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Topic: Population genetics

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  Population genetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration.
Population genetics was a vital ingredient in the modern evolutionary synthesis, its primary founders were Sewall Wright, J.
In practice, there are two bodies of evolutionary theory that exist in parallel, traditional population genetics operating in the genotype space and the biometric theory used in plant and animal breeding, operating in phenotype space.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Population_genetics   (710 words)

 Genetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The word genetics was first suggested to describe the study of inheritance and the science of variation by the British scientist William Bateson in a personal letter to Adam Sedgwick, dated April 18, 1905.
The foundational discipline is population genetics which studies the distribution of and change in allele frequencies of genes under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and migration.
The related subfield of quantitative genetics, which builds on population genetics, aims to predict the response to selection given data on the phenotype and relationships of individuals.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Genetics   (1560 words)

 Introduction to Population Genetics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Population genetics is the study of the frequency of occurrence of alleles within and between populations.
A population's heterozygosity is measured by first determining the proportion of genes that are heterozygous and the number of individuals that are heterozygous for each particular gene.
One of the effects of inbreeding is a decrease in the heterozygosity (increase in homozygosity) of the population as a whole, which means a decrease in the number of heterozygous genes in the individuals.
genetics.nbii.gov /population.html   (2073 words)

 Basics of population genetics
Population genetics looks at the statistical distribution of genes in a particular breeding population, such as a breed of dog, and how different kinds of selection can affect that gene distribution.
The breeding population may be a single kennel that changes its gene pool every time it breeds to an outside dog, in which case the gene pool can be considered leaky, or at the other extreme may be all of the animals within a pure breed.
A gene frequency refers to the fraction of the genes in the breeding population that is of a particular type.
bowlingsite.mcf.com /Genetics/PopGenI.html   (1800 words)

 A Primer of Population Genetics, Third Edition - Sinauer Associates, Inc.
Population genetics seeks to understand the causes of genetic differences within and among species, and molecular biology provides a rich repertoire of techniques for identifying these differences.
It examines genetic effects on the components of phenotypic variation and the correlations between relatives, the evolution of quantitative traits in natural populations, and comes full circle with the use of molecular polymorphisms and candidate genes in the identification of quantitative trait loci underlying complex inheritance.
Modern population genetics makes liberal use of acronyms-these are all defined in the text, and their interrelations and implications are discussed.
www.sinauer.com /detail.php?id=3042   (797 words)

 Population and Evolutionary Genetics
The unifying concept of population genetics is the Hardy-Weinberg Law (named after the two scientists who simultaneously discovered the law).
The effect that is of concern is genetic drift.
Genetic drift is a change in gene frequency that is the result of chance deviation from expected genotypic frequencies.
www.ndsu.nodak.edu /instruct/mcclean/plsc431/popgen/popgen3.htm   (642 words)

 Population Genetics Breeding
Small populations also tend to become unintentionally inbred simply because there are not enough ancestors for each member of the current population to have a unique set (3).
Population genetics is not really a new discipline, it just seems that way because it's generally the last chapter in a genetics text.
In a managed population of an endangered species, zoo biologists might choose one of several strategies that are generally aimed at conserving the diversity from the wild population from which the captive population is drawn.
www.canine-genetics.com /pgbreed.htm   (1935 words)

 Population genetics
However, suppose the initial population size of almond trees were 10 (with the same frequency of r at 10%).
By the 1890's the population of northern elephant seals was reduced to only 20 individuals by hunters.
Even though the population has increased to over 30,000 there is no genetic variation in the 24 alleles sampled.
arnica.csustan.edu /Boty1050/Populationgen/population_genetics.htm   (1401 words)

 Human Genetics - Population Genetics
Population genetics is also the most widely misused area of human genetics, sometimes bordering on "vigilante genetics," a term coined by Newton Morton.
Population genetics is concerned with gene and genotype frequencies, the factors that tend to keep them constant, and the factors that tend to change them in populations.
Gene frequencies for nonfunctional alleles tend to increase in the population because of recurrent mutation.
www.uic.edu /classes/bms/bms655/lesson13.html   (3937 words)

