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Topic: Positivism

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  Positivism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Positivism emerged in response to the inability of speculative philosophy (e.g.
Positivism declared false and senseless all problems, concepts and propositions of traditional philosophy on being, substances, causes., etc., that could not be solved or verified by experience due to a high degree of abstract nature.
Having renounced psychologism, the exponents of the third positivism took the course of reconciling the logic of science with mathematics, the course of formalisation of epistemological problems.
www.marxists.org /reference/subject/philosophy/help/mach1.htm   (374 words)

  Logical positivism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism, also referred to as neo-positivism) is a philosophy (of science) that originated in the Vienna Circle in the 1920s.
Logical positivism was one of the early manifestations of analytic philosophy.
Positivism was the dominant theory of the philosophy of science between World War I and the Cold War.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Logical_positivism   (1099 words)

 Positivism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Legal positivism is a view which, in contrast to the natural law view, claims that a legal system can be defined independently of evaluative terms or propositions.
Sometimes legal positivism is understood as the view that laws must be obeyed, whatever their content.
In sociology, anthropology, and other social sciences, the term social positivism was closely connected to naturalism and can be traced back to the philosophical thinking of Auguste Comte in the 19th century.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Positivism   (297 words)

 Positivism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The older positivism is based on the philosophical thinking of Auguste Comte in the 19th century.
Positivism is the view that serious scientific inquiry should not search for ultimate causes deriving from some outside source but must confine itself to the study of relations existing between facts which are directly accessible to observation.
Positivism is also the name of a legal view, usually called legal positivism.
www.bidprobe.com /en/wikipedia/p/po/positivism.html   (200 words)

The final stage, positivism, is the understanding of the universe not as composed of a multitude of individuals each with volition, but as an ordered organism governed by necessary laws (see further COMTE).
The outcome of this positivism is the substitution for revealed religion of a religion of humanityaccording to Huxley Catholicism minus Christianity in which God is replaced by Humanity.
Philosophical positivism has had distinguished representatives in France, Germany and England, and in the wider sense indicated above may be regarded as one of the two or three cluef influences on modern philosophical development~ Though the details of Comtds philosophic structure, e.g.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /P/PO/POSITIVISM.htm   (512 words)

In the history of social understanding, Positivism originated out of the French Enlightenment, with French philosopher Auguste Comte, who sought to the replace the 'brainpower approach' of Rationalism by leveraging the principles of the natural sciences (such as Physics, Chemistry and Biology).
The roots of Positivism lie particularly with Empiricism, which works only with observable facts, seeing that beyond this is the realm of logic and mathematics.
Although Positivism has since been shown to be inadequate to study the full range of human experience, it has been hugely influential and still affects the significant use of experiments and statistics in social research.
changingminds.org /explanations/research/philosophies/positivism.htm   (540 words)

 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Positivism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The founder of Positivism was Auguste Comte (born at Montpellier, 19 Jan., 1798; died at Paris, 5 Sept., 1857).
Thus, according to Positivism, science cannot be, as Aristotle conceived it, the knowledge of things through their ultimate causes, since material and formal causes are unknowable, final causes illusions, and efficient causes simply invariable antecedents, while metaphysics, under any form, is illegitimate.
Positivism is thus a continuation of crude Empiricism, Associationism, and Nominalism.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/12312c.htm   (2173 words)

 Legal Positivism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Legal positivism is the thesis that the existence and content of law depends on social facts and not on its merits.
Legal positivism is here sometimes associated with the homonymic but independent doctrines of logical positivism (the meaning of a sentence is its mode of verification) or sociological positivism (social phenomena can be studied only through the methods of natural science).
Accordingly, positivism's critics maintain that the most important features of law are not to be found in its source-based character, but in law's capacity to advance the common good, to secure human rights, or to govern with integrity.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/legal-positivism   (9485 words)

