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Topic: Positional asphyxia

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In the News (Tue 18 Jun 19)

  Positional asphyxia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Positional asphyxia, also known as postural asphyxia, is a form of asphyxia which occurs when someone's position prevents them from breathing adequately.
Positional asphyxia may be a factor in many of these deaths.
People may die from positional asphyxia by simply getting themselves into a breathing-restricted position they cannot get out of, either through carelessness or as a consequence of another accident.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Positional_asphyxia   (238 words)

Asphyxia can literally be translated from the Greek as meaning 'absence of pulse', but is usually the term given to deaths due to 'anoxia' or 'hypoxia'.
Postural asphyxia is a related condition, recently coming to the fore due to interest in deaths in police custardy etc, and may involve splinting of the diaphragm during restraint, coupled with the additional requirements for oxygen during a struggle.
When oxygen is not able to reach the lungs because of external occlusion of the mouth and/ or nose, or the airway at the level of the larynx is obstructed (eg by a bolus of food), the cause of the asphyxial death is 'obstruction of the airways'.
www.forensicmed.co.uk /asphyxia.htm   (937 words)

 Positional notation Definition / Positional notation Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Positional notation is a numeral system A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number.
Positional notation is the location and value of digits in a numbering system, such as the decimal or binary system.
Positional notation is a system in which each position has a value represented by a unique symbol or character.
www.elresearch.com /Positional_notation   (533 words)

 Excited Delirium, Restraint Asphyxia, Positional Asphyxia and 'In-Custody Death" Syndromes
Positional asphyxia is a term used to describe the placement of a body in a position that interferes with the ability to breath.
In a case of restraint asphyxia, the cause of death is usually a combination of exhaustion, exertion, fear and restricted breathing due to restraint or the use of force.
The cause of death in positional asphyxia may involve restraint but is more likely associated with leaving an exhausted, drug affected and unconscious person in a position that results in asphyxia.
www.educationoptions.org /programs/articles/SuddenDeath.htm   (2134 words)

 Texas Dept of Health - Bureau of Emergency Management   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Positional asphyxia has been suggested as a culprit because of the frequency with which cardiopulmonary arrest develops soon after the patient is placed into physical restraint in a prone position or after being "hog-tied."
In the out-of-hospital environment, restraint asphyxia is a term that expands the concept of positional asphyxia to include the "take-down" of a violent individual.
The Hobble position as a cause of death or a contributing factor is controversial.
www.tdh.state.tx.us /hcqs/ems/JF05CE.htm   (2693 words)

 MHANYS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Positional asphyxia is suffocation from being held in a way that inhibits breathing.
"Positional asphyxia," according to a training manual for correction officers, "occurs when a body position interferes with respiration, resulting in unconsciousness or death caused by lack of oxygen." In most cases, death results after weight is placed on the face-down person.
In 1995, after the positional asphyxia death of inmate Michael Bernardo, 41, at Auburn prison, correctional officials issued a two-page memo that was to be read at annual in-service training.
www.mhanys.org /press/pr020315.htm   (2291 words)

 [No title]
The circumstances leading to positional asphyxia in many cases were probably initiated by handcuffing subjects (behind the back) and having them on their stomachs or in a position that allowed them to end up on their stomachs.
Rather, the cause of death in the majority of the cases was determined to be positional asphyxia, aggravated by drugs, disease, and/or obesity.
Positional asphyxial deaths tend to occur in a similar manner: maximally restrained subjects, unless seated upright in police vehicles, may become quiet and inactive after several minutes of transport.
hazard.com /library/topics/Chemical_Safety/Pepper_Mace   (2872 words)

 [No title]
Just as in the sitting position, there was no difference in oxygenation in the restraint position between the OC and placebo groups (see exhibit 3).
Positional asphyxia: Death caused by obstructed airways or other interference with breathing resulting from body position.
Prone maximal restraint ("hogtie" or "hobble") position: A position in which subjects are made to lie prone with wrists and ankles bound together behind the back.
www.ncjrs.org /txtfiles1/nij/188069.txt   (3488 words)

 Pepper Spray/In-Custody Deaths
More specifically, it was concluded that in 18 of the 22 cased positional asphyxia was the cause of death, with drugs and/or disease also being contributing factors.
Rather, the cause of death in the majority of cases was determined to be positional asphyxia, aggravated by drugs, disease and/ or obesity.
Although OC was not implicated as a lethal factor in the reported deaths further discussion of sudden death in custody is warranted because of the potential for certain individuals to die in police custody.
www.zarc.com /english/other_sprays/reports/iacp_oc_death_1994.html   (2821 words)

 Chicago Reporter, March 1999: Positional Asphyxia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Recent research from across the country has identified "positional asphyxia" as the underlying cause of death in several cases.
In all cases of positional asphyxia, the subject is unable to correct the lethal position, whether he is placed or inadvertently places himself that way.
Because of the possibility of positional asphyxia, hog-tying of a subject must always be avoided.
chicagoreporter.com /1999/03-99/0399position.htm   (570 words)