 "Population Genetics"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Suppose there is migration from one population to another of the same species and that the probabilities p and q are different in the two populations.
As an example, suppose that m is the fraction of population that are immigrants from population B in a given time period.
Let's look at a computer simulation of genetic drift where say q, the frequency of the allele "a" is plotted on the vertical axis and time, in generations, is plotted on the horizontal axis.
www.bio.miami.edu /tom/bil160/bil160goods/04_popgen.html   (1274 words)

 Basic Population Genetics [M.Tevfik Dorak]
Population subdivision results in the loss of genetic variation (measured by heterozygosity) within subpopulations due to their being small populations and genetic drift acting within each one of them.
Genetic distance is a measurement of genetic relatedness of samples of populations (whereas genetic diversity represents diversity within a population).
Population Genetics Course by Paula Nuin at McMaster
dorakmt.tripod.com /evolution/popgen.html   (5042 words)

 Principles of Population Genetics, Third Edition - Sinauer Associates, Inc.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
It introduces the principles of genetics and statistics that are relevant to population studies, and examines the forces affecting genetic variation from the molecular to the organismic level.
Chapter 4 examines population subdivision and its consequences for the distribution of genetic variation among subpopulations, including the hierarchical F statistics used in estimating these effects.
Quantitative genetics is covered in Chapter 9, from the standpoint of genetic variance and covariance components as well as with respect to molecular markers used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs).
www.sinauer.com /detail.php?id=3069   (342 words)

 The Value of Population Genetics to the Breeder
Population genetics deals with the distribution of alleles in a population and the effects of mutation, selection, inbreeding, etc. on this distribution.
However, geneticists have also discovered that populations lacking genetic diversity often have significant problems and are at greater risk from disease and other changes in their environment.
The conclusion is that genetic diversity is desirable for the health and long-term survival of a population.
www.netpets.org /dogs/reference/genetics/popgen.html   (995 words)

 Population Biology Simulations
Genetic drift -- This simulation illustrates how allele frequencies change over time as a result of genetic drift in small populations.
Genetic drift and mutation -- This simulation illustrates the interaction between mutation and genetic drift.
Genetic drift and migration -- This simulation illustrates the interaction between migration and genetic drift.
darwin.eeb.uconn.edu /simulations/simulations.html   (923 words)

 ACC Population Genetics
Knowledge of population genetics and how it applies to purebreds, is a key to understanding the limitations of dog breeding.
Population genetics is simply the study of how genes work within a population.
Many of the genes that may have increased genetic diversity in the breed were lost in the process.
www.amchessieclub.org /DNA3.html   (2266 words)

 Population Genetics Made Simple
In addition, population genetics can help to explain the rapid adaptation of organisms to their environment by changes in frequency of existing genetic material (alleles) even without mutations.
The only advantage of a large population is that if there are say 100 mutations with selective advantages of.01, they can spread through the population in parallel, leading to a rate of evolution similar to that of one mutation with a selective advantage of about 1.
For a gene 1/4 average size, the frequency of genetic disease will be about 1/16 that of a gene of average size in these early stages, and mutations to this gene will take twice as long as mutations to an average size gene to reach equilibrium.
www.cs.unc.edu /~plaisted/ce/genetics.html   (9332 words)

 Monarch Watch : Biology : Population Genetics
Population genetics, which combines theories from evolution and genetics, studies how genes are distributed in a population.
Migratory populations and roosts, therefore, include individuals from all over North America; all the Monarchs from a particular summer region do not necessarily overwinter in the same place, and their descendants may not return to the same region the next year.
Bottlenecks reduce the genetic diversity in a population (for another example, read about cheetahs) because only a small number of individuals and their DNA serve as the ancestors for the present populations.
www.monarchwatch.org /biology/popgen.htm   (877 words)

