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Topic: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

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 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Courland (Polish: Kurlandia), a northern fief of the Commonwealth.
Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze) is the term for the southern shore of the Baltic Sea, partially outside the Commonwealth and/or in Prussia.
The other blow to the Commonwealth was the Swedish invasion in 1655 (supported by troops of Transylvanian duke George II Rakoczy and Friedrich Wilhelm I, Elector of Brandenburg), known as the Deluge, provoked by the policies of Commonwealth kings from the Swedish royal House of Vasa.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Polish-Lithuanian_Commonwealth   (5661 words)

 AllEmpires - The Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth (Full)
Commonwealth have organized a new army and charged commands with 3 inefficient leaders (with the exception of Jeremi Wisniowiecki) and when 2 armies got into fighting at Pilawce (23 IX 1648 newbes soldiers and Polish nobility insurrection dispersed upon threat of Tatar’s attack.
In 1672 the Turks invaded the Commonwealth and after besiege of fortress Kamieniec Podolski, imposed the treaty of Buczacz on the Poles by which Poland ceded to Turkey the provinces of Podolia and Ukraine paid a heavy war tax of 80,000 thalars and promised an annual tribute of 22,500 thalars.
The immediate reason why the Polish forces, after advancing far into the Danubian principalities, had to retreat, as they also had to in subsequent expeditions until 1691, was the lack of support from the native Rumanian population.
www.allempires.com /empires/polish_lit_full/polish_lit2.htm   (3005 words)

 Central Europe Review - Poland and Lithuania
During the inter-war period, Polish and Lithuanian propaganda was also aimed at assuaging the fears of the Allies and ensuring their continued support.
Former Polish Ambassador to Lithuania, Professor Jan Widacki, was quick to rebuke the senators' behavior as "plain stupid." He added that many Poles residing in Lithuania did not share the aspirations of the autonomists and were, to the contrary, outraged by their aims from the start.
Polish identification was a reflection of status and was independent of ethnic identity.
www.ce-review.org /99/13/rohozinska13.html   (1797 words)

 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (or the Republic of the Two Nations; in Polish Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów; in Lithuanian Žečpospolita or Abiejų tautų respublika; in Latin Regnum Serenissima Poloniae; in Belarusian Рэч Паспалі́тая) was a federal monarchy-republic formed by the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1569, lasting until 1795.
Courland (Polish: Kurlandia), a northern fief of the Commonwealth;
The economy of the Commonwealth was dominated by feudal agriculture.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Polish-Lithuanian_Commonwealth   (1797 words)

 AllEmpires - The Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth (Full)
Though some Polish and Lithuanian adventurers interfered in Russia, supporting the First and the Second False Dimitri, the Commonwealth did not involve itself until Vasili Szujski became Tsar.
Polish losses were also high and included Chodkiewicz who died in his chamber of old age just as the Turks began to retreat.
A Polish garrison was installed in the Kremlin, but after the return of the King and Zólkiewski to Poland the situation for the garrison sharply deteriorated.
www.allempires.com /empires/polish_lit_full/polish_lit1.htm   (2253 words)

The residence of Polish princes since the 12th century, Krakow became the capital of Poland in 1320.
By the 17th century, however, tensions between the various estates of Polish society -- nobles, clergymen, burghers, Jews and other minorities -- were on the rise, as each group struggled for a larger share of economic and political power.
The Polish kings, however, favored the Jews over the Germans and continued to encourage their settlement.
www.pbs.org /wnet/heritage/episode5/atlas/map3.html   (1019 words)

 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Wikimedia Commons
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (or Commonwealth of Both Nations) was a federal monarchy-republic formed by the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1569, lasting until 1795.
Commonwealth of Both Nations at the peak of its strength.
commons.wikimedia.org /wiki/Polish-Lithuanian_Commonwealth   (80 words)

 Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a 19th century design for a COA of a proposed Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth which never came into being.
Such a Ruthenian duchy, as proposed in the 1658 Treaty of Hadiach, would have been a full-fledged member of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which would thereby have become a tripartite Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth.
It consists of the Polish White Eagle, the Lithuanian Charging Knight and Ruthenian Archangel Michael.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian_Commonwealth   (159 words)

 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - InfoSearchPoint.com
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (or The Commonwealth of the Two Nations) was a federal monarchy-republic formed by the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, between 1569 and 1795, which was governed by an elected monarch.
Duchy of Ruthenia was the planned member of the Commonwealth, after the reconstruction to triple state of Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth, that was never applied in practise.
The contemprorary political doctrine of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, "our state is a Republic under presidency of the King".
www.infosearchpoint.com /display/Union_of_Lublin   (330 words)

 Tartar nobility of the Polish Commonwealth
The Lithuanian Tatars comprised four social groups, which in the territories of the Commonwealth, and particularly in Lithuania, reflected the social organisation of the Golden Horde.
The Tatars (or Tartars) of the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania, also known as Tatars of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, or just Lithuanian Tatars, who united their destiny with that of the Commonwealth 600 years ago, have remained ever since loyal sons of their new fatherland (in Tartaric: vatan).
As the Commonwealth did not grant any new princely titles, those who aspired to such titles had their princely titles recognised only if they were related to the reigning house of the Golden Horde.
www.szlachta.org /2selim.htm   (731 words)

 Napoleon's Lithuanian Forces
Lithuanian General Grabowski was assigned as the commander of the 1st Brigade of this new unit consisting of the 12th Polish Infantry Regiment.
Lithuanian General Thaddeus Tyszkiewicz, Commanding the 19th Polish Cavalry Brigade, was personally decorated by Napoleon with the Legion of Honor decoration on the battlefield of Smolensk for outstanding bravery in combat.
In addition to the Lithuanian name-bearing units, numerous Lithuanians also joined existing French and Polish regiments.
www.lituanus.org /1984_1/84_1_01.htm   (9581 words)

 Language and Identity - Abstracts - Elisabeth Seitz
The Influence of the Churches on the Development of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as a Multilingual Region from the Union of Krewo (1385) to the Synod of Brest (1596)
Three decisive events in the history of the church(es) - the christianisation of Lithuania, the reformation and the counterreformation - had an influence also on the forming of the multilingual region the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was to become.
Jogaila) to the Polish Queen Jadwiga, and it marked the beginning of the first Polish-Lithuanian union (Union of Krewo, 1385), a symbiosis that lasted for several centuries and attempted to integrate a population of great heterogeneity regarding nationality, religion and language.
www.humnet.ucla.edu /humnet/slavic/conferences/Language&Identity/Abstracts/E.Seitz.html   (463 words)

 The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Polish word for formal address, “Pan” became used in Lithuanian, and other words made their way into the language as well.
While the Lithuanians had never used their own language for government affairs—instead they spoke a Slavic language related to modern Belarussian—the Polish language had supremacy over Lithuanian.
She chose to ally her country with the pagan Lithuanian state to the north, which had been very successful in defeating foreign invaders, and would hopefully strengthen her state enough to do the same.
www.suite101.com /article.cfm/polish_baltic_history/62385   (483 words)

 The Polish Nobility Association
This service is available to those who have reason to believe in the possible origination of their family from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as nobility, titled or untitled; the PNA offers a "Name Search Service" through the most extensive archive records maintained by the Foundation's Director of Heraldry.
On the 27th January 1927, HH Prince Rafael formalised the PNA into a Noble Society for the continuation of the "Stewardship" of the chivalric customs of the Commonwealth of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; and for the perpetuation of Genealogical and Heraldic traditions of the Polish Commonwealth.
The Polish Nobility Association was born out of the ashes of the Polish uprisings of the 1830's as a loosely associated group of noblemen and ex-officers whos' original goal was the establishment of the Polish monarchy, with a Pole as the elected King.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Olympus/8691/tpna.htm   (640 words)

