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Topic: Plumage

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  PLUMAGE MUTATIONS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
This plumage is very similar to the adult female plumage except that the cream median streaks on the back feathers are narrower, and the markings on the face are not as distinct.
The plumage of wild-type adult Japanese quail is brown in color, but it is highly variable in terms of the shades of brown and some of the markings on the breast and throat.
Plumage color can be affected by extention of the distribution of melanin; the dilution of pigmentation; the restriction of distribution of melanin; or the absence of pigment (amelanotics).
www.agsci.ubc.ca /ubcquail/Research/plumage/APlumageIntro.html   (455 words)

 Plumages and Molts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In most cases, the fresh plumaged birds in the fall are duller because of gray or buffy feather margins that wear off gradually, exposing a somewhat brighter or darker plumage by spring.
Alternate plumage is acquired by a prealternate molt, which is usually a partial molt in most birds, replacing only body feathers, but not the wings and tail.
When a new molt and plumage are discovered, the procedure to name it is to equate one of the plumages with later basic plumages and to compare it with basic plumages in related species to determine which is the additional supplemental plumage.
www.ofo.ca /plumages.htm   (4967 words)

 Charles Darwin - Descent of Man - Chapter 16
They give us but little insight into the plumage of their progenitors, excepting in so far that, when the young and the old are coloured in the same general manner throughout a whole group of species, it is probable that their progenitors were similarly coloured.
In all these cases, the nuptial plumage which we may assume was originally acquired by the adult males during the breeding-season, and transmitted to the adults of both sexes at the corresponding season, has been modified, whilst the winter and immature plumages have been left unchanged.
In the Anastomus oscitans, we have still better evidence that the white plumage is nuptial character, for it is developed only during the summer; the young in their immature state, and the adults in their winter dress, being grey and fl.
www.infidels.org /library/historical/charles_darwin/descent_of_man/chapter_16.html   (11450 words)

The plumage, as much in the female as in the male, prevents attacks of possible predators, since they are camouflaged very well in the hábitat in which you/they live.
Inside the process of development of the chick we find the postnatal plumage, which understands from the third day until the tenth third day, where the chicks are volantones reason for which you/they possess a developed plumage and they prepare to pass to the juvenile phase.
The maturity of the plumage is acquired with the arrival of several winter stations; in the area we observe that most of the flock possesses a consolidated plumage and of adult.
www.angelfire.com /co/naturaleza/Plumage.html   (442 words)

 Bird Families of the World   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Plumage with eye-lashes, neck lacks lateral apteryae (as also in Heliornis and seriemas), wing eutaxic, 10 primaries, 11 secondaries, tail with 10 rectrices, wing molt regular stepwise descending, postjuvenal tail molt from outer and inner towards T3, adult tail molt irregular (the molt features unlike cuckoos).
Plumage often gray, often barred, sometimes glossy fl, bill notched in some species, broad at base and curved along culmen, in minivets the bill small and plumage with reds or yellows.
Lax dorsal plumage, often uniformly colored; body form variable, tend to be heavy-bodied, the tarsus fairly large and stout and not booted and the bill not flat, the wings usually rounded, and the juvenile plumage unspotted.
www.ummz.lsa.umich.edu /birds/Bird_Families_of_the_World.html   (11475 words)

 Charles Darwin - Descent of Man - Chapter 13
The coloured plumage and certain other ornaments of the adult males are either retained for life, or are periodically renewed during the summer and breeding-season.
In the white ibis, the cheeks, the inflatable skin of the throat, and the basal portion of the beak then become crimson.* In one of the rails, Gallicrex cristatus, a large red caruncle is developed during this period on the head of the male.
Changes of colour in the plumage according to the season depend, firstly on a double annual moult, secondly on an actual change of colour in the feathers themselves, and thirdly on their dull-coloured margins being periodically shed, or on these three processes more or less combined.
www.infidels.org /library/historical/charles_darwin/descent_of_man/chapter_13.html   (11135 words)

 plumage on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Fashion and Style: The feathers are flying; From McQueen to Miu Miu, fashion's love affair with plumage shows no sign of fading.
Photo non datée d'un Butor étoilé Un Butor étoilé, héron au plumage jaune et brun pointillé de noir, extrêmement rare et p.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/X/X-plumage.asp   (360 words)

 DVD Review - The Bird With The Crystal Plumage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The movie was "The Bird With The Crystal Plumage" and has single-handedly created a genre of its own, that has since been visited and re-visited by numerous "giallo" films from Argento and other filmmakers.
With "The Bird With The Crystal Plumage" Argento has proven that he is the master of the genre, and although the initial plots of this film and the later Dario Argento movie "Tenebrae" are almost identical, they both shoot off into different directions.
Due to the fl level problem, the transfer exhibits signs of dot crawl and pixelation since much of the available bandwidth of the compression is spent coding/decoding redundant "fl noise" rather than relevant picture information.
www.dvdreview.com /fullreviews/the_bird_with_the_crystal_plumage.shtml   (884 words)

