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Topic: Polysynthetic language


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  Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Agglutinative
Agglutinative languages are the most common form of polysynthetic language, and are usually highly inflected.
The opposite of a polysynthetic language is an analytic, or isolating language.
Polysynthetic languages which are not agglutinative are called fusional languages; they combine morphemes by "squeezing" them together, often changing the morphemes drastically in the process.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/ag/Agglutinative   (242 words)

  
 Chapter 6. Types of Linguistic Structure. Edward Sapir. 1921. Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech
Aside from the expression of pure relation a language may, of course, be “formless”—formless, that is, in the mechanical and rather superficial sense that it is not encumbered by the use of non-radical elements.
Those languages that always identify the word with the radical element would be set off as an “isolating” group against such as either affix modifying elements (affixing languages) or possess the power to change the significance of the radical element by internal changes (reduplication; vocalic and consonantal change; changes in quantity, stress, and pitch).
Languages are in constant process of change, but it is only reasonable to suppose that they tend to preserve longest what is most fundamental in their structure.
www.bartleby.com /186/6.html   (7279 words)

  
 Polysynthetic language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not all polysynthetic languages are incorporating, and not all incorporating languages are polysynthetic.
He defines polysynthetic languages as languages that conform to the syntactic rule that he calls the "polysynthesis parameter" and which as a result show a special set of morphological and syntactic properties.
Jacobson, Steven A. A grammatical sketch of Siberian Yupik Eskimo (pp.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Polysynthetic_language   (1056 words)

  
 Learn Language Evolution and Memetics: Educational CyberPlayGround™
Language evolves and changes with children, and gesture is an integral part of language.
Here we show that deaf and hearing individuals exposed to language in infancy perform comparably well in learning a new language later in life, whereas deaf individuals with little language experience in early life perform poorly, regardless of whether the early language was signed or spoken and whether the later language was spoken or signed.
The grammars of all languages, he said, can be described by a set of universal rules or principles, and the differences among those grammars are due to a finite set of options that are also innate.
www.edu-cyberpg.com /Literacy/whatresearch2.asp   (2211 words)

  
 Edward Sapir: Language: Chapter 6: Types of Linguistic Structure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Moreover, the historical study of language has proven to us beyond all doubt that a language changes not only gradually but consistently, that it moves unconsciously from one type towards another, and that analogous trends are observable in remote quarters of the globe.
Aside from the expression of pure relation a language may, of course, be "formless"-formliess, that is, in the mechanical and rather superficial sense that it is not encumbered by the use of non-radical elements.
In the isolating languages the syntactic relations are ex pressed by the position of the words in the sentence This is also true of many languages of type B, the terns "agglutinative," "fusional," and "symbolic" applying in their case merely to tine treatment of the derivational, not the relational, concepts.
spartan.ac.brocku.ca /~lward/Sapir/Sapir_1921/Sapir_1921_06.html   (7455 words)

  
 synthetic language Information Center - synthetic and formal languages
A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-to-word ratio.
It is more accurate to conceive of languages as existing on a continuum, with strictly isolating (consistently one morpheme per word) at one end and highly polysynthetic (in which a single word may contain as much information as an entire English sentence) at the other extreme.
Synthetic languages are numerous and well-attested, the most commonly cited being Indo-European languages such as German and Russian, virtually the entire Altaic superfamily (comprising Turkish, Mongolian and the Tungusic languages), the Uralic languages (including Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian) and Korean, as well as many languages of the Americas, including Navajo, Nahuatl, Mohawk and Quechua.
www.scipeeps.com /Sci-Linguistic_Topics_R_-_T/synthetic_language.html   (551 words)

  
 Words - The real meaning from Timesharetalk wikipedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
In polysynthetic languages, the number of morphemes per word can become so large that the word performs the same grammatical role as a phrase or clause in less synthetic languages (for example, in Yupik, angyaghllangyugtuq means "he wants to acquire a big boat").
In spoken language, the distinction of individual words is even more complex: short words are often run together, and long words are often broken up.
For example, in a language that regularly stresses the last syllable of a word (like Hebrew), a word boundary is likely to fall after each stressed syllable.
www.timesharetalk.co.uk /wiki.asp?k=Words   (943 words)

  
 Wikinfo | Polysynthetic language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
A synthetic language is one that has more than one morpheme per word, and that covers most languages.
A polysynthetic one has a more extreme degree of morpheme joining, and is often taken to mean that there is some degree of incorporation, such as of noun and verb together in the same word.
Languages with a high degree of synthesis but without being incorporating include Basque and the Bantu languages.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Polysynthetic   (300 words)

