Platonic realism, and is regarded as one of the earlier representatives of metaphysical objective idealism.
We can imagine everything in the universe represented on a line of increasing reality; it is divided once in the middle, and then once again in each of the resulting parts.
Albert Einstein drew on Plato's understanding of an immutable reality that underlies the flux of appearances for his objections to the probabilistic picture of the physical universe propounded by Niels Bohr in his interpretation of quantum mechanics.
www.yourart.com /research/encyclopedia.cgi?subject=/Plato   (4208 words)

  
 Cathy Legg -- Predication and the Problem of Realism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
I shall explore and contrast the realism of David Armstrong, who works within the twentieth century analytic paradigm whereby "real" and "existent" are coextensive, and Charles Peirce, who saw the real as properly opposed not to the nonexistent but to the fictive.
Peirce thought that the recognition of both existence and reality was essential to a healthy metaphysics, and that the existent is (logically) particular and the real is (logically) general.
He also thought that realism itself should be held to a posteriori:, "For the simpler hypothesis which excluded the influence of ideas upon matter had to be tried and persevered in until it was thoroughly exploded.
members.door.net /arisbe/menu/library/aboutcsp/legg/realism.htm   (7772 words)

  
 Realism
Realism denotes two distinct sets of philosophical theories, one regarding the nature of universal concepts and the other dealing with knowledge of objects in the world.
In late - classical and medieval philosophy, realism was a development of the Platonic theory of Forms and held, generally, that universals such as "red" or "man" have an independent, objective existence, either in a realm of their own or in the mind of God.
Medieval realism is usually contrasted with Nominalism, and the classic critiques of realism from this point of view were provided by Peter Abelard and William of Occam.
mb-soft.com /believe/txc/realism.htm   (770 words)

  
 Karen J. Chung: Topic 7: Are There Limits to Science?
Realism defines science as distinct (not influenced by individuals or their activities), concerned with truth and the universal laws of nature, and existing in a platonic realm.
Realism implies that there is only a finite amount of knowledge, because there will eventually be a point at which everything in this platonic realm has been explored and is known.
The two main objections to realism are observation, which relates to the limits implied by the uncertainty principle, and interpretation.
www.dartmouth.edu /~coco8/topic_7/students/Karen-J.-Chung880506593.html   (602 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism
The exaggerated Realism of Plato, investing the real being with the attributes of the being in thought, is the principal doctrine of his metaphysics.
A modern form of Platonic or Exaggerated Realism is found in the ontologist doctrine defended by certain Catholic philosophers in the middle of the nineteenth century, and which consist in identifying the objects of universal ideas with the Divine ideas or the archetypes on which the world was fashioned.
Ontologism, which is akin to Platonic Realism, arbitrarily identifies the ideal types in our intellect, which come to us from the sensible world by means of abstraction, with the ideal types consubstantial with the essence of God.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/11090c.htm   (3003 words)

  
 Relations: As objects of knowledge
The main problem with platonic realism, as Plato himself recognized, is that there is no way to explain how objects outside space and time can have any effect on objects in the natural world.
The other form takes the denial of the existence of platonic entities beyond the natural world to mean that mathematics must be about the natural world, and by assimilating mathematics to empirical science, denies that mathematics has the kind of certainty that is taken for granted by realists and other anti-realists.
Benacerraf (1973) argues against Platonism on the ground that it is not compatible with a causal theory of mathematical knowledge.
www.twow.net /ObjText/OtjRB.htm   (6291 words)

  
 Malaspina Great Books
Plato (Platon, "the broad shouldered") was born at Athens in 428 or 427 B.C. He came of an aristocratic and wealthy family, although some writers represented him as having felt the stress of poverty.
This cnviction is apparent especially in the Platonic account of the origin of the universe,; contained in the "Timaeus", although the details regarding the activity of the demiurgos and the created gods should not, perhaps, be taken seriously.
Their successors, however, in the twelfth century came to a knowledge of the psychology,; metaphysics,; and ethics of Aristotle,; and adopted the Aristotelean view so completely that before the end of the thirteenth century the Stagyrite occupied in the Christian schools the position occupied in the fifth century by the founder of the Academy.
www.malaspina.org /Plato.htm   (5639 words)

  
 Charles A. Coulombe: Ultra-Realism FAQ
For him, although the Universals are real in a sense, they derive their reality from the sum total of their physical manifestations.
They were preconditioned by the dogma of the Incarnation, and the philosophy of "realism" which underlies it, to find the ideal within the material, the beautiful within the ugly, the moral and peaceful in the midst of violence and disorder.
If the Idea, that is, the general or universal, were not a reality, "the Church" would be a mere collective term, and the particular churches, or rather the individuals composing them, would be the only realities.
www.cheetah.net /~ccoulomb/ultra-realism.html   (6924 words)

  
 Realism
Whether there is a version of platonic realism with the resources to see off Field's epistemological challenge is very much a live issue (see Hale 1994, Divers and Miller 1999).
But these are completely unexplanatory: they are really just placeholders for our capacity to form correct moral judgements (the reader should here hear an echo of the complaints Benecerraf and Field raise against arithmetical platonism).
There are, no doubt, kinds of moral realism which do have the consequence that moral reality may transcend all possibility of detection.
www.science.uva.nl /~seop/archives/fall2002/entries/realism   (11516 words)

