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Topic: Pliocene

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  Pliocene - LoveToKnow 1911   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
Hypothetical continental outlines Pliocene Period Generally all over the world the majority of Pliocene formations are non-marine, and the limited and local nature of the elevations since the inception of the period has exposed to view only the shallow marginal marine deposits.
The principal exception to the last statement is to be found in the Pliocene of Italy and Sicily, where a continuous crustal depression permitted the accumulation of great thicknesses of material, which later on, towards the close of the period, were elevated some thousands of feet.
The Pliocene rocks of Britain now occupy but a small area in Norfolk, Suffolk and part of Essex; but from the presence of small outlying patches in Cornwall (St Erth and St Agnes), Dorsetshire (Dewlish) and Kent (Lenham), it is evident that the Pliocene Sea covered a considerable part of southern England.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Pliocene   (1737 words)

The Pliocene epoch is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from about 5 million to 1.8-1.6 million years before present.
The Pliocene follows the Miocene epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene epoch.
The Pliocene is the fifth and last epoch of the Tertiary Era.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/pl/Pliocene.html   (281 words)

 AllRefer.com - Pliocene epoch (Geology And Oceanography) - Encyclopedia
Encroachments by the sea were limited to a narrow strip along the coasts of the Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, and the Gulf Coast states, and an embayment, smaller than that of the preceding Miocene epoch, in California.
In Europe the Pliocene sea covered small parts of the northwest of the continent and a large area around the present Mediterranean; a number of volcanoes were active, among them Vesuvius and Etna.
The climate of the Pliocene was markedly cooler and drier than that of the Miocene and foreshadowed the glacial climates of the Pleistocene epoch.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/P/Pliocene.html   (417 words)

 Pliocene - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.332 million to 1.806 million years before present.
The Pliocene is the second epoch of the Neogene period of the Cenozoic era.
The Pliocene faunal stages from youngest to oldest according to ICS classification are:
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pliocene   (1279 words)

 Geologic Time: The Pliocene   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
The Pliocene is the fifth epoch of the Cenozoic.
It is during the Pliocene that the first bipedal ancestors of humans are known to have evolved.
The middle of the Pliocene was marked by the onset of glaciation.
www.mnh.si.edu /anthro/humanorigins/faq/gt/cenozoic/pliocene.htm   (382 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Pliocene
Pliocene environments were generally cooler and drier than those of preceding Tertiary epochs.
Protoceratidae An American offshoot from the main traguloid stem of Artiodactyla, ranging from the Oligocene to the Pliocene, that were deer-sized mammals with horn-like structures in the nasal region, above the orbits, and on the upper part of the brain case.
Pliocene Amphibians and Reptiles from Clark County, Nevada.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Pliocene   (673 words)

 Palaeos Cenozoic: Pliocene: The Pliocene Epoch
The Pliocene saw the continuation of the climatic cooling that had began in the Miocene, with subtropical regions retreating equatorially, the beginning of the large ice caps, especially in Antarctica, and the northern hemisphere lands and ocean cooling likewise.
This was associated with a remarkable increase in molluscan turnover throughout the Pliocene.
The fauna of the Pliocene does not differ much from that of the Miocene, although the period is regarded by many zoologists as the climax of the Age of Mammals.
www.palaeos.com /Cenozoic/Pliocene/Pliocene.htm   (1936 words)

 Pliocene quick guide
The peak phases of warmth during the Pliocene were mostly during the interval between 3 and 4 million years ago (the mid-Pliocene), although almost all of the Pliocene was warmer than today's world.
The most extensive record of the Pliocene relates to the African continent, although even here the evidence of environments on land is fragmentary, and the ocean cores and lake cores are difficult to interpret and to correlate with one another.
Red lateritic soils of early Pliocene age occur in equatorial east Africa, east of the Rift Valley, and leave open the possibility that in the lower Pliocene tropical forest extended in a continuous band from coast to coast, at least intermittantly (H. Faure pers.
www.esd.ornl.gov /projects/qen/pliocene.html   (2735 words)

 Pliocene Summary
The Pliocene Epoch is the last epoch on the Tertiary Period or, in the alternative, the last epoch in the Neogene Period.
The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.3 million to 1.8 million years before present.
The Pliocene is the second epoch of the Neogene period of the Cenozoic era.
www.bookrags.com /Pliocene   (1793 words)

