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Topic: Portuguese colonization of the Americas

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  colonization. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Before colonization can be effected, the indigenous population must be subdued and assimilated or converted to the culture of the colonists; otherwise, a modus vivendi must be established by the imposition of a treaty or an alliance.
Portuguese colonization, which received impetus from the development of greatly improved methods of navigation, began with the establishment of trading ports in Africa and the East, while the Spanish concentrated most of their efforts in the Americas.
Modern colonization, frequently preceded by an era in which missionaries and traders were active, was largely exploitative, but it did not in the long run prove directly lucrative to the colonial power, because it involved a heavy drain on the treasury of the home government.
www.bartleby.com /65/co/coloniza.html   (882 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Danish colonization of the Americas
Map of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with Courlands colonies marked The Duchy of Courland was the smallest nation to colonize the Americas with a short-lived colony in Tobago during the 1654-1659, and again 1660-1689.
Spanish conquest and colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in America of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The Swedish colonization of the Americas consisted of a 17th century settlement on the Delaware River in Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, and possessions in the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th century.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Danish-colonization-of-the-Americas   (1576 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for European colonization of the Americas
Italian Cristoforo Colombo Spanish Cristobal Colon (born between Aug. 26 and Oct. 31?, 1451, Genoa—died May 20, 1506, Valladolid, Spain) Genoese navigator and explorer whose transatlantic voyages opened the way for European exploration, exploitation, and colonization of the Americas.
Colonization as subtext in James Welch's Winter in the Blood.
Notes on the comparative study of the colonial Americas: further reflections of the Tucson Summit.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=European+colonization+of+the+Americas   (1247 words)

 Barbara Tanner
Portuguese is one of the Romance languages, a title which refers to its mother language, Vulgar Latin.
Although Portuguese also has some evidence today of contact with the German language, the influence from this time period is really minimal compared to the other Romance languages, due primarily to the geographic isloation of the Iberian Peninsula from Rome which is where the German influence had the most dramatic effect on Latin dialects.
Portuguese was also exposed to African languages in the Classical Period due to the importation of slaves to Brazil.
linguistics.byu.edu /classes/ling450ch/reports/portuguese.html   (2406 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Spanish colonization of the Americas
The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón) in 1492.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Spanish possessions in America began a series of independence movements, which culminated in Spain's loss of all of its colonies on the mainland of North, Central and South America by 1825.
Portuguese explorers had recently been establishing new routes north along the West African coast, and it seemed likely that the Portuguese caravels would shortly reach the rich trading areas of Asia by traveling east.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Spanish_conquest_of_the_Americas   (1518 words)

 Colonialism - Wikipedia
The term also refers to a set of beliefs used to legitimate or promote this system, especially the belief that the mores of the colonizer are superior to those of the colonized.
Advocates of colonialism have also argued that colonialist rule benefits the colonized by developing the economic and political infrastructure necessary for modernization and democracy.
Dependency theorists such as Andre Gundar Frank, however, have argued that colonialism actually leads to the transfer of wealth from the colonized to the colonizer, and inhibits successful economic development.
www.web-dictionary.org /encyclopedia/co/Colonialism.html   (247 words)

 Spanish colonization of the Americas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The Treaty of Tordesillas was an attempt to solve the with the Portuguese colonizers.
The silver America (especially the mines of Zacatecas and Potosí) went to pay the debt brought by the wars against the Reformation led by the Spanish kings.
www.freeglossary.com /Spanish_Invasion   (1426 words)

 BT Research - Bandar Abbas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
In the 16th century, the Portuguese established a presence in the region.
After he defeated the Portuguese in a naval battle off Hormuz with help from the British navy, he developed the town into a major port — "Bandar" means "port".
From 1740, control of the town was sold to Arab rulers, and from around 1780 it was controlled by the leaders of Muscat.
www.breathittteens.com /research.php?title=Bandar_Abbas   (470 words)

 European colonization of the Americas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The population loss and the cultural chaos and political collapses it caused greatly facilitated both colonization of the land and conquest of the native civilizations.
Early European colonies in North America include Spanish Florida, the English settlements in Virginia and New England, French settlements in Quebec and Louisiana, and Dutch settlements in New Netherlands.
In the French colonial regions, the focus of economy was the fur trade with the natives.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/European_colonization_of_the_Americas   (1651 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Portuguese possessions in India were a few enclaves along India's west coast, with Goa being the largest of these holdings.
Portuguese, the earlier language of the elite, has been hit by shrinking numbers, though a small section still prefer it as the medium for discourse at home, while even a few Portuguese books have been published in recent years.
Portuguese India (Baçaím (Vasai) 1535-1739, Bombay (Mumbai) 1534-1661, Calicut (Kozhikode) 1512-1525, Cambay (Khambhat), Cannanore (Kannur) 1502-1663, Chaul 1521-1740, Chittagong 1528-1666, Cochim (Kochi) 1500-1663, Cranganore (Kodungallur) 1536-1662, Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1779-1954, Daman and Diu 1559-1962,
www.gamecheatz.net /games.php?title=Goa   (5722 words)