  
 R
REALISM - Realism is a epistemological doctrine that has taken on slightly different meanings depending on which century is under consideration.
In modern philosophy, realism is the doctrine that ordinary objects of sense perception, such as chairs, have an existence independent of their being perceived.
In more sophisticated versions, sometimes referred to as critical realism, some explanation is given of the relationship between the object and the observer that accounts for the possibility of illusion, hallucination, and other perceptual errors.
www.candleinthedark.com /r.html   (1834 words)

  
 History of Philosophy 33
It was, however, to the Platonic metaphysics and cosmology that he devoted his attention as a philosopher, taking his stand with the other "Chartrains" on the side of the Platonic realists.
William of Conches, a pupil of Bernard of Chartres, after having taught a system of Platonic realism in the schools at Paris (about 1122), was warned by William of St. Thierry that his theological doctrines, and in particular his apparent identification of the Holy Ghost with the world-soul, would lead to heresy.
The Platonic tendency is also apparent in the doctrine of native forms, although Gilbert is careful to avoid the Neo-Platonic doctrine that the forms are in some sense to be identified with the mind of God ("non in mente Dei consistit").
www.nd.edu /Departments/Maritain/etext/hop33.htm   (1978 words)

  
 Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2002.07.26
Instead -- and this is a second important feature of the 'Platonism' he advocates -- he favours a theory of human nature according to which there is no such thing as a 'core self' to be detected, but only a 'future soul' to be hoped for.
Rist takes seriously what he dubs the 'surd-factor' in human nature, revealing itself in the incapacity of most men by themselves to unify their souls and to live a life which is governed by the love of God, which results from the feeling of incompleteness that accompanies their inner division.
Following the tactic of Zeno, the pupil of Parmenides, he concentrates on the consequences if 'Platonic realism' should prove to be false, that is, he sketches the world we would live in if 'Thrasymachean nihilism' should turn out to be true.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /bmcr/2002/2002-07-26.html   (1963 words)

  
 20th WCP: The Structure of Chinese Language and Ontological Insights: A Collective-Noun Hypothesis*
Now the real question is whether the former conflicts with or is compatible with, or even an elaboration of, the latter.
The Platonic one-many problem presupposes that there is one single universal entity which is common or strictly identical across all those particular concrete horses and by virtue of which many individual horses bear the same name 'horse'; the single universal entity is labeled 'horseness'.
Under the presupposition aforementioned, there is the debate among Platonic realism, other versions of realism, and conceptualism In the Western philosophical tradition, nominalism appears as a challenge to the very presupposition of the Platonic one-many problem: there are no universals except for general words like 'horse' and 'dog'.
www.bu.edu /WCP/Papers/Comp/CompMou.htm   (4206 words)

  
 Edmund Husserl [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Thus, reality is not guaranteed for an isolated item, even when it seems to be giving us a reason to take it as the unified core attracting its manifold appearings to one hub of reference.
That means that the thing is a reality as a unity of a manifold of appearances connected according to rules.
Indeed, the thing may look entirely different to different observers; however, its reality constrains all to agree that, at least, "it is there." Oddly, then, the real thing is another kind of zero, for its barest reality consists in its being an empty place-holder (91-93).
www.iep.utm.edu /h/husserl.htm   (8785 words)

  
 SEP: Descartes' Ontological Argument
One problem with the theory of real distinction then was that it reified essence and existence, treating them as real beings in addition to the created entity that they compose.
In general, the essence and the existence of a substance are merely rationally distinct, and hence identical in reality.
The purpose of this defense of Descartes is not to render a verdict as whether he has the correct account of existence, but to show that he had a rather sophisticated and systematic treatment of what has been one of the great bugbears in the history of philosophy.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/descartes-ontological   (7187 words)

  
 Universals
That is, a Platonic realist theory admits for the possibility of uninstantiated universals.
This position, associated with nominalism, asserts that universals are really just names that are given to describe and categorize particulars.
According to Platonic realism, there are universals in a realm of universals, and these universals may or may not be instantiated in particulars.
www.yellowpigs.net /index.php?topic=philosophy/universals   (1444 words)

  
 Real Ethics: Reconsidering the Foundations of Morality by John M. Rist [ISBN: 0521809215] - Find Cheap Textbook Prices ...
John Rist surveys the history of ethics from Plato to the present and offers a vigorous defence of an ethical theory based on a revised version of Platonic realism.
In a wide-ranging discussion he examines well-known alternatives to Platonism, in particular Epicurus, Hobbes, Hume and Kant as well as contemporary 'practical reasoners', and argues that most post-Enlightenment theories of morality (as well as Nietzschean subversions of such theories) depend on an abandoned Christian metaphysic and are unintelligible without such grounding.
His lively and accessible study is informed by a powerful sense of philosophical history, and will be of interest to both students and scholars of ethics.
www.gettextbooks.com /isbn_0521809215.html   (224 words)

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