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Topic: Pope Nicholas I

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  Pope Nicholas V - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Civic disorders at Bologna were prolonged, so Pope Eugenius IV soon named him as one of the legates sent to Frankfurt to negotiate an understanding between the Holy See and the Holy Roman Empire, with regard to undercutting or at least containing the reforming decrees of the Council of Basel.
The next year, 1450, Nicholas held a jubilee at Rome; and the offerings of the numerous pilgrims who thronged to Rome gave him the means of furthering the cause of culture in Italy, which he had so much at heart.
Nicholas himself was a man of vast erudition, and his friend Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (later Pope Pius II) said of him that "what he does not know is outside the range of human knowledge".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pope_Nicholas_V   (925 words)

 Pope Nicholas I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
On 24 April Nicholas was elected pope, consecrated, and enthroned in St. Peter's in the presence of the emperor.
To a spiritually exhausted and politically uncertain western Europe beset by Muslim and Norse incursions, Pope Nicholas appeared as a conscientious representative of the Roman primacy in the Church.
As the warnings of the pope were without result, and the archbishop ignored a thrice-repeated summons to appear before the papal tribunal, he was excommunicated.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pope_Nicholas_I   (1314 words)

 Pope Nicholas V: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com - All about Pope Nicholas V   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Nicholas V (Tomaso Parentucelli or Tomaso da Sarzana), pope from the March 6, 1447 to March 24, 1455, was born at Sarzana[?], where his father was a physician, in 1398.
He early studied at Bologna, where the bishop, Nicholas Albergati[?], was so much struck with his ardour for learning that he gave him the chance to pursue his studies further, by sending him on a tour through Germany, France and England.
Nicholas himself was a man of vast erudition, and his friend Aeneas Silvius (later Pope Pius II.) said of him that "what he does not know is outside the range of human knowledge".
www.encyclopedian.com /po/Pope-Nicholas-V.html   (518 words)

 Pope Adrian II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adrian II (also known as Hadrian II), (792–872), pope from 867 to 872, was a member of a noble Roman family, and became pope in 867, at an advanced age.
Photius, the Patriarch of Constantinople, shortly after the council in which he had vainly pronounced sentence of deposition against Pope Nicholas I, was driven from the patriarchate by a new emperor, Basil the Macedonian, who favoured his rival Ignatius.
Like his predecessor Nicholas I, Adrian was forced to submit, in temporal affairs, to the interference of the emperor, Louis II, who placed him under the surveillance of Arsenius, bishop of Orta, his confidential adviser, and Arsenius's son Anastasius, the librarian.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pope_Adrian_II   (295 words)

Pope Nicholas appeared as a conscientious representative of the Roman Primacy in the Church.
At the Synod of Metz, June, 863, the papal legates, bribed by the king, assented to the Aachen decision, and condemned the absent Theutberga.
Yet Nicholas did not waver in his determination; the emperor, after being reconciled with the pope, withdrew from Rome and commanded the Archbishops of Trier and Cologne to return to their homes.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/11054a.htm   (1278 words)

 Pope Nicholas IV - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nicholas IV, né Girolamo Masci (Lisciano, a small village near Ascoli Piceno, September 30, 1227 – April 4, 1292), was pope from February 22, 1288 to April 4, 1292.
The loss of Acre in 1291 stirred the pope to renewed enthusiasm for a crusade.
Nicholas died in the palace which he had built beside Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pope_Nicholas_IV   (232 words)

 Encyclopedia: Pope Nicholas II   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Like many important men of his age, Nicholas was a reformer in the monastic sense, attempting to counter the peculiar evils of the day (simony and clerical unchastity) by the over-correction of trying to refashion all of Christian society in the shape of monasticism.
In the aftermath of the synod, motivated by Hildebrand, Nicholas sought a renewed alliance between the papacy and the mercenary Normans who were occupying southern Italy.
A few more centuries of development of this "papal monarchist" position of the pope as sovereign overlord of both ecclesiastical and temporal domains would find the papacy itself being the instigator and defender of truly simoniacal practices, and would be a major cause of the reformation of the sixteenth century.
www.societaschristiana.com /Encyclopedia/N/NicholasII.html   (404 words)

 Pope Nicholas V -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397–March 24, 1455) was (The head of the Roman Catholic Church) pope from March 6, 1447, to March 24, 1455.
Within the city of Rome, Nicholas V introduced the fresh spirit of the (The period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world; a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries) Renaissance.
Nicholas preached a (Any of the more or less continuous military expeditions in the 11-13th centuries when Christian powers of Europe tried to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims) crusade, and endeavoured to reconcile the mutual animosities of the Italian states, but without much success.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/P/Po/Pope_Nicholas_V.htm   (1007 words)

 Pope Nicholas IV
In May 1289 he crowned King Charles II of Naples and Sicily after the latter had expressly recognized papal suzerainty, and in February 1291 concluded a treaty with Alfonso III of Aragon and Philip IV of France looking toward he expulsion of James II of Aragon[?] from Sicily.
The loss of Ptolemais[?] in 1291 stirred the pope to renewed enthusiasm for a crusade.
Nicholas died in the palace which he had built beside Sta Maria Maggiore.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/po/Pope_Nicholas_IV.html   (156 words)

