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Topic: Positive liberty

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  Positive liberty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin.
Positive liberty is often described as freedom to achieve certain ends, while negative liberty is described as from external coercion.
The idea of positive liberty is often emphasized by those on the left-wing of the political spectrum, whereas negative liberty is most important for those who lean towards libertarianism.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Positive_liberty   (443 words)

 Liberty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Liberty is a concept of political philosophy or, as in Kant's philosophy, a metaphysical idea, often equated with freedom.
Various political ideologies oppose themselves on the understanding of liberty, which can be conceived, in an individualist and liberal conception as the freedom of the individual, whilst socialism, for example, equates liberty with equality, claiming that liberty without equality amounts to the domination of the most powerful.
A temple was erected to the goddess Liberty on the Aventine Hill in Rome by the father of Tiberius Gracchus during the second Punic War.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Liberty   (2194 words)

 Positive and Negative Liberty
Positive liberty is the possibility of acting - or the fact of acting - in such a way as to take control of one's life and realize one's fundamental purposes.
While negative liberty is usually attributed to individual agents, positive liberty is sometimes attributed to collectivities, or to individuals considered primarily as members of given collectivities.
Positive liberty consists, they say, in exactly this growth of the individual: the free individual is one that develops, determines and changes her own desires and interests autonomously and from within.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/liberty-positive-negative   (6639 words)

 IVR - Encyclopaedia of Jurisprudence, Legal Theory and Philosophy of Law   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
He notes that positive liberty has often been a dangerous weapon in the hands of authoritarians, because it suggests the idea of a self divided into two sides: a “higher or true self” and a “lower self”, with the former governing the latter.
For instance, the Italian theorist Norberto Bobbio challenges the assimilation of negative liberty to “liberty from”, and of positive liberty to “liberty to”.
All this shows that negative liberty and positive liberty cannot be equated to the liberty of the moderns and the liberty of the ancients.
www.ivr-enc.info /en/article.php?id=50   (4084 words)

 Partisan Review
Champions of positive liberty sought to use the power of the state in diverse ways, including intervention on behalf of those classes or groups in the society which they believed to be suffering from coercion as a result of historical societal structures or the operation of free markets.
According to the second pattern, with the concept of positive liberty, the focus shifts away from preserving the wall of separation between the public and private domain toward a concern with the free development of the group which is identified as the bearer of historical self-consciousness.
In terms of positive liberty, it is consistent with the free development of the society that minority groups be educated in the historically dominant or traditionally accepted language and culture.
www.bu.edu /partisanreview/archive/2001/4/sidorsky.html   (10495 words)

 The Quality of Freedom
And since the distinction between negative and positive liberty is at the core of the book, Kramer articulates that distinction in a fairly pithy manner: “Whereas positive liberty is a matter of accomplishments, negative liberty is a matter of opportunities” (p.2).
According to Kramer, because “the doctrine of positive liberty and the doctrine of negative liberty are genuinely in competition.
Positive liberty theorists, by contrast, submit that the consummate realization of freedom for each person will involve no losses of particular freedoms—since those theorists define particular freedoms as the instances of conduct that constitute or foster the realization of some championed objective, which they characterize as true liberty” (p.118, parentheses in original).
www.bsos.umd.edu /gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/kramer604.htm   (2357 words)

 LexisNexis(TM) Academic - Document
A full defense of positive legal duties must ultimately appeal to a fundamental normative principle that is itself plausible; and plausible in general, not just as a criterion for torts and the criminal law, but for all areas of government policy and indeed personal conduct apart from the law as well.
The conflict between liberty and the aim of the criminal law is rather a conflict between two values; the value of enforcing morality and the value of negative liberty.
Responding to this point--mindful especially of the strong positive duties people are commonly taken to have toward their children--Moore suggests that the relevant distinction may be that between agent-relative and agent-neutral duties, the former being more stringent than the latter.
org.elon.edu /justice/fire/murphybenef.htm   (20245 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Positive liberty: what source of interference can determine someone to do or be this or that.
Berlin warns us not to confuse liberty with other concepts: “liberty is liberty, not equality or fairness or justice or culture, or human happiness or a quiet conscience.” (Berlin) People should be left to live their own lives in their own way, even if they make mistakes in doing so.
Positive liberty “The ‘positive’ sense of the word ‘liberty’ derives from the wish on the part of the individual to be his own master.
www.ucc.ie /acad/phil/politicslecture9.doc   (442 words)

 Three Concepts of Political Liberty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
This is the republican one of liberty as nondomination.
Liberty as nondomination will require the positive provision of goods that are appropriately responsive to protecting people from dominating influences or dependency upon the will of another.
Liberty as nondomination satisfies as well as the notion of liberty as noninterference does the criteria of universality, generality, and reciprocity.
www.acton.org /publicat/m_and_m/2003_spring/swan.html   (10078 words)