 PolishRoots - PAHA Articles
As a result Lithuanian and Polish ethno-centricity resulted in a separation and later schism and divorce between both nationalities on an unprecedented scale.
Many of the early Lithuanian immigrants considered themselves to be "Polish" in a vague political sense.
Polish emigration-immigration studies can not be complete without the inclusion of Poles and polonized elements of society from these ethnically mixed areas or the Polish enclaves in the more homogeneous non-Polish areas of the region.
www.polishroots.org /paha/polish_lithuanian_emigration.htm   (1823 words)

 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
During the time of Polish-Swedish War in 1627, the Commonwealth fleet under command of Admiral Arend Dickmann achieved it most famous victory, breaking the Swedish blockade at the Battle of Oliwa.
The Polish nobles did not want to fight a new war so when the Swedes returned most of the lands they captured in the previous war a new armistice for 35 years was signed.
One of his plans was the expansion of the Commonwealth Navy.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Navy_of_the_Polish-Lithuanian_Commonwealth   (1823 words)

 polish-lithuanian commonwealth - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com
Courland (Polish: Kurlandia), a northern fief of the Commonwealth;
While the Commonwealth's first century was a golden age for both Poland and Lithuania, the second century was marked by military defeats, a return to serfdom for the peasants, and growing anarchy in political life.
In the late 17th century, the weakened Commonwealth under King Jan III Sobieski was still strong enough to deal crushing defeats to the Ottoman Empire: in 1683, the Battle of Vienna marked the final turning point in a 250-year struggle between the forces of Christian Europe and the Islamic Ottoman Empire.
www.onpedia.com /encyclopedia/Polish-Lithuanian-Commonwealth   (1823 words)

 Polish Light Artillery
And you don't have be Polish or Lithuanian or male or my age or be interested in military things or anything one thing else in particular!
The contribution of Polish culture and arms to our civilization is not well known, and the innovative role played by artillery in her armies is virtually a secret - our educational mission is to correct this (while having a great time!).
A Commonwealth unit offers a re-enactor an incredible degree of versatility in costume and arms, an army in which uniform was rare, and where the wealthy dressed to impress.
www.kismeta.com /diGrasse/PolishHorseArtillery.htm   (780 words)

 Polish Renaissance Warfare
During the this period the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was the largest territory in central and eastern Europe.
There were few years in this era when Polish-Lithuanian forces were not fighting against one of the Commonwealth's enemies, which included Tartars, Teutonic Knights, Swedes, Austrians, Ottomans, Muscovites, Moldavians and Zaporozhian Cossacks.
Their forces combined elements of eastern tactical and strategic thinking with western tactics of technology and firepower and the influence of the Polish army on the West is often under estimated, for example:-
www.jasinski.co.uk /wojna   (199 words)

 History of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Commonwealth attracted numerous Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition.
Prussia itself was a vassal of the Commonwealth for quite some time.
"...dislike of authority for its own sake, the rejection of any theory that the public good could be served by exerting pressure on the individual, and the belief in the inalienable rights and dignity of the individual" had been part of Polish culture since the Middle Ages.
www.wingedhussar.org /history.html   (795 words)

 Treaty of Hadiach - Enpsychlopedia
The Treaty of Hadiach (Polish: ugoda hadziacka) was a treaty signed on September 16, 1658, in Hadiach (Hadziacz, Hadiacz, Гадяч) between representatives of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (represented by S. Bieniewski and K. Jewłaszewski) and Cossacks (represented by ataman Ivan Vyhovsky and starshyna (sztarszna, the elders) Yurii Nemyrych, architect of the treaty, and Pavlo Teteria).
It was designed to elevate the Cossacks and Ruthenians to the position equal to that of Poland and Lithuania in the Polish-Lithuanian Union and in fact transforming the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth into a Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Trojga Narodów, "Commonwealth of Three Nations").
Although Polish forces under hetman Stefan Czarniecki dealt defeat to Muscovy forces at the battle of Polonka, and recaptured Wilno in 1660, lack of other Commonwealth military successes, especially in Ukraine, further undermined Cossack support of the Commonwealth.
www.grohol.com /psypsych/Treaty_of_Hadiach   (795 words)

