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# Topic: Posterior

###### In the News (Thu 18 Apr 19)

 IX. Neurology. 6a. The Posterior Divisions. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. Diagram of the distribution of the cutaneous branches of the posterior divisions of the spinal nerves. The posterior division of the suboccipital, and the medial branches of the posterior division of the second and third cervical nerves are sometimes joined by communicating loops to form the posterior cervical plexus (Cruveilhier). Sacrales)—The posterior divisions of the sacral nerves (rami posteriores)(Fig. www.bartleby.com /107/209.html   (1206 words)

 Cincinnati Sportsmedicine Researches/Advances "Publications"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) Posterior translation and bundle tension were measured as the knee was flexed from full extension to 1,200 of flexion while a posterior force of either 50 or 100 N was applied to the proximal tibia. Posterior motion limits were measured under a 100 N posterior force in the intact, posterior cruciate ligament-deficient, and posterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knees. The increase in posterior translation of the lateral tibial plateau over the intact state averaged 17.8 and 23.5 mm at 30 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion, respectively; for the medial tibial plateau this increase averaged 7.6 and 12.3 mm at 30 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion, respectively. www.csmoc.com /pubd.htm   (5742 words)

 ipedia.com: Achilles' tendon Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The Achilles' tendon or heel or the calcaneal tendon is a tendon of the posterior... The Achilles' tendon or heel (tendo Achillis) or the calcaneal tendon (tendo calcaneus) is a tendon of the posterior leg. Gradually becoming contracted below, it is inserted into the middle part of the posterior surface of the calcaneus, a bursa being interposed between the tendon and the upper part of this surface. www.ipedia.com /achilles__tendon.html   (392 words)

 Posterior probability - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In Bayesian probability theory, the posterior probability of an uncertain proposition is its conditional probability given empirical data into account. The posterior probability can be calculated by Bayes' theorem from the prior probability and the likelihood function. Similarly a posterior probability distribution is the conditional probability distribution of the uncertain quantity given the data. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Posterior_probability   (155 words)

 Posterior pituitary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. Despite its name, the posterior pituitary gland is not a gland, per se; rather, it is largely a collection of axonal projections from the hypothalamus that terminate behind the anterior pituitary gland. Posterior pituitary - Pars nervosa - Median eminence - Infundibular stalk en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Posterior_pituitary   (195 words)

 Dr. Koop - Posterior Cruciate Ligament- Health Encyclopedia and Reference The posterior cruciate ligament is one of the main ligaments of the knee. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries typically occur during hyperflexion or with a blow to the knee during hyperextension. Although the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is thought to be the strongest ligament in the knee, injury to this ligament is more common than many believe. www.drkoop.com /encyclopedia/93/264.html   (720 words)

 Tibialis Posterior - Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics Split posterior tibial-tendon transfers in children with cerebral spastic paralysis and equinovarus deformity. Posterior tibial-tendon transfer in patients with cerebral palsy. Variations on the insertion of the posterior tibialis tendon: a cadaveric study. www.wheelessonline.com /ortho/tibialis_posterior   (315 words)

 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis with Excessive Thoracic Kyphosis: Comparison of Anterior Versus Posterior ... Sagittal correction of posterior group: Mean 49° kyphosis corrected initially 35% to 32° and at two years measured 36°, for a 27% improvement. In the posterior group, mean 57° scoliosis initially corrected to 20° and ended at 25° at two years. Posterior segmental instrumentation corrected the excessive kyphosis 35% initially and maintained a 27% correction at 2 years. www.spineuniverse.com /displayarticle.php/article942.html   (478 words)

 Posterior Uveitis Posterior uveitis, also known as choroiditis, refers to inflammation of the choroid, the back part of the uvea. Posterior uveitis may affect the retina and/or the optic nerve, and may lead to permanent loss of vision. Posterior uveitis is the rare form of the disorder and is the type of uveitis most associated with loss of vision. my.webmd.com /hw/health_guide_atoz/nord494.asp   (518 words)

 Posterior Mediastinum The anterior boundary of the posterior mediastinum is the posterior pericardial wall. In the dissection of cadavers, the posterior mediastinum is exposed by removing the pericardial sac and the heart. The thoracic aorta gives rise to the posterior intercostal arteries which pass posterior and lateral to join the posterior intercostal veins and intercostal nerves to form the neurovascular bundle that travels along the inferior border of a rib or the upper aspect of an intercostal space, however you want to remember it. mywebpages.comcast.net /wnor/thoraxlesson5.htm   (1160 words)