 Biography – Pope Nicholas IV – The Papal Library
Nicholas IV, named Tineus, of an obscure family in Alessiano, in the diocese of Ascoli, was a Minor Observantine, and became the first general of the Franciscans after Saint Bonaventure, and the first pope of that order.
Nicholas, ever watchful for the maintenance and propagation of religion, exhorted all the princes upon the earth, with unwearied zeal, to form a numerous crusade to arrest the progress of the victorious Sultan of Babylon, who in 1290 took the city of Tripoli from the Christians.
Nicholas was a prudent philosopher and a good theologian; he governed the Church wisely, and he appeased some of the dissensions which had arisen at Rome and in the Ecclesiastical States.
www.saint-mike.org /Library/Papal_Library/NicholasIV/biography.html   (1102 words)

 Encyclopedia: Pope Nicholas I   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Adrian II (also known as Hadrian II),(792–872), pope from 867 to 872, was a member of a noble Roman family, and became pope in 867, at an advanced age.
The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Catholic Church.
Pope Nicholas II Pope Nicholas III Pope Nicholas IV Pope Nicholas V Nicholas II, né Gérard de Bourgogne (died either July 19 or July 27, 1061), pope from December 1058 to July 1061, was at the time of his election Bishop of Florence.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Pope-Nicholas-I   (2364 words)

Nicholas was seized with a panic; he hurried away from the doomed city and fled from castle to castle in the hope of escaping infection.
Nicholas erected two chapels at the entrance of the bridge where Mass was to be said daily for the repose of the souls of the victims.
Nicholas sternly reminded him of the promises made at Florence, and insisted that the terms of the union should be observed.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/11058a.htm   (2626 words)

 Cultural Catholic - Pope Nicholas II   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Notwithstanding Pope Stephen IX’s deathbed dictum, the anti-reformist faction proclaimed the Bishop of Velletri, Italy to be Pope Benedict X on April 5, 1058.
Pope Nicholas II was a reform prelate and set controls for the election and conduct of popes by assembling a synod of 113 bishops on April 13, 1059 whose first order of business was to declare the election of Pope Benedict X unconstitutional.
Pope Nicholas II died in Florence on July 27, 1061, and was buried in the Cathedral of Santa Reparata now the Duomo.
www.culturalcatholic.com /PopeNicholasII.htm   (392 words)

 Station Information - Pope Nicholas III
He concluded a concordat with Rudolph I of Habsburg in May 1278, by which the Romagna and the exarchate of Ravenna were guaranteed to the pope; and in July he issued an epoch-making constitution for the government of Rome, which forbade foreigners taking civil office.
Nicholas issued the bull Exiit on the 14th of August 1279 to settle the strife within the Franciscan order between the parties of strict and loose observance.
Nicholas, though a man of learning and strength of character, brought just reproach on himself for his efforts to found principalities for his nephews and other relations.
www.stationinformation.com /encyclopedia/p/po/pope_nicholas_iii.html   (183 words)

 Biography – Pope Nicholas I – The Papal Library
Nicholas sent to them, in 866, his legates, among whom was distinguished Formosus, Bishop of Porto, who became pope in 891.
The eighth general council, assembled in Constantinople in 870, calls Nicholas the new Elias, the new Phineas (Phineas, son of Eleazar and grandson of Aaron, was the third high priest of the Jews), new Daniel, and new Martin.
Nicholas was also respected on account of the just severity with which he enforced ecclesiastical discipline.
www.saint-mike.org /Papal-Library/NicholasI/biography.html   (762 words)

 Pope Stephen VI - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stephen VI, pope (885-891), succeeded Pope Adrian III, and was in turn succeeded by Pope Formosus.
In his dealings with Constantinople in the matter of Photius, as also in his relations with the young Slavonic church, he pursued the policy of Pope Nicholas I.
There is a problem in numbering the Popes Stephen -- see Pope Stephen II for the explanation.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pope_Stephen_VI   (111 words)

 ST. NICHOLAS I, THE GREAT   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Nicholas was a Roman, the son of an official in the papal service.
He blockaded Nicholas and had the indomitable Pope reduced almost to starvation, when a fever brought the Emperor to think better of his brutal conduct.
Nicholas, after several unsuccessful attempts to get justice, went personally to Ravenna and saw to it that property was restored to rightful owners.
www.cfpeople.org /Books/Pope/POPEp106.htm   (561 words)

Nicholas took possession of the province through his nephew, Latino, whom he had shortly before (12 March, 1278) raised to the cardinalate.
The task of Nicholas III in his dealings with the Eastern Church was the practical realization of the union accepted by the Greeks at the Second Council of Lyons (1274), for political reasons rather than out of dogmatic persuasion.
The realization of the pope's desire for the organization of a Crusade was frustrated by the distracted state of European politics.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/11056a.htm   (1283 words)