Logical Positivism was perhaps the dominant influence in the general Pragmatic Empiricism that is the tacit position of most professional philosophers and scientists and has made considerable inroads in the lay population.
Positivism of course in its various guises deals with problems of induction, linguistic theory and word/sentence formulation, analytic vs. synthetic propositions, etc., although language remains central to all its discussions.
Positivism believes that language and "extralinguistic fact" (sense data) are the originator/boundary of all meaningful human understanding.
members.aol.com /Mszlazak/positiv1.html   (3352 words)

 Logical positivism Info - Encyclopedia WikiWhat.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism), was one of the early manifestations of analytic philosophy.
The claim most characteristic of logical positivism asserts that statements are meaningful only insofar as they are verifiable, and that statements can be verified only in two (exclusive) ways: empirical statements, including scientific theories, were verified by experiment and evidence.
Logical positivists' response to the first criticism is that Logicial Positivism, like all other philosophies of science, is a philosophy of science, not an axiomatic system that can prove its own consistency.
wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/l/lo/logical_positivism.html   (855 words)

 Legal Positivism [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
As an historical matter, positivism arose in opposition to classical natural law theory, according to which there are necessary moral constraints on the content of law.
The word "positivism" was probably first used to draw attention to the idea that law is "positive" or "posited," as opposed to being "natural" in the sense of being derived from natural law or morality.
According to inclusive positivism (also known as incorporationism and soft positivism), it is possible for a society's rule of recognition to incorporate moral constraints on the content of law.
www.iep.utm.edu /l/legalpos.htm   (6977 words)

 Ralph Dumain: "The Autodidact Project": "Metaphysics and Anti-Metaphysics of Positivism" by Igor Naletov   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Positivism was indeed a tree planted for the benefit of science and intended to promote its greatness and glory—however bitter the fruit that was eventually born by it.
According to positivism, the unscientific character of metaphysics springs from its worldview function or, more precisely, from its social orientation and claim to disclose the essence of the world, as well as from the fact that its propositions are based on convictions.
Positivism combines in itself the belated faith in empirical science which was the foundation of the industrial power of capitalism in the 18th century with the youthful illusions of its ideologists that the prosperity of capitalist society was inseparable from scientific progress.
www.autodidactproject.org /other/naletov11.html   (7621 words)

 NoodleFood: Positivism and Psychology
The development of logical positivism was left to the members of the Vienna Circle (with the rise of Hitler, many of them fled to the United States, where they became the dominant influence on academic philosophy of science for a generation or more).
Since neither the old nor the new positivism actually dictates behaviorism, it may not come as such a great shock that most of the actors in the Cognitive Revolution of the 1950s were still positivistic in their outlook.
Positivism is neither an accurate description of how natural science is usually done, nor a good explanation as to why anyone should credit either the process of science or its current results.
www.dianahsieh.com /blog/2004/01/positivism-and-psychology.html   (2686 words)

 MODERN PHILOSOPHY: The Philosophy of Positivism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Indeed, the appearance of Positivism in Italy coincides with the establishment of national unity; that is, it arrived when the time was ripe for the reorganization of economic, educational and social life on a national scale.
A peculiar aspect of Italian Positivism is its conflict with the Catholic Church, whose dogmas and institutions it sought to demolish in the name of positivist and materialistic science.
Positivism made no contributions at all in the areas of theory of knowledge, metaphysics, theory of nature, and philosophical psychology, and was manifestly unintelligible and incorrect in the area of ethics or moral philosophy.
radicalacademy.com /adiphilpositivism.htm   (3836 words)

 The Philosophy of the Positivists - Page 1
Positivism found a precedent for its doctrines in English Empiricism, which had acclaimed experience as the sole source of human knowledge.
Positivism spread from France to England, the classic land of Empiricism, which was thus disposed not only to accept the new current of thought, but also to give it a better systematization than had the land of its origin.
Hence it was in England that the greatest representatives and systematizers of Positivism arose.
www.radicalacademy.com /philpositivists.htm   (2220 words)

 positivism (Abbagnano, 1967)
Positivism, consequently, denies the existence or intelligibility of forces or substances that go beyond facts and the laws ascertained by science.
The principal philosophical sources of positivism are the works of Francis Bacon, the English empiricists, and the philosophers of the Enlightenment; but the cultural climate that made it possible was that of the eighteenth-century industrial revolution and the grand wave of optimism to which the first successes of industrial technology gave rise.
Comte and John Stuart Mill are the principal representatives of social positivism, and Herbert Spencer of evolutionary positivism.
www.comnet.ca /~pballan/positivism(Abbagnano,1967).htm   (4050 words)