  
 What is Morphology?
The rules of morphology within a language tend to be relatively regular, so that if one sees the noun morphemes for the first time, for example, one can deduce that it is likely related to the word morpheme.
One type of polysynthetic language is a fusional or inflected language, in which morphemes are squeezed together and often changed dramatically in the process.
The other type of polysynthetic language is an agglutinative language, in which morphemes are connected but remain more or less unchanged – many Native American languages, as well as Swahili, Japanese, German and Hungarian, demonstrate this.
www.wisegeek.com /what-is-morphology.htm   (474 words)

  
 AllRefer.com - Basque language (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia
Basque language, tongue of uncertain relationship spoken by close to a million people, most of whom live in NE Spain and some of whom reside in SW France.
In an agglutinative language, different linguistic elements, each of which exists separately and has a fixed meaning, are often joined to form one word.
In a polysynthetic language, a number of word elements are joined together to form a composite word that functions like a sentence or phrase in Indo-European languages, but each element has meaning usually only as part of the sentence or phrase and not as a separate item.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/B/Basquela.html   (336 words)

  
 Prelim Answer Attempts
Semantic restrictions limit polysynthetic constructions, for example it is impossible to say "We saw us/me in the mirror" in polysynthetic/incorporating languages because in such constructions the Subject cannot be the same as the Object (this is apparently a universal feature of such languages--they must resort to normal agglutinative syntactic constructions to express such a meaning).
In nominative-accusative languages, the subject of a transitive sentence and the subject of an intransitive sentence are both marked in nominative case.
Languages are transmitted vertically and horizontally, vertically meaning from older to younger and horizontally meaning among peers.
www2.hawaii.edu /~meylysa/prelim/prelim.html   (11007 words)

  
 HDLS Abstract Database
It is suggested that a signer‚s experience with language, as opposed to an abstract set of categorical rules, is a key factor in the mental representation of language.
Studies of children‚s language acquisition illustrate the interactional foundation for intersubjectivity and subsequent language development,showing how early interactional patterns observed between infants and young children and their primary caretakers may give rise to theory of mind (Bretherton 1991, Snow 1999, Wellman 1991).
This is in favor of a functional analysis of language and emphasizes the importance of understanding the relationship of frequently recurring patterns in discourse and the emergence of grammar and the significant effects of the role of speaker point of view on grammar.
www.unm.edu /~hdls/AbstractsDatabase.html   (4599 words)

  
 CLIR
This typology was later supplemented by the fourth language type, polysynthetic languages, specifically to explain the morphology of some native American languages.
There are languages that are close to some ideal type, e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese (isolating languages) and Turkish (an agglutinative language).
The Inuit (Eskimo) language is often regarded as a typical polysynthetic language.
www.info.uta.fi /kurssit/clir/sisalto/sivu50.html   (491 words)

  
 AllRefer.com - Eskimo-Aleut (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia
Eskimo-Aleut, family of Native American languages consisting of Aleut (spoken on the Aleutian Islands and the Kodiak Peninsula) and Eskimo or Inuktitut (spoken in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Siberia).
Aleut is the language of a few thousand people, and Eskimo is native to over 100,000 people.
In a polysynthetic language, a one-word unit composed of a number of word elements can convey the meaning of an entire sentence of an Indo-European language.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/E/EskimoAl.html   (359 words)

  
 [No title]
It turns out that complex predicates in polysynthetic languages are required to be such that all the arguments of the complex predicate are arguments of one of the heads involved in the complex predicate.
Thus, polysynthetic languages do not have causatives of transitive verbs, where the matrix verb alone q-marks the causer-agent, and the embedded verb alone q-marks a causee-agent or a goal.
There are other languages and language families traditionally referred to as polysynthetic for which this theory does not seem appropriate, or at least not fully so; these include Yimas and Alamblak (Papuan), Wakashan, Athapaskan, and Eskimoan.
equinox.rutgers.edu /people/faculty/baker/complex-preds-prt.doc   (12509 words)

  
 Inuit
Languages of the World is brought to you by the National Virtual Translation Center.
Inuktitut is recognized as the official language of theNunavut Territory (along with English and French) and the Northwest Territories (along with English, French, and several other indigenous languages).
This is different from Indo-European languages such as English in which the subjects of both intransitive and transitive verbs are marked with the nominative case and objects of transitive verbs are marked with the accusative case.
www.nvtc.gov /lotw/months/october/Inuit.html   (989 words)