 POSITIVE LIBERTY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Positive liberty means free from internal restraints, such as greed, lust ignorance, etc. Here expresses the rationality of the true soul that is uncovered when internal restraints are removed.
The motto for positive liberty is one must do what one ought (according to the natural law).
NEGATIVE LIBERTY (Ockham, Hobbes, Lock, J.S. mill, Libertarian Party.) Negative liberty means freedom from external restraints, which are embodied in unnecessary laws, etc. As J. Bentham states: "Every law is an infraction of liberty." Laws are only conventional and convenient, and should be kept to the bare minimum involving murder, physical assault, theft, and fraud.
www.class.uidaho.edu /ngier/liberty.htm   (264 words)

 Sample Chapter for Hirschmann, N.J.: The Subject of Liberty: Toward a Feminist Theory of Freedom.
Thus, negative liberty defines itself in opposition to concepts such as obligation and authority; these things, while perhaps necessary to human society, or even to individuals' pursuit of their desires and possibly even to greater freedom in the future, are nonetheless limitations on freedom.
Adopting a more contextual and communal notion of the self, positive liberty is able to view individual conditions such as disability, as well as social conditions such as poverty, as barriers to freedom that can be overcome by positive action, that is, the provision of conditions the individual cannot create on her own.
Berlin thus defines positive liberty as a paradox: to coerce X to do A because it is for her own good is a logical impossibility, because if it is for her own good, then she really wants it and therefore is not being coerced.
pup.princeton.edu /chapters/s7408.html   (15460 words)

 What is liberty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
It is often said that there are two types of liberty, positive liberty and negative liberty, or, roughly, 'freedom to...' and 'freedom from...' This, I believe, is a false and meaningless dichotomy.
Liberty is a word that does not describe two things; it describes one singular thing, one single state of being.
Capitalist 'liberty' restricts and suppresses the free unfettered self-development of the individual, the free autonomous self-management of one's own affairs and the freedom that comes with removing fear, state-violence and war from the world.
struggle.ws /wsm/ws/2005/85/liberty.html   (740 words)

 PlanetPapers - Positive And Negative Liberty
Through negative liberty the individual can isolate himself for a certain period of time from the rest of the society and the society is unable of contesting his decision.
As the state is responsible for the positive liberty of the individual, this is the aspect of life where it probably involves most, seeking nothing but the welfare of the individual.
Positive liberty also presupposes the moral duty of opening yourself to the others instead of seeking isolation from them as in the case of negative liberty.
www.planetpapers.com /Assets/4272.php   (1058 words)

 Guardian Unlimited Politics | Comment | Negative v positive liberty
What intrigued Tony Blair was Berlin's celebrated distinction between two kinds of liberty - between the simple "negative" liberty of the individual to be free from external interference or coercion, and the "positive" liberty to take control of one's life and to play an active role in one's community.
Berlin's work on liberty was written at the height of the cold war, and was meant to encourage greater intellectual honesty among the communist left, some of whom were tempted to justify restrictions on negative liberty in the countries of the Soviet bloc by claiming to speak on behalf of a higher kind of freedom.
When the chancellor hitches his policies to the idea of positive liberty, and implicitly suggests trading off the negative freedom to do nothing on the dole in favour of the positive freedom to work, his argument is debatable but robust.
politics.guardian.co.uk /comment/story/0,9115,1669472,00.html   (546 words)

 Breathe Deep, America, While Liberty Is in the Air   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
To the Founders, the concept of positive liberty was a chimera.
Liberty in its natural law context, the way the term is used in the Declaration of Independence and in the preamble of the Constitution, is distinctly "negative." Negative liberty (freedom) is defined as the absence of restraint and constraint imposed upon an individual by other individuals.
The infection of positive liberty is running its course in the United States.
www.self-gov.org /freeman/920404.html   (3019 words)

 Positive & Negative Liberties in Three Dimensions
Hobbes, however, was an absolutist who honored nothing in the way of "positive" political liberties and who saw the sphere of civil society and negative freedom as granted and allowed entirely at the discretion of the monarch.
The problem with "welfare rights" as positive "liberties" is that, while they might enable the beneficiary to do what he wants, they must be applied by the threat or the use of force against the freedom and/or property of others.
Positive "welfare rights" thus are no different from positive liberties that correspond to political power in general, and they may be assimilated to that in our consideration.
www.friesian.com /quiz.htm   (6448 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Negative liberty is built on an optimistic view of human nature and a belief in the possibility of harmonizing human interests.
Limitations of positive liberty As it turns out, by following a prescribed form of life, one is enslaved to another person’s idea and thus it is an insidious form of external interference.
Positive liberty (when realized): A life of reason Positive liberty (when not realized): Couch potatoes, drug addicts, smokers, etc. Differences Positive liberty is concerned with developing the higher self (reason) and subduing the lower self (prejudice, impulses) but this distinction is not useful in negative liberty.
examinedlife.typepad.com /redtutor/Berlin.doc   (735 words)