 The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Papal elections and conclaves by century
The decree In Nomine Domine, issued by Pope Nicholas II in the Lateran Synod, on April 13 (12?), 1059, established that the pope should be elected by the cardinal-bishops.
The long dispute between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry V because of the episcopal investitures, culminated with the second excommunication of the monarch on March 7, 1080.
After the wishes of Popes Gregory and Victor as to their successors had been made known to the assembly, the usual three days of fasting and prayer were proclaimed, and the meeting adjourned till Sunday.
www.fiu.edu /~mirandas/conclave-xi.htm   (1189 words)

 Saint Patrick's Church: Saints of November 13
Nicholas was elected bishop of Rome on April 22, 858, while still a deacon, and occupied the see with distinguished courage and energy for nine troubled years.
Nicholas was also involved in controversy with Constantinople throughout his pontificate over the illegal deposition of Ignatius and the appointment of Photius as patriarch of Constantinople by Emperor Michael III.
Nicholas excommunicated Michael in 863; the matter was not finally resolved until newly crowned Emperor Basil I expelled Photius, who had declared the pope deposed, on the day Nicholas died.
www.saintpatrickdc.org /ss/1113.htm   (4644 words)

 Cultural Catholic - Pope Alexander II
In 1064 after much in-fighting, Pope Alexander II was formally recognized as the legitimate pope, and Honorius II was excommunicated, but never conceded, insisting until his death in 1072 that he was pope.
In 1063, Pope Alexander II passed a series of reform decrees, one of which specifically reflected the vigilance of the Patari in forbidding the laity to hear Mass of a priest who did not live a chaste life.
Pope Alexander II died of natural causes and was laid to rest in the Roman Basilica of Saint John Lateran on April 21, 1073.
www.culturalcatholic.com /PopeAlexanderII.htm   (265 words)

To this end Nicholas II held in the Lateran at Easter, 1059 a synod attended by one hundred and thirteen bishops and famous for its law concerning papal elections.
At the end of June, 1059, Nicholas proceeded to Monte Cassino and thence to Melfi, the capital of Norman Apulia, where he held an important synod and concluded the famous alliance with the Normans (July-August, 1059).
The pope's answer was a repetition of the decree concerning elections at the synod of 1061, at which the condemnation of simony and concubinage among the clergy was likewise renewed.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/11055a.htm   (1472 words)

 AllRefer.com - Saint Nicholas I, pope (Roman Catholic Popes And Antipopes) - Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Saint Nicholas I, pope, Roman Catholic Popes And Antipopes
His decisions often set important precedents, as when the pope upheld the right of the bishop of Soissons to appeal to Rome against his superior, Archbishop Hincmar.
Nicholas challenged the right of Photius to occupy the see of Constantinople and attempted to have St. Ignatius of Constantinople restored to it.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/N/Nichls1.html   (288 words)

 Pope Adrian II Biography
Adrian II, pope from 867 to 872, was a member of a noble Roman family, and became pope in 867, at an advanced age.
He maintained, but with less energy, the attitude of his predecessor Nicholas I. Lothar, king of Lorraine, died in 869, leaving Adrian II to mediate between the Frankish kings with a view to assuring to the emperor, Louis II, the heritage of the king of Lorraine.
Like his predecessor Nicholas I, Adrian II was forced to submit in temporal affairs, to the interference of the emperor, Louis II, who placed him under the surveillance of Arsenius, bishop of Orta, his confidential adviser, and Arsenius's son Anastasius, the librarian.
www.biographybase.com /biography/Adrian_II_Pope.html   (269 words)

 Pope Benedict III - Wikipedia
Benedict III, pope (855-858), was chosen by the clergy and people of Rome, but the election was not confirmed by the Emperor Lothar, who appointed an antipope, Anastasius.
Benedict was at last successful, and the schism helped to weaken the hold of the emperors upon the popes, especially upon their elections.
The mythical Pope Joan is usually placed between Benedict and his predecessor Leo IV
nostalgia.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pope_Benedict_III   (130 words)

 WHKMLA : History of the Papal State, 1447-1471
Pope NICHOLAS V. (Tommaso Parentucelli) ruled from 1447 to 1455.
In 1449, rival pope Felix V. (Duke Amadeus of Savoy, elected by the Council of Basel in opposition to Pope Eugen IV.
Pope Nicholas V. concluded a CONCORDAT with Roman King Frederick III.
www.zum.de /whkmla/region/italy/papalstate14471471.html   (649 words)

 AllRefer.com - Nicholas V, pope (Roman Catholic Popes And Antipopes) - Encyclopedia
By a conciliatory policy Nicholas gained the Concordat of Vienna (1448) with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III.
To further church reform, the pope sent (1450) Nicholas of Cusa to Germany.
Pope Nicholas was renowned for learning and piety; he established the papacy as a patron of the humanities and was a founder of the Vatican Library.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/N/Nichls5.html   (279 words)

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