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Topic: Pope Alexander VI


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  Pope Alexander VI - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pope Alexander VI (January 1, 1431 – August 18, 1503), born Rodrigo Borja (Italian: Rodrigo Borgia), Pope from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular Popes of the Renaissance, whose surname became a byword for low standards in the papacy of that era.
Alexander VI's elevation did not at the time excite much alarm, and at first his reign was marked by a strict administration of justice and an orderly method of government in satisfactory contrast with the anarchy of the previous pontificate, as well as by great outward splendour.
Alexander VI hoped that Louis XII's help would be more profitable to his house than that of Charles VIII had been and, in spite of the remonstrances of Spain and of the Sforza, he allied himself with France in January 1499 and was joined by Venice.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pope_Alexander_VI   (4518 words)

  
 Pope Alexander VI
Alexander VI, (January 1, 1431 - August 18, 1503) pope (1492-1503), born Rodrigo Borgia[?] (1431), is the most memorable of the corrupt and secular popes of the Renaissance.
Alexander, overwhelmed with grief, shut himself up in Castle St Angelo[?], and then declared that the reform of the church would be the sole object of his life henceforth--a resolution which he did not keep.
Alexander's diplomacy, however, turned the tide, and Cesare, in exchange for promising to assist the French in the south, was given a free hand in central Italy.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/po/Pope_Alexander_VI.html   (3563 words)

  
 Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia)
Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia), memorable as the most characteristic incarnation of the secular spirit of the papacy of the 15th century, was born at Xativa in Valencia, 1st January 1431.
Pope Alexander VI The fortune of the Borgia brothers seemed menaced with eclipse on the death of their uncle, 8th August 1458.
Alexander has become a myth, and his "acts" are in some respects almost as legendary as those of the primitive saints and martyrs.
www.1902-encyclopedia.com /A/ALE/alexander-vi.html   (3633 words)

  
 Pope Alexander VI   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Alexander VI né Rodrigo Borgia (January 1 1431 - August 18 1503) pope (1492 - 1503) is the most memorable of the and secular popes of the Renaissance.
Alexander meditated great marriages for his Lucrezia had been married to the Spaniard Gasparo de Procida but on her father's to the papacy the union was annulled in 1493 she was married to Giovanni lord of Pesaro the ceremony being celebrated the Vatican with unparalleled magnificence.
Alexander now feared that king might depose him for simony and summon a council but he over the bishop of St Malo who had much influence over the with a cardinal's hat and agreed to Cesare as legate to Naples with the army to deliver Jem to Charles and give him Civitavecchia (January 16 1495).
www.freeglossary.com /Pope_Alexander_VI   (2857 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI Rodrigo Borgia, born at Xativa, near Valencia, in Spain, 1 January, 1431; died in Rome, 18 August, 1503.
Alexander cannot be held responsible for the second "barbarian" invasion of Italy, but he was quick to take advantage of it for the consolidation of his temporal power and the aggrandizement of his family.
On 27 June of that year the Pope deposed his chief vassal, Federigo of Naples, on the plea of an alleged alliance with the Turks to the detriment of Christendom, and approved the secret Treaty of Granada, by the terms of which the Kingdom of Naples was partitioned between Spain and France.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/01289a.htm   (5453 words)

  
 AllRefer.com - Alexander VI, pope (Roman Catholic Popes And Antipopes) - Encyclopedia
Alexander prevented Charles from taking the church property in Rome, but he turned over to the French the valuable Ottoman hostage Djem, brother of Sultan Beyazid II.
Alexander's son, Cesare Borgia, was the principal leader in papal affairs, and papal resources were spent lavishly in building up Cesare's power.
It was Alexander who proclaimed the line of demarcation that awarded part of the new discoveries in the world to Spain, part to Portugal (see Tordesillas, Treaty of).
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/A/Alexand6.html   (397 words)