 Population and Evolutionary Genetics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Rather than studying the inheritance of a trait, population genetics attempts to describe how the frequency of the alleles which control the trait change over time.
Furthermore, because changes in gene frequencies are at the heart of evolution and speciation, population and evolutionary genetics are often studied together.
One method of expressing variability is by analyzing the genetic data and expressing the data in terms of gene (or allelic) frequencies.
www.ndsu.nodak.edu /instruct/mcclean/plsc431/popgen/popgen1.htm   (363 words)

 Population genetics
The present genetics notes are produced as a substitute for 'Veterinary Genetics' by FW.Nicolas, Oxford University Press, 1989.
In addition to the description of traits with simple Mendelian inheritance, the description of the genetics for traits (diseases) with multifactoriel aetiology has also been emphasized, here the application of correct breeding plans make it possible to significantly lower the frequency of the disease.
The genetics notes are available on the university www server, which can be reached from the address: kursus.kvl.dk/shares/vetgen/_Popgen/genetics/genetik.htm.
www.kursus.kvl.dk /shares/vetgen/_Popgen/genetics/genetik.htm   (367 words)

 Population Genetics Glossary
Genetic migration is the primary agent of gene flow.
Genetic distance: various statistics for measuring the 'genetic distance' between subgroups or populations.
This "visible" variation might be expressed as coat color in a mouse, as the odor of a secondary compound (mint or sagebrush), or as the length of a DNA fragment on an electrphoretic gel.
www.uwyo.edu /dbmcd/popecol/Maylects/PopGenGloss.html   (3420 words)

 Mathematical Methods of Population Genetics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The mathematical methods of population genetics theory characterize quantitatively the gene distribution dynamics in evolving populations [1-3].
The wide spectrum of analogous models, which describe the different particularities, concerning several gene loci, age and female/male distributions in a population, inbreeding, migrations, subdivisions of populations, were developed and investigated, especially in connection with concrete genetic data interpretations [1,3,4].
The mathematical models of population genetics describe the gene frequency distributions in evolving populations.
pespmc1.vub.ac.be /MATHMPG.html   (1194 words)

 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Recall, it is at the population level that evolution occurs.
A population is a group of individuals of the same species in a given area whose members can interbreed.
The larger a population is, the number of changes that occur by chance alone becomes insignificant.
www.woodrow.org /teachers/bi/1994/hwintro.html   (811 words)

 Amazon.com: Geographical Genetics (MPB-38) (Monographs in Population Biology): Books: Bryan K. Epperson   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Geographical genetics is an important topic that is of broad interest to ecologists, conservation biologists, population geneticists, and others, so a book on this topic is a very welcome addition.
An almost encyclopedic survey of population genetics theory and practice in cases where the population of interest has some geographic structure to it.
Population genetics has made great strides in applying statistical analysis and mathematical modeling to understand how genes mutate and spread through populations over time.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0691086699?v=glance   (724 words)

 PBE&B Educational Index
This review briefly discusses many Population Genetics concepts (among other things), including genetic variation, linkage disequilibrium, non-random mating, natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, gene-flow, and a brief historical summary on the founders of theoretical Population Genetics.
It illustrates the principles of population genetics." Reprinted in L.
Research: Examination of evolutionary processes by means of theoretical population genetics, with special emphasis on genome organization, genetics of continuously varying characters (Quantitative Genetics), speciation, and interfacing molecular and developmental biology with evolutionary biology.
www.geocities.com /CapeCanaveral/Lab/4709/popgen.htm   (2175 words)

 Genetics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Population Genetics (also still under construction.) How selection of different kinds can change the overall genetic makeup of a breeding population.
Coat Color Genetics in Dogs (Basic color genetics, all breeds, including comments on colors where genetics are questionable.)
References for the genetics section, including links to other genetics websites.
bowlingsite.mcf.com /Genetics/Genetics.html   (316 words)

 population genetics - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about population genetics
Branch of genetics that studies the way in which the frequencies of different alleles (alternative forms of a gene) in populations of organisms change, as a result of natural selection and other processes.
Population Health Operational Tracking and Oversight System (US DoD)
This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /population+genetics   (103 words)

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