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Topic: Plutonium


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In the News (Thu 25 Apr 19)

  
  Plutonium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The critical mass for an unreflected sphere of plutonium is 16 kg, but through the use of a neutron reflecting tamper the pit of plutonium in a fission bomb is reduced to 10 kg, which is a sphere with a diameter of 10 cm.
All isotopes and compounds of plutonium are toxic and radioactive.
When taken in by mouth, plutonium is less poisonous (except for risk of causing cancer) than several common substances including caffeine, acetaminophen, some vitamins, pseudoephedrine, and any number of plants and fungi.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Plutonium   (2987 words)

  
 Plutonium Production - Nuclear Weapons
Plutonium produced in the fuel generally has a higher fraction of 240 Pu than that produced in other reactors, but the Pu made in the blanket of uranium surrounding the core is usually of a high quality, containing very little 240 Pu.
Plutonium (and uranium) metal may be produced by the reaction of an active metal (calcium or magnesium) with a fluoride salt at elevated temperature in a sealed metal vessel (called a “bomb”).
Plutonium and uranium from spent fuel (as well as enriched uranium from research reactor cores), is reclaimed by chopping up and dissolving the fuel elements in acid, subjecting the solution to solvent-extraction and ion-exchange processes, and chemically converting the plutonium and uranium in the resulting liquids to metallic or oxide forms.
www.fas.org /nuke/intro/nuke/plutonium.htm   (5888 words)

  
 ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Plutonium
Plutonium is a silvery white metal that exists as a solid under normal conditions.
When plutonium decays, it divides into two parts-a small part that is called "alpha" radiation and a large part called a daughter.
People who live near facilities that use plutonium in their operations may be exposed to it from releases to the air.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /tfacts143.html   (902 words)

  
 plutonium. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Plutonium is a silver-gray radioactive metal that has six allotropic forms (see allotropy).
Plutonium, the second transuranium element, is named for Pluto, the second planet beyond Uranus.
Plutonium is important for its use in nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors.
www.bartleby.com /65/pl/plutoniu.html   (368 words)

  
 EPA - Plutonium - Information Home (EPA's Radiation Protection Program: Information)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Plutonium is considered a man-made element, although scientists have found trace amounts of naturally occurring plutonium produced under highly unusual geologic circumstances.
Plutonium was dispersed world wide from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons conducted during the 1950s and ‘60s.
Plutonium that reaches body organs generally stays in the body for decades and continues to expose the surrounding tissue to radiation.
www.epa.gov /radiation/radionuclides/plutonium.htm   (1678 words)

  
 IEER Factsheet | Plutonium
Plutonium combines with oxygen, carbon, and fluorine to form compounds which are used in the nuclear industry, either directly or as intermediates.
Plutonium metal is insoluble in nitric acid and plutonium is slightly soluble in hot, concentrated nitric acid.
However, when plutonium dioxide and uranium dioxide form a solid mixture, as in spent fuel from nuclear reactors, then the solubility of plutonium dioxide in nitric acid is enhanced due to the fact that uranium dioxide is soluble in nitric acid.
www.ieer.org /fctsheet/pu-props.html   (1525 words)

  
 Plutonium
Plutonium is a by-product of the fission process in nuclear reactors, due to neutron capture by uranium-238 in particular.
Plutonium is formed in uranium fuel during the operation of a reactor.
Plutonium has substantial potential as a source of energy, and in fact is a significant contributor to the energy produced in a uranium-fuelled reactor.
www.uic.com.au /nip18.htm   (4087 words)

  
 Plutonium - Nuclear Weapons
Plutonium has assumed the position of dominant importance among the trasuranium elements because of its successful use as an explosive ingredient in nuclear weapons and the place which it holds as a key material in the development of industrial use of nuclear power.
A relatively large piece of plutonium is warm to the touch because of the energy given off in alpha decay.
Because of the high rate of emission of alpha particles and the element being specifically absorbed on bone the surface and collected in the liver, plutonium, as well as all of the other transuranium elements except neptunium, are radiological poisons and must be handled with very special equipment and precautions.
www.globalsecurity.org /wmd/intro/plutonium.htm   (387 words)