 Natural history of Wildfowl Waterfowl Ducks Geese
Most swans and geese, on the one hand, display almost identical plumage in both the males and the females of a species with the result that it is exceedingly difficult to tell the sex of an individual from the feather coloration alone.
The males of dabbling duck such as mallard, teal, shoveler and pintail are brightly coloured, often with areas of iridescent plumage, but their females are relatively drab birds in feathers of mottled and spotted brown.
The susceptibility of some male duck to predation during this flightless period is reduced by the fact that they typically moult out of their distinctive breeding colours and assume a drab appearance similar to the females and juveniles of their species.
www.wildfowling.co.uk /magazine/nathist.htm   (1295 words)

 CHAPTER 16: BIRDS- Continued.
We thus see that the cases in which female birds are more conspicuously coloured than the males, with the young in their immature plumage resembling the adult males instead of the adult females, as in the previous class, are not numerous, though they are distributed in various Orders.
The amount of difference, also, between the sexes is incomparably less than that which frequently occurs in the last class; so that the cause of the difference, whatever it may have been, has here acted on the females either less energetically or less persistently than on the males in the last class.
Several writers have objected to the whole theory of sexual selection, by assuming that with animals and savages the taste of the female for certain colours or other ornaments would not remain constant for many generations; that first one colour and then another would be admired, and consequently that no permanent effect could be produced.
www.human-nature.com /darwin/descent/chap16.htm   (11571 words)

 Bird families   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Plumage of wing and body surface is continuous (no feather tracts), feathers are small.
Plumage with eye-lashes, neck lacks lateral apteryae (as also in Heliornis and seriemas), wing eutaxic, 10 primaries, 11 secondaries, tail with 10 rectrices, wing molt regular stepwise descending, postjuvenal tail molt from outer and inner towards T3, adult tail molt irregular.
Carduelines typically have rosy and yellow plumage pigmentation, and uniformly are characterized by a thick, double-walled interorbital septum (lacking in Fringilla), and behaviorally in nesting, including leaving feces in the nest.
www.ummz.lsa.umich.edu /birds/birddivresources/families.html   (9999 words)

 Ultraviolet plumage colors predict mate preferences in starlings   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Avian color vision differs from our own in several key ways: most birds see in the UV (to which humans are blind), have at least four spectrally distinct classes of retina cone cells (compared with only three in humans), and have oil droplets that filter the light reaching the cone photopigments (4, 5).
Recent experiments (6) show that female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) avoid males whose plumage lacks UV reflectance and that their preference for symmetry in artificial ornaments (7) extends to leg bands arrangements that are discriminable only in the UV (6).
The "color" of male plumage was assessed using ~1300 reflectance spectra (300-700 nm) obtained from a sample of feathers which were removed at the completion of the experiment (details in legend to Fig.
www.users.mis.net /~pthrush/lighting/upcpmps.html   (2838 words)

 Auk, The: Pox and plumage coloration in the House Finch: A critique of Zahn and Rothstein   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Careful quantification of plumage hue was central to Zahn and Rothstein's (1999) study, but their method of scoring plumage coloration was somewhat baffling.
The rationale for that cutoff is the discovery of the pox virus infecting House Finches in California in 1972.
The best evidence for a change in plumage redness over time that is presented by the authors was a weak but significant correlation between plumage hue of study skins and collection year.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3793/is_200101/ai_n8930483   (1270 words)

 CHAPTER XVI.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In all these cases, the nuptial plumage which we may assume was originally acquired by the adult males during the breeding–season, and transmitted to the adults of both sexes at the corresponding season, has been modified, whilst the winter and immature plumages have been left unchanged.
[964](3) If the young of any species in their immature plumage were more successful in winning partners than the adults, the adult plumage would probably soon be lost, as the males would prevail, which retained their immature dress for the longest period, and thus the character of the species would ultimately be modified.
The plumage of certain birds goes on increasing in beauty during many years after they are fully mature; this is the case with the train of the peacock, with some of the birds of paradise, and with the crest and plumes of certain herons, for instance, the Ardea ludovicana.
www.cise.ufl.edu /~nantonio/Darwin/TheDescentOfMan/chap16.html   (12595 words)

 Eclipse plumage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
It replaces the breeding plumage after the breeding season and appears at a time when the main flight feathers are moulting.
Eclipse plumage tends to be much duller than normal plumage which makes a lot of sense if you are a duck without fully working flight feathers and want to keep well hidden from predators.
Some male ducks begin to regain their colourful breeding plumage before their flight feathers are fully renewed so it would appear that the advantage of developing colourful breeding plumage earlier than your rivals in terms of successfully mating can outweigh the additional danger of shedding your camouflage before you can fly properly.
www.arthurgrosset.com /misc/eclipse.html   (154 words)

 Owl Plumage
Being mainly nocturnal owls have no need to display visually and so their markings are normally mottled shades of fl, brown and grey (gray) patterned to conceal them during the daytime from possible predators and song birds and crows etc. which will mob any owl that is found.
The snowy owl although distinctive with its white plumage blend perfectly with the arctic snow which is often still on the ground when the female is incubating her eggs.
The thick soft plumage insulates the owl whilst it is exposed to cold night time temperatures, and in most species (certainly all northerly species) the leg feathers extend right down to the feet and sometimes over the toes as well.
www.owls.org /Information/plumage.htm   (595 words)