 Mark Chandler Home Page
The middle Pliocene presents us with the reverse situation: global data sets reveal the mature state of a warmer world, however, the forcings that led to Pliocene warming are only partially identified.
The middle Pliocene climate displays numerous characteristics akin to our expectations of the coming century: Microfaunal evidence indicates a reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient with the greatest warming at high latitudes.
Pliocene CO levels were elevated above pre-industrial concentrations to amounts approximately equivalent to those that the Earth's atmosphere will attain by the end of this decade.
columbia.edu /~mac59/pliocene   (338 words)

 Alibris: Pliocene
In the third volume of the Saga of the Pliocene Exile, the two dominant alien species--who have conquered Earth's distant past after traveling back in time--find that the fragile peace between their peoples is threatened by the arrival of a far more advanced race from further into the future.
In the fourth volume of the Saga of the Pliocene Exile, a lone hero must fight a corrupt alien king's tyrannical rule in the strife-plagued past of an Earth ravaged by aliens from the future.
In the second volume of the Saga of the Pliocene Exile, the warlike natures of humans and aliens begin to surface when they find themselves with a whole planet upon which to fight out their differences--Earth, in the distant past.
www.alibris.com /search/books/subject/Pliocene   (670 words)

 PLIOCENE (from the Gr.... - Online Information article about PLIOCENE (from the Gr....
Kent (Lenham), it is evident that the Pliocene Sea covered a considerable part of southern England.
general use for all the members of the series, and it is frequently employed as a synonym for Pliocene.
The Pliocene deposits of Belgium and Holland and the northern extremity of France are closely related with those of Britain, though as a whole they are very much thicker, The older marine beds may be traced from Lenham across the Channel at See also:
encyclopedia.jrank.org /PIG_POL/PLIOCENE_from_the_Gr_sreiov_mer.html   (2547 words)

During the middle Pliocene, the freezing line over the annual period and DJF is positioned further to the north of the present-day position (~10ÂșN).
The primary forcing mechanism, producing the altered precipitation pattern over the USA during the middle Pliocene, is a strong increase in westerly wind strength (Figure 6).
The feedbacks generating the precipitation pattern in central and southern regions of the USA during the middle Pliocene are subtler.
palaeo-electronica.org /2001_1/climate/results.htm   (941 words)

 NASA GISS: Research Features: Pliocene Global Warming: Page 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
The Pliocene epoch covers the period from approximately 5 to 1.8 million years ago and, as such, spanned the period of time during which the Earth transitioned from relatively warm climates to the generally cooler climates of the Pleistocene.
The Pliocene epoch itself contains episodic climate fluctuations prior to the late Pliocene cooling, and our focus for study is a warm period in the middle Pliocene between 3.15 and 2.85 million years before present.
This middle Pliocene warming is, potentially, an analog of the future that may provide a means of gaining insight into the effects of global warming.
www.giss.nasa.gov /research/features/pliocene/page2.html   (966 words)

 The Cenozoic Era.
Pliocene epochs) and the Quaternary period (the Pleistocene and
During the Pliocene epoch the Bovids (cattle, sheep, goats, antelope and gazelle) begin to rise to dominate the mammal fauna.
Typical mammals of the Pliocene epoch include Deinotherium, a specialized elephant which reached a height of 3 metres (10 feet) at the shoulder, the giant ground sloth Megatherium which reached a length of 6 metres (20 feet), and the long-legged long-necked Macrauchenia which is a member of an extinct group of mammals called the Litopterns.
www.bobainsworth.com /fossil/cenozoic.htm   (783 words)

 Pliocene   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
The Pliocene epoch is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.3 million to 1.8 million years before present.
The Pliocene is the second epoch of the Neogene period.
Mid-latitude glaciations were probably underway before the end of the epoch; the Arctic ice cap formed, and Antarctica was covered entriely with year-round glaciation by the end of the period.
pliocene.iqnaut.net   (830 words)

 Evolution: Change: Deep Time
The cooling and drying trend that began in the Miocene epoch continues in the Pliocene.
During the Pliocene, humanlike primates evolve in eastern Africa.
Many Pliocene animals resemble those alive today, but some are considerably larger.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/evolution/change/deeptime/pliocene.html   (450 words)