 OK so I’m not really a cowboy. » Blog Archive » On Freedom   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Succinctly put–from Wiki–”Positive liberty is often described as freedom to achieve certain ends, while negative liberty is described as freedom from external coercion.”; Jefferson espoused a government that acted in the negative, preventing the removal/erosion of liberty.
Liberty had been oft mentioned in reference to philosophy and government in times past, but Hobbes was perhaps the first to articulate concretely what liberty is and how government should protect it.
The use of ‘positive liberty’ as a basis for government in any form, from England’s Nanny State attitude toward self-defense, to Cornell’s Racial Program House system, is tyranny of the worst sort.
www.indiancowboy.net /blog?p=7   (1985 words)

 Christianity and Liberty Defined
Rand’s conception of liberty was summarized by “Prometheus,” the protagonist of her novella Anthem, who proclaims, “There is nothing to take a man’s freedom away from him, save other men.
But positive freedom would mean the power of individuals to surrender their self-love for the love of God and the promotion of the welfare of others and would be the material realization of spiritual freedom in the Christian sense.
Furthermore, any material means provided by the state to guarantee the positive freedom of one individual invariably involve acts of coercion against another individual, a violation of “negative” or natural freedom, which usually undermines both individuals’ pursuit of spiritual freedom.
www.acton.org /publicat/randl/article.php?id=491   (1913 words)

 Positive Liberty » Blog Archive » Bloggiversary
Yet I do admire the idea that negative liberty, or the right to be left alone, best encourages a positive contribution to the community–on the part of those willing to make it.
Positive Liberty has grown slowly but steadily since these humble beginnings.
Looking back on one year of Positive Liberty, the things that make me proudest are the well-written entries, even when they didn’t express anything all that profound.
www.positiveliberty.com /2005/02/bloggiversary.html   (1966 words)

 Articles on Gandhi   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The antinomies in western political theory of negative versus positive liberty and of rights versus responsibilities were evident a hundred years ago, and in England and America, democracy has long been caught in the dilemma described by Sabine: the more individual freedom and rights, the less legitimization of civic duty and economic equality.
When Berlin asserts that "the cardinal issue" is authority and who holds it, that "those who believe in liberty in the 'positive'-- self-directive--sense.., want it placed in their own hands," this cannot describe Gandhi's idea of freedom.
Western rights theorists, beginning with Locke, have affirmed that freedom is not "a liberty for every one to do what he lists, to live as he pleases, and not be tied by any laws," but it is freedom under law and the source of civic obligation is founded in law.
www.mkgandhi.org /articles/freedom.HTM   (7053 words)

 Lisa Diamond   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Specifically, it uses daily diaries and laboratory observations to examine how the experience, expression, and reciprocation of positive affect between adolescents and their parents promotes youth’s mental and physical well-being, coping abilities, friendships, and dating relationships over a 5-year period.
This project will also examine whether these effects are moderated by biologically-based individual differences in emotion regulation, specifically parasympathetic nervous system functioning and HPA activity.
Diamond, L. and Aspinwall, L. Emotion regulation across the lifespan: An integrative approach emphasizing self-regulation, positive affect, and dyadic processes.
www.psych.utah.edu /diamond/diamond.html   (622 words)

 Berlin on the RPF
Berlin contrasts negative liberty with positive liberty, which “derives from
has for generations robbed us of our positive liberty of self-realization.
Liberty (which includes "Two Concepts of Liberty," as well as other
www.rightsphilosophyforum.org /Berlin.html   (817 words)

 Positive Liberty
Certainly we would all agree that if the Board of Supervisors had voted to endorse a Catholic Church teaching as true, that would be an establishment clause problem.
As perhaps the “hardest” unbeliever of the Positive Liberty crew, I thought I would respond to Rowe and make the case for atheism as strongly as I can.
I’m sad to say that Professor Bernard Siegan, one of the most important figures in economic liberty law, author of Economic Liberties And The Constitution and other important books, died on Monday.
positiveliberty.com   (3288 words)

            THE FIRST ARGUMENT TO LIMIT LIBERTY FOR THE SAKE OF LIBERTY: It is necessary to limit the negative freedom of the "false" self to promote the positive freedom of the "true" (RATIONALLY AUTONOMOUS) self.
The Problem of Promoting Positive Liberty:  A State That Has the Power to Promote Positive Liberty Will Also Have the Power to Suppress Negative Liberty.
Monism Premise:  There is a truth about how different people's different ends ought to be reconciled with each other (e.g., Utilitarianism).
faculty.washington.edu /wtalbott/phil410/tr328402.htm   (447 words)

 [Note Part I of this outline was not used; I began with Part II:]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
THE FIRST ARGUMENT TO LIMIT LIBERTY FOR THE SAKE OF LIBERTY: It is necessary to limit the negative freedom of the "false" self to promote the positive freedom of the "true" (RATIONALLY AUTONOMOUS) self.
A. Hobbesian Negative Liberty: Everyone has a right to maximal negative liberty.
THE SECOND ARGUMENT TO LIMIT LIBERTY FOR THE SAKE OF LIBERTY: It is necessary to limit negative freedom in order to guarantee to everyone some less than maximal but more than minimal sphere of equal negative freedom (i.e., a PROTECTED SPHERE OF EQUAL LIBERTY).
faculty.washington.edu /wtalbott/phil410/intro.htm   (344 words)

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