 Religion - Symbol - Communication. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Early Modern Period
The project is meant to contribute to the neglected research on the communication between the many Christian denominations and other religious communities in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the decline of the Reformation/s.
The time frame proposed for investigation is limited mainly to the period 1633-1795, i.e between the decline of the Polish Reformations(s) and the involuntary dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian state.
It concentrates on the concrete impact of the tension between the principle of religious tolerance and the claims to power of Catholicism on daily interaction, based on diverse faith-anchored cultures, value systems and symbols.
www.h-net.org /announce/show.cgi?ID=150127   (815 words)

 Category:Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Wikimedia Commons
This category collects all images related to the w:Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
This page was last modified 16:57, 11 September 2005.
commons.wikimedia.org /wiki/Category:Polish-Lithuanian_Commonwealth   (27 words)

 Hussar Firearms -Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth, 17th C.
Hussar Firearms -Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth, 17th C. Weapons of the Hussars of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1570-1750
"Historia piechoty polskiej (History Polish Infantry) do 1864r." Jan Wimmer
www.kismeta.com /diGrasse/PolishFirearms.htm   (1497 words)

 163x Commonwealth of Two Nations Resource Page
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth page there to see what I have been up to in that time.
Polish Genealogy- not stictly a XVII history, but if u need a name, or want to see if it actually sounds right to a Polish person (ethymology stuff) - that is a good reading
If you can read Polish, I recommend getting the game yourself, looks like half of the rulebook is devoted to describing culture and geography of PLC, and it does so better them most academic of popular science book I have read.
www.wodzu.tonet.pl /republika_prokonsularna/En/163xCoTNRP.html   (1729 words)

 Grand Duchy of Lithuania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Since the Lublin Union in 1569, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a sovereign State of Confederation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (having separate government, laws, army and treasury) until the annexation of Confederation by Imperial Russia, Prussia and Austria in the effect of the Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795.
This question was disputed by Polish, Russian, Lithuanian and Belarusian historians and national leaders.
Lithuanian was used in Lithuanian populated areas of the country, which included today's Lithuania and parts of today's Belarus.
www.bucyrus.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania   (1729 words)

 Hetman - Open Encyclopedia
In some of the never realised plans of reconstruction of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from dual into triple state (Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth), the hetman was to be a head of the Ruthenian part, consisting of three Ukrainian voivodships.
The tile of hetman was given to the leader of Polish Army and till 1581 hetman existed only during the specific campaigns and wars.
Hetmans had no control over the navy, although the Polish Navy was always of very limited importance.
open-encyclopedia.com /Hetman   (1729 words)

 Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Look for Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth in the Commons, our repository for free images, music, sound, and video.
Look for Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth in Wiktionary, our sister dictionary project.
If you have created this page in the past few minutes and it has not yet appeared, it may not be visible due to a delay in updating the database.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian_Commonwealth   (1729 words)

 Hetman -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article
The contrast with states bordering the Commonwealth, where army commanders could be dismissed at any time by their sovereigns, was immense.
The tile of hetman was given to the leader of (Click link for more info and facts about Polish Army) Polish Army and till 1581 hetman existed only during the specific campaigns and wars.
This system worked well when a hetman had great ability and the monarch was weak, but by the same token it sometimes produced disastrous results in the opposite case, as illustrated by the actions of (Click link for more info and facts about Mikolaj Potocki) Mikolaj Potocki in 1648.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/H/He/Hetman.htm   (1729 words)

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