  
 Plutonium
The plutonium isotopes, with the exception of the Pu-241, are alpha particle emitters.
Plutonium absorbed into the blood stream is deposited principally in liver and skeleton[1].
Plutonium deposited in the gonadal tissue is assumed to be permanently retained[1].
www.physics.isu.edu /radinf/pluto.htm   (782 words)

  
 Half-Life of Plutonium-239
Plutonium belongs to the class of elements called transuranic elements whose atomic number is higher than 92, the atomic number of uranium.
Plutonium is the most economically important of the transuranic elements.
Isotopes of plutonium were first prepared and studied by the American chemist Glenn T. Seaborg and his associates at the University of California at Berkeley in 1941.
hypertextbook.com /facts/JaniceChing.shtml   (511 words)

  
 It's Elemental - The Element Plutonium
Plutonium was first produced by Glenn T. Seaborg, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edward M. McMillan and Arthur C. Wohl by bombarding an isotope of uranium, uranium-238, with deuterons that had been accelerated in a device called a cyclotron.
Although they conducted their work at the University of California in 1941, their discovery was not revealed to the rest of the scientific community until 1946 because of wartime security concerns.
Plutonium's most stable isotope, plutonium-244, has a half-life of about 82,000,000 years.
education.jlab.org /itselemental/ele094.html   (173 words)

  
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Plutonium can be stabilized in the delta phase at room temperature by alloying it with certain trivalent atoms such as gallium, aluminum, cerium, indium, scandium, and americium at concentrations of a few molar% (% of atoms that are the alloying agent).
Plutonium pits are plated with metal (usually nickel) to protect them from corrosion, as well as reducing the radiological hazard.
Plutonium's toxic properties are due to the fact that it is an active alpha emitter.
www.centurychina.com /wiihist/japarms/pu239.html   (5395 words)

  
 Weapons-grade Plutonium Disposition in Russia
To ensure that plutonium is irreversibly removed from use in nuclear weapons, the agreement specified that both parties would implement monitoring and inspection activities.
Plutonium could be extracted from MOX fuel in 1 to 3 weeks and then be used for weapons purposes.
It is possible that weapons-useable plutonium could be separated by reprocessing and re-used in the fabrication of a nuclear weapon.
bellona.no /en/international/russia/nuke-weapons/.../27158.html   (3062 words)

  
 94 Plutonium
Plutonium is one of the most highly regulated substances in the world.
Second there is the problem of criticality: If too much plutonium gets together in a compact form, a spontaneous chain reaction begins which results in a huge increase in the amount of radiation released, and if you have enough, a nuclear explosion.
The sample I have representing plutonium is the naturally occurring mineral muromontite, which is a mixture of uranium and beryllium.
www.theodoregray.com /PeriodicTable/Elements/094   (1920 words)

  
 PLUTONIUM SUPERCONDUCTOR   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The finding is significant because plutonium, the active ingredient in atomic bombs, has physical properties that should prevent it from behaving as a superconductor - suggesting current theories about this phenomenon may not apply to this element.
That was unexpected because plutonium, a heavy element in the actinide group, very often forms compounds that are highly magnetic; never before had a compound containing plutonium been found to be superconducting.
More surprising still, the plutonium did not begin superconducting at 1 or 2 degrees Kelvin, which one might expect for a material that was not very superconductive.
superconductors.org /PlutonSC.htm   (398 words)

  
 Plutonium, anyone?
However, plutonium is far too deadly a substance, and a "plutonium economy," as it is known, far too nightmarish a prospect for the government to proceed with the project merely on the advice of AECL.
In such a "plutonium economy", privacy and human rights would have to be violated on a large scale.
A person inhaling a few micrograms of plutonium -- one one-thousandth of the amount described in the previous paragraph -- is likely to develop a fatal lung cancer 10 or 20 years after exposure, as some of the cells damaged by alpha radiation begin to multiply uncontrollably.
www.ccnr.org /Plute_Anyone.html   (1922 words)