  
 Does "Language" equal "Human Language? (3)"
While there is an obvious difference in the Chomsky hierarchy of languages between context free phrase structure and transformational = Turing Machine equivalent, with context sensitive phrase structure in between, it is by no means clear that human languages are actually beyond the CFPS level.
If the nonhuman primate languages are stuck somewhere, I would think they were stuck at the finite state level, or even lower (no syntax at all, understanding driven just by keyword matching, like some "natural language" computer programs today).
This hitherto ignored level of social and family language -- called "pre-language" by some because it is deficient in the elaborated structures characteristic of "full-blown" language (mostly literary), and full of idioms and formulaic speech.
www.enformy.com /dma-an3.htm   (1867 words)

  
 Basque language - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
BASQUE LANGUAGE [Basque language] tongue of uncertain relationship spoken by close to a million people, most of whom live in NE Spain and some of whom reside in SW France.
Other linguists think Basque is akin to the Caucasian languages and suggest that its speakers came from Asia Minor to Spain and Gaul c.2000 BC However, no relationship between Basque and any other language has been established with certainty.
A land unto itself; Basque Country has long been isolated by a forbidding reputation and a bewildering language.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-basquela.html   (449 words)

  
 Differences between French and English | Antimoon Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
While their verbal morphology is classically synthetic in nature, for nouns they seem more analytic than synthetic in nature, with really the only remainants of syntheticness left for them being inflection for number, and agreement with adjectives and determiners with respect to number and gender.
However, that doesn't mean English is a polysynthetic language (and of course, it isn't).
German cases are not derrived from Latin, English is a Germanic language and an estimate of 20-25% of the IndoEuropean languages are Romantic ones!
www.antimoon.com /forum/t243-15.htm   (1505 words)

  
 Qþyn|gài: A Polysynthetic Language (S7): Introduction
All text, markup and language examples and lexicon are originally in Lisp.
Only valence and degree infixes are grammar-only and thus not found in the lexicon but in the grammar description.
This seems to become the first language I create that I like the sound of.
www.kunstsprachen.de /s7/s_01.html   (959 words)

  
 IngentaConnect Two kinds of productive signs in Swedish Sign Language: Polysynth...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
In contrast to polysynthetic signs, in signs that specify size and shape of an object, the manual articulation (movement) denotes the extent of the largest dimension of the entity whereas the handshape denotes the extent of the smallest dimension of the entity being described.
This description of classifiers, particularly agentive classifiers, in Swedish Sign Language polysynthetic signs differs from those offered for other sign languages because it is based on the salient properties of the part of the entity that is to be handled.
I will demonstrate that the agentive classifier handshapes in polysynthetic signs and the handshapes in size and shape specifying signs are chosen according to the same dimensions.
www.ingentaconnect.com /content/jbp/sll/2000/00000003/00000002/art00004   (374 words)

  
 UH Press Journals: Oceanic Linguistics 31 (1992): 296-306
He describes as much as he can of the whole language: not just its grammatical structure, but also its genetic and typological relationships, its social and discourse functions, and a bit of the ethnography of its speakers.
Particularly challenging is the polysynthetic nature of Yimas grammar: structures are either too rigidly constrained at the word or phrase level to be fully productive, or too completely nonconfigurational at the clause level to fit notions of constituent-structure universals.
It is the southernmost member of the small Lower Sepik family within the large and diverse group of languages known as Papuan.
www.uhpress.hawaii.edu /journals/ol/OL312p296.html   (3714 words)

  
 Faculty and Staff
The goals of working on endangered indigenous languages of the Americas include grammatical descriptions of understudied languages, collections of translated and annotated oral texts, and diachronic comparison of sister languages to elucidate linguistic prehistory.
Her Grammar of Kiowa has provided the foundation for Kiowa language pedagogical materials and for linguistics students at universities world-wide.
She and her British colleagues are investigating the syntactic and discourse properties of Kiowa as a polysynthetic language, the structure of which is radically different from the European languages on which current theory was first developed.
www.coloradocollege.edu /dept/AN/Watkins.htm   (216 words)

  
 ozarque: Linguistics; conlangs; Language Construction 101A
Suppose you want to construct a language that might be of some practical use for communication in your fictional universe...
STEP ONE: Decide whether you want a polysynthetic language (where you construct meanings by assembling lots of small meaningful pieces into larger chunks) or an isolating language (where words are made up of only a few meaningful pieces.) Polysynthetic is quicker and easier.
You could pick sounds no human language uses, of course, if you're constructing a language for ETs, but you couldn't be sure that your human readers would be able to pronounce them.
ozarque.livejournal.com /91895.html?thread=1417463   (473 words)

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