 Positional Asphyxia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The term positional asphyxia has recently been used to describe the sudden deaths of arrestees that occurred while they were held in restraint by law enforcement personnel.
The use of the terms "positional asphyxia" and "restraint asphyxia" as a cause-of-death infers that when a person dies while placed in restraints by law enforcement personnel their agencies hold some responsibility for the deaths.
Therefore, the use of the phrase "positional asphyxia" should be discontinued until further physlological evidence is presented to support this theory.
www.ppct.com /CJTN/html/libfiles/positional.html   (1389 words)

 Asphyxia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The position of Jonny Gammage's body, face down, combined with pressure on his back and neck from officers trying to handcuff him left him unable to breathe.
According to the Allen County Coroner’s Office, Kristanna Mae Shaw died of positional asphyxia and her death was accidental in nature.
PITTSBURGH -- The words "positional asphyxia" aren't any easier to pronounce, but 10 years after the death of fl motorist Jonny Gammage in a Pittsburgh suburb, police say everybody knows what they mean.
www.infothis.com /find/Asphyxia   (489 words)

 Read about Asphyxia at WorldVillage Encyclopedia. Research Asphyxia and learn about Asphyxia here!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Problems during childbirth can lead to the newborn experiencing asphyxia.
Prolonged asphyxia can result in brain damage even when it does not cause death.
Recently, asphyxia by carbon monoxide has been a popular method, especially in Japan where many gather together in suicide pacts.
encyclopedia.worldvillage.com /s/b/Anoxia   (373 words)

 JS Online: Man put facedown, witnesses say   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
If true, such an action would be contrary to department guidelines put in place in 1997 to prevent positional asphyxia - suffocation caused when the position of the body makes it impossible to breathe.
Positional asphyxia is one possible cause being considered in last week's death, Milwaukee County Medical Examiner Jeffrey Jentzen said Monday.
Jentzen said Monday that although positional asphyxia is one possibility being considered, the cause of the man's death has not been determined, and toxicology reports are pending.
www.jsonline.com /news/metro/dec01/9329.asp?format=print   (834 words)

 The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin: Suspect restraint and sudden death. @ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Positional asphyxia occurs when the position of the body interferes with the person's ability to breathe.
An examination of reported positional asphyxia-related deaths revealed that several other readily observable factors can increase a subject's susceptibility to sudden death when officers place the subject in the hog-tied and prone position.
Determining the cause of death of subjects who had been placed in the hog-tied and prone position is one of the most difficult tasks in all of forensic medicine.
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?docid=1G1:18535199&refid=ink_tptd_g1   (1575 words)

 Asphyxia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Asphyxia is a condition of severe lack of oxygen supplied to thebody.
Asphyxiation is the act of causing asphyxia, usually by suffocation.
Prolonged asphyxia can result in brain damage even when it does notcause death.
www.therfcc.org /asphyxia-16683.html   (129 words)

 PROCEDURES   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
With the head in a neutral position insert the well lubricated tube into the larger nostril and gently guide the tube posteriorly in an arc until the pharynx is reached.
With the patient's head in a neutral position, by lifting the tongue and lower jaw upward with one hand, insert the combitube blindly until the two printed fl rings are located between the patients teeth or alveolar ridges.
Positional asphyxia can occur when a patient's body positioning causes an inability to breath or an airway obstruction.
www.mind.net /jcems/PROCEDURES.htm   (2981 words)

 Positional Asphyxia and Sudden Death
This NLETC bulletin presents information relevant to positional asphyxia-i.e., death as a result of body position that interferes with one's ability to breathe- as it occurs within a confrontational situation involving law enforcement officers..
The risk of positional asphyxia is compounded when an individual with predisposing factors becomes involved in a violent struggle with an officer or officers, particularly when physical restraint includes use of behind-the-back handcuffing combined with placing the subject in a stomach-down position.
To help minimize the risk of positional asphyxia, diligent observation and monitoring of subjects displaying any one or a combination of the described indicators are procedurally warranted.
www.zarc.com /english/other_sprays/reports/positional_asphyxia.html   (1017 words)

 [Restraint Asphyxia]
According to experts, it arises from use of neck-holds which restrict breathing or when a person is laid on their stomach during restraint and/or transportation.
Factors which may increase dangers of restraint asphyxia include: obesity; enlarged heart; alcohol and drug use or other things that impede the ability to breathe including, for example, the presence of chemical agents.
Guidelines to minimize the risk of positional asphyxia include restraining a person other than laying them on their stomach and monitoring the restrained person’s breathing and health.
www.blaqfair.com /blaqfair/dthcustody/asphyxia.htm   (262 words)