  
 Borgias
Alexander VI Borgia might have entered history as a great Pope except for the fact that he continued as Pope the manner of life that had disgraced him as a Cardinal.
Alexander initially took the murder of his son Juan, Duke of Gandia, as an omen that reform and repentance were needed, and he actually framed the reform ordinances.
But if Alexander VI had expected her to continue to be a foil in his intrigues, he could not have been more wrong.
www.mmdtkw.org /VBorgias.html   (3854 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope Alexander IV
Pope Alexander IV Pope from 1254-61 (Rinaldo Conti), of the house of Segni, which had already given two illustrious sons to the Papacy, Innocent III and Gregory IX, date of birth uncertain; died 25 May, 1261, at Viterbo.
Meanwhile the Pope was making futile efforts to unite the powers of the Christian world against the threatening invasion of the Tartars.
Alexander IV ruled the spiritual affairs of the Church with dignity and prudence.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/01287b.htm   (678 words)

  
 Rejection of Pascal's Wager: Popes Throughout History
The next two popes were merely stop-gap instruments of Marozia- to warm the papal throne until her son could ascend to it.
Pope Alexander III (in office 1159-1181) had the dubious distinction of being one of the first popes to order the use of force against heresies.
Alexander, born Rodrigo Borgia, was appointed to the lucrative post as vice-chancellor of the papal curia by his uncle, Pope Callistus III in 1457.
www.geocities.com /paulntobin/papacy.html   (7813 words)

  
 Popes
Despite the shadow of simony that surrounded the disposal of his benefices among the papal electors, Rodrigo emerged from a tumultuous conclave on the night of Aug. 10-11, 1492, as Pope Alexander VI and received the acclaim of the Roman populace.
Charles, at the instigation of a rival cardinal of the influential della Rovere family, threatened the Pope with deposition and the convocation of a reform council.
As a patron of the arts, Alexander erected a centre for the University of Rome, restored the Castel Sant'Angelo, built the monumental mansion of the Apostolic Chancery, embellished the Vatican palaces, and persuaded Michelangelo to draw plans for the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica.
www.wga.hu /database/glossary/popes/alexand6.html   (680 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Alexander VI   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Leo VI LEO VI [Leo VI] (Leo the Wise or Leo the Philosopher), 862?-912, Byzantine emperor (886-912), son and successor of Basil I. He added to the work of his father by the publication (887-93) of the Basilica, a modernization of the law of Justinian I and of canon law.
Alexander III ALEXANDER III [Alexander III] 1241-86, king of Scotland (1249-86), son and successor of Alexander II.
Popes of the Roman Catholic Church POPES OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH [Popes of the Roman Catholic Church] Popes of the Roman Catholic Church In the following list, the date of election, rather than of consecration, is given.
www.encyclopedia.com /articles/00314.html   (726 words)

  
 Beears' Presentation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Alexander VI was born as Rodrigo de Borja, in Xativa, Spain.
With the death from malaria of Alexander VI in September of 1503, much thought was given to give the office to Caesar, Alexander's son.
Alexander VI had thought about reforming the church when his son Juan was murdered, but quickly turned to Caesar instead.
muweb.millersville.edu /~columbus/papers/beears.html   (2662 words)

  
 Alexander Pope Literary Criticism
Pope does not argue that evil does not exist; rather he argues that its existence does not preclude the justice of God.
Pope has already shown that the failure to submit is a result of pride, and that it creates ridiculous envyings which threaten, in vain, to upset God's order.
If Pope were reasoning from what he knows, he could only conclude that suffering and imperfection were senseless, because it appears that harmony and virtue would be better for man. Yet, Pope does not confess that discord and vice are beyond his comprehension.
www.literatureclassics.com /ancientpaths/pope.html   (2736 words)

  
 From Pope Alexander VI to Pope John XXIII, the history of the papacy is a succession of scoundrels and saints
Alexander VI was born Rodrigo de Borja y Borja in 1431 and made a cardinal at age 25 by his uncle, Pope Callistus III, who reigned in 1455-58.
Alexander VI had the leading voice for papal reform of his time, Florentine preacher Girolamo Savonarola, excommunicated, tortured and executed in 1498.
Pope Leo the Great (440-461) was the first pope to claim to be the successor to Peter the Apostle and to extend the authority of the bishop of Rome to the larger church.
sfgate.com /cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/04/20/MNGEFCBSSU1.DTL   (898 words)