  
 Plutonium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Plutonium also exhibits four ionic valence states in aqueous solutions: Pu+3 (blue lavender), Pu+4 (yellow brown), PuO+ (pink?), and PuO+2(pink-orange).
Plutonium forms binary compounds with oxygen: PuO, PuO2, and intermediate oxides of variable composition; with the halides: PuF3, PuF4, PuCl3, PuBr3, PuI3; with carbon, nitrogen, and silicon: PuC, PuN, PuSi2.
Because of the high rate of emission of alpha particles and the element being specifically absorbed by bone marrow, plutonium, as well as all of the other transuranium elements except neptunium, are radiological poisons and must be handled with very special equipment and precautions.
www.scescape.net /~woods/elements/plutonium.html   (534 words)

  
 Periodic Table : Scholar edition: plutonium : The Essentials
What follows is a brief description of plutonium.
Plutonium was the second transuranium element of the actinide series to be discovered.
The complete detonation of a kilogram of plutonium produces an explosion equal to about 20000 tons of chemical explosive.
www.webelements.com /webelements/scholar/elements/plutonium/key.html   (184 words)

  
 plutoniumrecords.net   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Plutonium Records was founded in 2001 as an outlet for new creative music.
Plutonium releases feature some of the finest improvising musicians in the western United States.
All CDs on Plutonium feature fresh original creative american music, both improvised and composed, as true as possible to the sound and vision of the individual artists.
plutoniumrecords.net   (112 words)

  
 Plutonium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Plutonium will not start a fast chain reaction by itself, but this difficulty is overcome by having a neutron source, a highly radioactive material that gives off neutrons faster than the Plutonium itself.
Plutonium is fissionable, but not as easily fissionable as Uranium.
While Uranium can be detonated by a simple 2-part gun-type device, Plutonium must be detonated by a more complex 32-part implosion chamber along with a stronger conventional explosive, a greater striking velocity and a simultaneous triggering mechanism for the conventional explosive packs.
home.clara.net /nybbles/oldestuff/vik/nuke/plutonium.html   (243 words)

  
 Chemical & Engineering News
In a plutonium bomb, subcritical pieces of fissionable material must be brought together much more quickly than in a uranium bomb to avoid predetonation.
A sine qua non in the development of this weapon was the discovery of plutonium in 1941 by Seaborg, graduate student Arthur C. Wahl, and research fellow and chemistry instructor Joseph W. Kennedy.
Hornig worked on the development of a safe and reliable firing unit to set off the implosion in the plutonium device, and he conceived a triggered spark-gap switch that was used to initiate the explosive lenses within a millionth of a second.
pubs.acs.org /hotartcl/cenear/950717/art02.html   (3990 words)

  
 plutonium on Encyclopedia.com
PLUTONIUM [plutonium], radioactive chemical element; symbol Pu; at.
Let's use it: the U.S. policy that has served to keep reprocessed plutonium out of civilian nuclear fuel should be modified for the disposal of weapons plutonium.
Japan's first plant to extract plutonium and uranium from spent nuclear fuel started its test run at Rokkasho village in Aomori prefecture, northern Japan, 31 March 2006, in the hope of providing much-needed energy despite protests from residents and environmentalists.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/p1/plutoniu.asp   (1273 words)

  
 Enough Plutonium For 5 Bombs Missing From N Ireland Plant
Spokesmen for each plant were quick to play down the figures, saying they were estimates and "gave rise to no concern over either the safety or security" of the sites.
Although the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority does not have a complete record of its annual nuclear materials balance on its website, Sellafield was found to have 5.6kg of plutonium unaccounted for in 2001 and as much as 24.9kg in 1999.
The latest criticisms of the nuclear industry come after scientists found the teeth of children in Northern Ireland were con taminated with plutonium from the Sellafield nuclear plant.
www.rense.com /general46/wmo.html   (693 words)

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