 [No title]
This physically incapacitating position, however, makes it difficult for subjects to breathe and can cause them to die.1 Because of the risks associated with hog-tied and prone restraint, officers must monitor subjects closely for signs of respiratory distress.
Positional Asphyxia When a hog-tied subject dies, forensic pathologists generally attribute the death in whole or in part to positional asphyxia result-ing from respiratory compromise.
Conclusion Determining the cause of death of subjects who had been placed in the hog-tied and prone position is one of the most difficult tasks in all of forensic medicine.
www.fbi.gov /publications/leb/1996/may966.txt   (1416 words)

 Suffocation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Child deaths due to suffocation result when the child is in a place or position where he or she is unable to breathe.
Positional asphyxia deaths occur when infants' faces become pressed into soft mattresses, waterbeds or soft bedding; or when they become wedged into the edges of cribs with loose fitting mattresses, cribs with wide slats or between couch cushions.
It is widely believed that couches and waterbeds pose the greatest danger for positional asphyxia.
www.keepingkidsalive.org /suffocation.htm   (665 words)

 Medical Alert Concerning Positional Asphyxia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Individuals that are placed face down in the prone position with their extremities restrained behind their backs have to expend more work to breathe.
This could also occur if the individual is in the prone position and has sufficient weight on their back for an extended period of time (a result of people attempting to control the individual).
We have performed studies that demonstrate the sitting position is preferential to the prone position as reflected by respiratory and cardiac responses.
www.policeone.com /test/police-products/corrections/articles/69817   (304 words)

 Police are now trained on positional asphyxia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Gammage died from "positional asphyxia," so called because the position of his body, face down, combined with pressure on his back and neck from officers attempting to handcuff him left him unable to breathe.
Gammage was not the first person to suffer a sudden, in-custody death, and positional asphyxia was well-known for years in the medical community.
Now virtually everyone knows it is. The Gammage case, with its attendant national publicity as a tragic real-life, real-death example of positional asphyxia, and other similar cases helped spur police education that is likely to save lives.
www.post-gazette.com /pg/05282/585301.stm   (796 words)

 The Daily News - Coroner: 4 babies have died of accidental asphyxiation this year   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
This year, there have been four so-called "positional asphyxia" deaths, according to the coroner's office.
In a news release, the coroner's office cautions that a sleeping adult can unknowingly trap an infant with his or her body, especially if the adult is tired, sick or under the influence of alcohol or drugs, including over-the-counter remedies.
Infant deaths from positional asphyxia also can result from unsafe sleeping environments.
www.tdn.com /articles/2004/12/11/area_news/news04.prt   (354 words)

 COUNTY OF SAN DIEGO - FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The family contended that Daniel Price died from "positional asphyxia" after being hogtied -- a type of restraint in which a person's hands and feet are bound behind the back.
The County of San Diego challenged the case, whose scientific claims were based on an article published in a forensic pathology journal nearly 10 years ago concluding that hogtying causes fatal positional asphyxia.
In light of the UCSD study, the author of the original hogtie/positional asphyxia article, retracted his hypothesis.
www.co.san-diego.ca.us /cnty/accomplishments/r-hogtie.html   (249 words)

 Respirocytes: A Mechanical Artificial Red Cell page 4   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
In current practice, organs must be transplanted soon after harvest; respirocytes could be used as a long-duration perfusant to preserve living tissue, especially at low temperature, for grafts (kidney, marrow, liver and skin) and organ transplantation.
Respirocytes may be useful in perinatal medicine, as for example infusions of device suspension to treat fetal anemia (erythroblastosis fetalis), neonatal hemolytic disease, or in utero asphyxia from partial detachment of the placenta or maternal hypoxia, to restore the oxygen-carrying ability of fetal blood.
Asphyxia neonatorum, as from umbilical cord compression during childbirth, may fatally deprive the infant of oxygen; prenatal respirocyte treatment could be preventative.
www.foresight.org /Nanomedicine/Respirocytes4.html   (3367 words)

 Advisory for Care Providers  Exp   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
According to a case study,8 forensic pathologist Dr. Werner Spitz indicates that there is a greater chance of positional asphyxia with increased body mass and an enlarged heart.
The amount of fat located under the navel is indicative of the thickness of the fat layer under the skin, and this is associated with excess fat inside the abdominal cavity.
In the prone position, the excess fat, together with the abdominal organs, push against the diaphragm, causing it to be immobilized, and ultimately interferes with breathing.
www.pwsausa.org /CareProviders/PositionalAsphyxia.htm   (1571 words)

 Expert: Altoona man was suffocated by police
A forensic pathologist testified yesterday that an Altoona man suffocated from the force of police officers pressing on his back and restraining his arms during a violent arrest Dec. 21 at the Mount Oliver fire hall.
Shaun Ladham of the Allegheny County coroner's office, testifying at the conclusion of an open inquest into the death of Charles Dixon, said Dixon died of positional and mechanical asphyxia.
Positional asphyxia had been suspected as the cause, given that several witnesses previously testified that a number of officers -- some said as many as a dozen -- piled onto Dixon, a 330-pound man, while arresting him for disorderly conduct.
www.post-gazette.com /localnews/20030305inquest0305p5.asp   (550 words)

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