  
 Alexander VI
For example, the Columbia Encyclopedia says, "Recent studies tend to minimize the pope's immorality and stress his solid achievements as a political strategist and church administrator." In fact, his political strategies were twofold: duplicity and greed; his church administration consisted of corruption and nepotism.
Alexander created numerous cardinals —; for a price — most of whom were "of doubtful reputation" (according to the Venetian envoy to Rome), or relatives, or usually both.
Alexander never changed his womanizing ways until he was too old to indulge them — he died at age 72 — and participated in extraordinary orgies held in the Vatican.
www.ronaldbrucemeyer.com /rants/0811b-almanac.htm   (580 words)

  
 Pope Alexander VI
Alexander VI, given name Rodrigo Borgia, Roman Catholic Pope from 1492 until his death, is the most memorable of the corrupt and secular popes of the Renaissance.
Alexander, overwhelmed with grief, shut himself up in Castle St. Angelo, and then declared that the reform of the church would be the sole object of his life henceforth -- a resolution which he did not keep.
Alexander's successor on the chair of St. Peter was Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini, who assumed the name of Pope Pius III.
www.nndb.com /people/159/000092880   (3470 words)

  
 borgia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The crest of Alexander VI Alexander VI will always be remembered as THE Borgia Pope, but actually two members of that family achieved the papacy.
Still, as the father of two of the most notorious of the Borgias, Lucrezia and Cesare, Alexander VI will always occupy an especially prominent place in the history of human infamy.
Alexander established the machinery for a reform of Papal finances, issued the "Bull of Demarcation", dividing the New World between Spain and Portugal (thus avoiding war between the two), and sent the first missionaries to America.
members.tripod.com /hermit9/borgia.htm   (224 words)

  
 Patron Saints Index: Pope Alexander VI
Elected pope by a corrupt conclave in 1492.
Foreign relations during his reign were dominated by the increasing influence of France in Italy, which culminated in the invasion of Charles VIII in 1494.
Alexander prevented Charles from taking church property in Rome, but he turned over the valuable Ottoman hostage Djem, brother of Sultan Beyazid II.
www.catholic-forum.com /saints/pope0214.htm   (191 words)

  
 Late Middle Ages - Pope Alexander VI   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Alexander VI Alexander VI Very possibly the worst and most notorious of all the Renaissance popes, Rodrigo Borgia can find almost no one who has a good word to say about him.
Corrupt, ambitious, worldly and pleasure-seeking, Pope Alexander VI would have been considered a rake even as a secular lord.
They were more angry that as pope, Alexander gave out valuable privileges and lands to his Spanish kindred instead of to Roman families.
history.boisestate.edu /hy309/papacy/alexandervi.html   (751 words)

  
 It Takes a Pope (Harpers.org)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Alexander's hopes for the future of his house rested, for its secular glory, on Lucrezia and Juan, and for its ecclesiastical on Caesar, who was made Bishop of Valencia, and afterward cardinal.
On the 17th, Master Scipio, the Pope's physician, sent a note to the Cardinal of Naples, stating that the pontiff was still very ill with severe and continual fever, and his attendants reposed all their hope on the medicine administered that day.
The Pope's child Giovanni and Lucrezia's son Rodrigo had already been sent there, and the property of the duke and his followers had been conveyed from the Vatican to the castle by the covered way which still exists, and which has often enabled a fugitive pope to take refuge in his fortress.
www.harpers.org /ThePopeWhoCameToDinner.html   (2066 words)

  
 Pope Alexander VI - Timeline Index
Alexander VI, (Rodrigo Borgia) pope 1492-1503, is the most memorable of the secular popes of the Renaissance.
He was born at Xàtiva, València, Spain, and his father's surname was Lanzol or Llançol; that of his mother's family, Borgia or Borja, was assumed by him on the elevation of his maternal uncle to the papacy as Callixtus III (April 8, 1455).
Lucrezia Borgia was the daughter of Rodrigo Borgia, the powerful Renaissance Spaniard who would later become Pope Alexander VI and Vannozza dei Cattani.
www.timelineindex.com /content/view/1487   (222 words)

  
 Alexander VI, pope
Alexander prevented Charles from taking the church property in Rome, but he turned over to the French the valuable Ottoman hostage Djem, brother of Sultan
Beyazid II Alexander's son, Cesare Borgia, was the principal leader in papal affairs, and papal resources were spent lavishly in building up Cesare's power.
It was Alexander who proclaimed the line of demarcation that awarded part of the new discoveries in the world to Spain, part to Portugal (see
www.factmonster.com /ce6/people/A0803218.html   (288 words)

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