Whether the Pliocene strata he has explored so fully on the Pacific coast corresponds strictly with the deposits which bear that name in Europe, may be a question requiring further consideration.
Whitney and others for the Pliocene age of human remains found in the gold gravels of California, I have never held to be valid, and have regretted that able geologists should have committed themselves to so startling and otherwise improbable conclusions on grounds apparently so insufficient.
The finding of relics in a Pliocene stratum no more proves that man was Pliocene than the finding of a pickaxe in a coal-mine would prove that man belonged to the carboniferous period.
www.creationism.org /victoria/VictoriaInst1881_pg191.htm   (9242 words)

 Pleistocene   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
The Pliocene Epoch (meaning "very recent") comprises a relatively short time between 5 and 2 million years ago, and is the last epoch of the Tertiary Period.
Significant in the fossil record of the Pliocene are the early hominid remains from Africa.
South America, prior to the rise of the isthmus of Panama, was noted for marsupial mammalian fauna, while dominant mammals in the north were placental.
www.carlwozniak.com /earth/Pliocene.html   (274 words)

 Woods From The Ricardo Pliocene Of Last Chance Gulch, California
The present habitants of related trees and growth rings in the fossil specimens suggest that the Pliocene assemblage grew in a steep sided valley in a region characterized by low rainfall and temperature approximately that which distinguishes the Upper from the Lower Sonoron zone.
The suggested Pliocene climate differs from the present climate of the Mojave Desert in that the former is characterized by less extreme aridity.
Since the Pliocene palm root differs somewhat from that of Washingtonia, and since it was associated with palm stems that differ markedly from those of Washingtonia, it is referred to Palmoxylodon mohavensis, the species of palm represented by wood in the deposits.
members.aol.com /Waucoba7/redrock/webberreport.html   (2277 words)

 Search Results
The Pliocene Rattlesnake Formation and Fauna of Eastern Oregon with Notes on the Geology of the Rattlesnake and Mascall Deposits.
Hibbard, C. Paleoecology and Correlation of the Rexroad Fauna from the Upper Pliocene of Southwestern Kansas, as Indicated by the Mammals.
Hibbard, C. and Phillis, L. The Occurrence of Eucaster and Epigaulus in the Lower Pliocene of Trego County, Kansas.
www.paleopubs.com /linksPublications.cfm?criteria=Pliocene&searchBy=catalogue&searchType=time   (2202 words)

 NASA GISS: Research Features: Pliocene Global Warming   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
Much of the research conducted by scientists at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies is aimed at developing tools for simulating future climate change.
During the Pliocene, global temperatures, particularly at high latitudes, are believed to have been significantly warmer than today.
If our interest, however, is in climates warmer than today, we must look back at least three million years, to the middle of the Pliocene epoch, to find a period in Earth history with global average temperatures more than a degree (Celsius) higher than the present.
www.giss.nasa.gov /research/features/pliocene   (376 words)

 MODELLING MIDDLE PLIOCENE WARM CLIMATES OF THE USA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-16)
The first (middle Pliocene control experiment) uses the full set of PRISM2 boundary conditions to investigate the nature of the middle Pliocene palaeoclimate and its relative difference to the present-day climate of the USA.
In the results, statistical tests of the Pliocene control-run model predictions are based on the Student t-test described by Chervin and Schneider (1976).
Moreover, the changes in climate between the middle Pliocene and present-day are generally large and so clearly exceed the statistical test.
palaeo-electronica.org /2001_1/climate/exper.htm   (327 words)

 SDNHM: The Elusive Pliocene Rocky Shore
West of the lagoon was a sand bar, and surf crashed on the surface of a sandy beach, where Pismo Clams and other sandy shore invertebrates lived, from the water's edge to the depths of the ocean.
But the fossil evidence found in the field indicates that the extinct Pliocene species were actually found offshore on the sandy and cobbly ocean bottom.
A number of marine deposits of later Pliocene age, found from around Mount Soledad and the metropolitan area of San Diego, contain the white limpet Acmaea mitra, and the predatory snail Thais lamellosa, species that are today common along rocky shores of northern California and the Pacific Northwest.
www.sdnhm.org /research/paleontology/plio-shore.html   (580 words)

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