 Brazilian Portuguese Translation - Translate Portuguese Language Translator
Portuguese is a Romance language spoken in Portugal and most of its former colonies, including Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea Bissau and East Timor.
Portuguese is nicknamed ''A l ngua de Cam es'' (after Lu s de Cam es, the author of The Lusiad); and ''A ltima flor do L cio'' ("The last flower of Latium").
The Portuguese language was spread worldwide in the 15th and 16th centuries as Portugal created the first and the longest lived modern-world colonial and commercial empire, spanning from Brazil in the Americas to Macau in China and Japan.
www.translation-services-usa.com /languages/portuguese.shtml   (1586 words)

 The Pick of the Literate - Portuguese History
The story of the Portuguese in New Bedford is told with depth and insight in this authoritative study of various communities and their festivals.
This large, authoritative volume on the most famous figure in Portuguese history deals less with the inner life of the man himself, and more with the political and religious climate of his era.
Opening with an overview of Portuguese history, the text gives special attention to the role of whaling as the major factor leading to Portuguese migration to New England and subsequent settlements in California.
www.bakerbooks.net /portuguese.asp   (1883 words)

 The Americas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
In 1493 the Pope drew a line from the North Pole to the South Pole, west of the Azores, and gave the Spanish the land to the west, and the Portuguese the land to the east.
By then the Portuguese government was impatient with protecting the native people, and equally impatient with supporting the Jesuits.
Portuguese soldiers massacred hundreds of Indians in 1756, and the Portuguese government drove the Jesuits out of the territory in 1759.
individual.utoronto.ca /hayes/survey2/18americas.htm   (853 words)

 African Presence 1492-1992: Schomburg Exhibit
It was the Columbus voyage of 1492, however, that ushered in the era of European conquest, colonization and settlement in this hemisphere which led to the formation of the 49 nations that comprise North, South and Central America and the Caribbean.
The African presence in the Americas is a direct consequences of the European - Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Danish, French and English - colonization of the "New World." Over the first 350 years of European occupation, more than 10 million Africans of many different ethnic groups were sold into slavery and distributed throughout the Americas.
The African Presence in the Americas is designed to introduce you to the dynamics and dimensions of the 500 year history of African people in the Americas.
www.si.umich.edu /CHICO/Schomburg/text/exhibition.html   (244 words)

 Teaching Children Social Studies with Timelines - Build up to Spanish, Portuguese, African Contact Timeline - Inquiry ...
Portuguese forces build a fort at Argvin on the west coast of Africa.
Garrido later participates in the colonization of Florida and serves with Spanish explorer Hernan Cortex in the conquest of Mexico.
Portuguese, and later Dutch slave traders encourage fighting among African kingdoms or factions in order to increase the number of Africans for sale in servitude in Europe and the Americas.
inquiryunlimited.org /timelines/histSpPortAf.html   (4020 words)

 Table of Contents and Excerpt, Metcalf, Family and Frontier in Colonial Brazil
This attitude had developed during the earliest stage of colonization and continued to characterize life in the later stages because of the proximity of the frontier.
Relatively few parts of the Brazilian frontier were colonized by the yeoman farmers so eulogized by Turner--the hardworking entrepreneurial families who carved their homesteads out of the wilderness by the sweat of their own brows.
Since the different character of colonization in the Americas has produced very different results, an understanding of modern American societies must rest on an analysis of their colonial roots.
www.utexas.edu /utpress/excerpts/exmetfap.html   (9410 words)

 sociology - Spanish colonization of the Americas
The Treaty of Tordesillas was an attempt to solve the disputes with the Portuguese colonizers.
The silver of America (especially the mines of Zacatecas and Potosí) went to pay the enormous debt brought by the wars against the Reformation led by the Spanish kings.
Spanish territorial claims based on this furthest north penetration of Spain in North America were not supported at the treaty negotiations.
www.aboutsociology.com /sociology/Spanish_colonization_of_the_Americas   (1334 words)