 BioMed Central | Abstract | Two new plumage mutations in the Japanese quail: "curly" feather and "rusty" plumage
The genetics of plumage of Japanese quail is of interest both from a biological standpoint, for comparative studies between avian species, and from a zootechnical standpoint, for identifying commercial selection lines or crosses.
There are only few plumage mutations reported in quail, and the present work describes a new color variant "rusty" and a new feather structure "curly", and their heredity from an F1 and F2 segregation experiment.
Rusty plumage color results from the replacement of the wild-type plumage pattern on the tip of the feather by a reddish coloration, but the pigmentation of the bottom part of the feather is not affected.
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2156/6/14/abstract   (323 words)

 PAG-IX: PLUMAGE COLOR IN CHICKENS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Plumage color is a subject of study for mendelian genetics, and has been used by breeders to differentiate chicken breeds or varieties, and to practice auto-sexing at hatch.
Briefly, a phenotypic classification recognizes at least 15 major loci controlling various aspects of plumage color (white, variation of the fl or red pigment).
Two genes have been studied in detail, melanocortin-1-receptor, as a candidate for the E locus, and tyrosinase for the C locus.
www.intl-pag.org /9/abstracts/W18_03.html   (270 words)

 MSN Encarta - Penguin
Toward the end of the crèche phase, which lasts around 20 to 30 days, young penguins shed their down and acquire their first full plumage prior to entering the sea to fend for themselves.
Once chicks depart the breeding colony, most adults go to sea to feed and fatten up before returning to the colony for molting.
While most birds shed their feathers and grow new ones during a relatively long period of the year, penguins renew their entire plumage over two to four weeks.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761576981_2/Penguin.html   (1496 words)

 SDNHM Focus on Red-winged and Tricolored Blackbirds
Males take two years to achieve their definitive plumage, and the first-year males vary greatly among themselves in the heaviness of their streaking.
Even though the Red-winged Blackbird molts only once per year, the fresh plumage of fall and early winter differs greatly from the worn plumage of late spring and summer, in both males and females, because the new feathers have pale or buff edges on them that, over the course of the year, wear off completely.
The effect of plumage wear is less obvious because the feather edges are narrower and less contrasting to begin with, and there are no subspecies.
www.sdnhm.org /research/birdatlas/focus/blkbirds.html   (1654 words)

 Blue Grosbeaks   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Because variation in plumage coloration in blue grosbeaks is related to territory quality and body size, plumage color may function as a signal.
Thus, I concluded that female-choice was not a selective pressure driving the evolution of bright plumage coloration but may function in male-male competition.
Thus, multiple sexual ornaments in blue grosbeaks may serve different functions with plumage color functioning as a signal in male-male competition and song complexity functioning in female choice.
www.duke.edu /~beb5/Grosbeaks.htm   (168 words)

 Seasonal plumage changes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Sometimes extra molts also occur in early spring, converting somber winter camouflage plumage to brightly colored ones appropriate for courtship rituals.These plumage changes can be confusing to us birders trying to identify what we see.
Sometimes its plumage emerges irregularly so that bright patches appear next to dull ones in splotchy patterns.
Not all bird color-changes are caused by molting.
www.backyardnature.net /birdplum.htm   (340 words)

 Yukon Gullery: Protect Habitat & Save Birds!
Plumage jargon; "alternate" means breeding plumage, and "basic" means winter plumage.
There is one photo-documented Yukon record of Franklin's Gull - A pair of breeding plumage adults photographed at Southern Toobally Lakes (southeast Yukon) on 13 June 1996.
It is a rarely seen plumage of one of North America's rarest gulls.
www.yukonweb.com /community/ybc/gullery.html   (1320 words)

 Chris Hofmann   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
We used spectrophotometry to measure plumage coloration across the oriole genus.
We found considerable variation in plumage coloration down to the subspecies level.
The use of these novel ‘melanin like’ pigments for coloration is limited to a single clade, indicating that some plumage characters do track the phylogeny.
www.umbc.edu /biosci/Faculty/OmlandLabWebpage/Chris_Hofmann.htm   (177 words)

 Scarlet Tanager   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Each fall, the male changes his striking breeding plumage of scarlet and fl for an olive green color that is similar to the plumage of the female Scarlet Tanager.
The adult male's plumage is unique and unmistakable: scarlet head and body with fl wings and tail.
Males in winter plumage resemble the females, but their wings and tails are fl.
birds.cornell.edu /BOW/SCATAN   (508 words)

 Ultraviolet plumage reflectance distinguishes sibling bird species -- Bleiweiss 101 (47): 16561 -- Proceedings of the ...
Note the strong UV reflectance by the dorsal plumage in A.
For back plumage (a), note variation in reflectance amplitude and shape between subspecies of A.
Each data point is the average of replicate spectra per plumage patch per individual for taxa examined (A.
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/101/47/16561   (2164 words)

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