Positivism attempts to equate the understanding of social reality with the scientific explanation, prediction, and control of natural reality as practiced by the "hard" sciences of physics, physiology, chemistry, or biology.
Positivism concentrates on the object of knowledge, abolishing the human actor doing the knowing, thereby attempting to hide the "subject" of knowledge from critical examination.
Sociological positivism bases the verification of its knowledge on a notion of facts as irreducible units of truth which are to be discovered by the social scientist.
www.mega.nu:8080 /ampp/176krkpt.htm   (7176 words)

 POSITIVISM, Quick Term Papers, Term papers, 051014   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The second section examines legal positivism where one of several general theoretical traditions is based on the belief that the source of knowledge lies in experience, not in reason, nor in mind.
The paper investigates the role of positivism in George Eliot's "Middlemarch" and argues that, although the novel is heavily influenced by positivism, the work ultimately rejects the notion that human life and activity can be determined and predicted 'scientifically'.
Twentieth century Positivism can be seen as having taken effort away from verification in favour of other philosophical approaches that tend to place much more importance on what it is that a religion or a religious belief may represent, or what it means to the believer.
www.quicktermpapers.com /lib/essay?A=netessays&KEYW=Positivism   (2874 words)

 Logical positivism
Logical positivism (sometimes referred to as logical empiricism), was one of the early manifestations of analytic philosophy.
Logical positivism failed primarily on the basis that its fundamental tenets could not themselves be formulated in a way that was clearly consistent.
The verifiability criterion did not seem verifiable; but neither was it simply a logical tautology, since it had implications for the practice of science and the empirical truth of other statements.
www.wordlookup.net /lo/logical-positivism.html   (881 words)

 Positivism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Positivism refers to a broad attitude about science and philosophy that in particular is ascribed to Auguste Comte (1798-1857) and to 20th.Century logical positivism (that dominated about 1920-1960).
Positivism is closely related to behaviorism, the view that all knowledge about psychological phenomena must be studied by observing the behaviour of organisms (e.g.
Positivism has been called "the invisible philosophy of science" because its adherents regard it as the solely scientific approach and tends to avoid or ignore philosophical problems.
www.db.dk /jni/Lifeboat/Positions/Positivism.htm   (1085 words)

 AllRefer.com - positivism (Philosophy, Terms And Concepts) - Encyclopedia
Sometimes associated with empiricism, positivism maintains that metaphysical questions are unanswerable and that the only knowledge is scientific knowledge.
The basic tenets of positivism are contained in an implicit form in the works of Francis Bacon, George Berkeley, and David Hume, but the term is specifically applied to the system of Auguste Comte, who developed the coherent doctrine.
Logical positivism is often considered a direct outgrowth of 19th-century positivism.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/P/positivi.html   (223 words)

For philosophers, the epitome of positivism is logical positivism, which is the hardheaded empiricism to stress on experience.
First, positivism is epistemologically important because its empiricism has determined what kinds of things existed in international relations, by which it identified what could be studied.
In addition, positivism implies an image of the world in which some things are regarded as central in relation to international events whereas others are seen as specific and as such irrelevant.
www.geocities.com /chapeaus/positivism.html   (2050 words)

 Positivism and Morality.
It is often assumed that positivism is virtue and the equivalent of love, while negativism is corruption.
Positivism and negativism are somewhat incompatible; but they both have essential purposes.
Positivism is needed for accomplishing complex things with groups.
nov55.com /rel/pos.html   (432 words)

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