 Norse colonization of the Americas Summary
The Vikings, or Norsemen, explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeast fringes of North America, beginning in the 10th century.
There is a map describing North America, the Vinland map, the age of which is subject to some debate.
According to the Icelandic sagas ("Eirik the Red's Saga" and the "Saga of the Greenlanders"  — chapters of the Hauksbók and the Flatey Book), the Vikings started to explore lands to the west of Greenland only a few years after the Greenland settlements were established.
www.bookrags.com /Norse_colonization_of_the_Americas   (4070 words)

 Oregon Mars Society - Society and Government: Avoiding the Same Mistakes
The factors involved in colonization were the indigenous peoples in the area, the difficulty in adapting to the environment, and the expansion of their economy.
As the European powers expanded their influence, colonization began to change to the establishment of "Sphere's of Influence." By this time, America, Japan, and Russia had joined in the colonization and expansion of power and influence in the region.
Two important factors involved in colonization of the Americas are the climates and the native populations.
chapters.marssociety.org /or/msoec1.html   (3788 words)

 History of Latin America Summary
Latin America refers to countries in the Americas where Latin-derived (Romance) languages are spoken; these countries generally lie south of the United States.
Upon their arrival, most of Latin America was colonized, primarily by Spain and Portugal, and, to a lesser extent, by France.
It was impossible for Latin America to break all ties with European nations with there ancestors at the head of the government and society, and a economy that was nowhere near to being self sufficient.
www.bookrags.com /History_of_Latin_America   (1176 words)

 Portuguese colonization of the Americas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Portuguese won a significant victory in the Second Battle of Guararapes in 1649.
Therefore, it is not common to refer to "Portuguese America" (like Spanish America, Dutch America, etc.), but rather to Brazil, as a unified colony since its very beginnings.
Hostility from the natives is often pointed as one of the key aspects to the failure of the project.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Portuguese_colonization_of_the_Americas   (494 words)

 Goa information - Search.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Later, in 1510, Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque defeated the ruling Bijapur kings on behalf of a local sovereign, Timayya, leading to the establishment of a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (or Old Goa).
Following the end of Portuguese rule, the most widely used languages are Konkani as the primary spoken language, and English and Marathi for official, literary or educational purposes.
Some influences from the Portuguese era are visible in some of Goa's temples, notably the Mangueshi Temple, although, in a conscious effort after 1961, many of these were demolished and reconstructed in the indigenous Indian style.
c10-ss-1-lb.cnet.com /reference/Goa   (5233 words)

 Bonaire's Papiamentu Language
Although there are numerous theories on the origins of Papiamentu, the most widely accepted explanation is that it is a Portuguese based Creole, traceable to the first contact between the Portuguese and West Africans in the mid-1400s.
The Portuguese colonization of the West African coast prompted the evolution of a new language, one containing elements of African language structures and Portuguese vocabulary that allowed the two peoples to communicate with each other.
This lingua franca, which became the mother tongue of a new generation, evolved further as it was adapted to the particular linguistic environments in which the slaves found themselves.
www.geographia.com /bonaire/bonpap01.htm   (747 words)

 Essay II: 1492-1620
Although the Portuguese acquired Brazil under the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), the Spanish were the principal Iberian power in the Americas.
Apparently, the small but continuous traffic in slaves, in which the Portuguese were the leading European practitioners, exploded in the fifteenth century when the Portuguese applied slavery to the cultivation of sugar cane, first in their Atlantic island colonies and then in Latin America.
Finally at the same time that the English were grappling with the challenges posed by the Americas, they also were struggling with the crises of religious divisions and sectarian rivalry.
www.eduref.org /Virtual/Lessons/crossroads/sec2/essay02.html   (1733 words)

 The Ultimate Colonialism - American History Information Guide and Reference
They point to such former colonies as the United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong and Singapore as examples of post-colonial success.
Critics of neocolonialism see neocolonialism as the continuation of the domination and exploitation of the same countries with different (and often the same) means.
Soviet colonization of eastern Poland and southern Finland
www.historymania.com /american_history/Colonialism   (281 words)

 What is the difference?
Mario was a member of the Portuguese Language Division of the American Translators Association, a well known translator and mentor of some of the division members'.
Rio Portuguese as opposed to Belo Horizonte Portuguese; Lisbon Portuguese as contrasted with Coimbra Portuguese.
The point to be made is that a "standard-type" Portuguese should continue to be taught and the orthographic committees of the two Academies should go on with their efforts to narrow even further the differences between the "two Portuguese languages".
www.necco.ca /faq_what_is_the_difference.htm   (1648 words)

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