 The Physician and Sportsmedicine: Posterior Knee Pain and Its Causes The condition is caused by a posterior herniation of the synovial membrane or by a communicating semimembranous bursa into the popliteal space and usually indicates underlying pathology. Posterior knee pain can arise from acute tendon strain or chronic injury resulting in tendinitis of any of the musculotendinous structures in or about the popliteal fossa. During the initial 30° of knee flexion, these posterolateral structures in combination with the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are important in resisting excessive varus orientation, external rotation, and posterior translation of the knee. www.physsportsmed.com /issues/2004/0304/muche.htm   (3158 words)

 The Physician and Sportsmedicine: Diagnosing Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries Regardless of whether the injury is due to a sports activity or a motor vehicle accident, the mechanism of injury remains fairly consistent: posterior force on the proximal tibia. The posterior drawer exam is graded by the amount of posterior subluxation. Its orientation is from anterior, at the femoral attachment, to posterior, at the tibial attachment (figure A). www.physsportsmed.com /issues/1997/11nov/morgan.htm   (2475 words)

 POSTERIOR PROBABILITY DECODING, CONFIDENCE ESTIMATION AND SYSTEM COMBINATION The posterior probability estimates were used as the basis for the estimation of word-level confidence scores. Experimental results of the application of word posteriors in an improved decoding scheme are presented in section 4. This is due to the fact that the lattices used as the basis for the posterior estimation only represent part of the posterior distribution and a significant amount of the probability mass is ``missing''. www.nist.gov /speech/publications/tw00/html/cp230/cp230.htm   (3138 words)

 Posterior fossa tumor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The posterior fossa itself is a small, confined space and any growth there can block the flow of spinal fluid and cause increased pressure on the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms from posterior fossa tumors also occur when the tumor damages local structures, such as cranial nerves. Posterior craniotomy (open brain surgery) or stereotactic biopsy (using special instruments to get a small piece of the tumor) can be used to obtain tissue for diagnosis. www.shands.org /health/information/001404sym.htm   (232 words)

 ► Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury A posterior cruciate ligament injury is described as a partial or complete tear, or stretching of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) anywhere along the length of the ligament. The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is a powerful ligament extending from the top-rear surface of the tibia to the bottom-front surface of the femur. The PCL is usually injured by hyperextension (overextending the knee), or a direct blow to the flexed knee (such as from "dashboard knee" in a car accident). www.umm.edu /ency/article/001075.htm   (272 words)

 iScoliosis.com - Glossary - P Terms The posterior continuation of the spinal arch from the pedicle; the superior and inferior facets are connected to each other by the pars interarticulars. A fibrous membrane that covers the surface of bone except at the end of the bones where it is covered with cartilage as part of a joint. A clinical diagnosis based on complaints of pain and abnormal sensations in the buttocks region with extension into the hips and posterior thigh as would be seen in sciatica. www.iscoliosis.com /p.html   (997 words)

 Posterior Acetabular Wall Fractures - Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics - posterior wall fractures that extend from the greater and or lesser sciatic notch are usually best operated on w/ prone positioning; Biomechanical consequences of fracture and repair of the posterior wall of the acetabulum. Comminuted Fractures of the Posterior Wall of the Acetabulum: A biomechanical evaluation of fixation methods. www.wheelessonline.com /ortho/posterior_acetabular_wall_fractures   (1275 words)

 Ear, Nose & Throat Journal: A new method of studying the anatomy of the posterior tympanum The direct access to the posterior tympanum described here enabled the author to make video and photographic records of the structures as they are in the normal anatomic state, including those in the deepest recesses of the posterior tympanum. Although bone of the posterior canal wall can be removed up to the limits of the facial nerve to better visualize the middle ear structures, many surgeons are reluctant to remove a significant amount of posterior canal wall bone because they fear that they might damage the facial nerve. The author's goal was not to invent a new anterior surgical approach to the posterior tympanum, but to augment Goodhill's method of anteroposterior intraoperative exposure of the posterior tympanum by developing a technique that can be used in the research laboratory to produce an expanded view of this middle ear structure. www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0BUM/is_4_83/ai_n6077738/pg_2   (1236 words)

 Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery: rational for posterior cruciate substituting total knee arthroplasty, The The original prosthesis was a cemented cruciate sacrificing, tricompartmental prosthesis, with a relatively conforming tibio-femoral articulation.15 The TCP relies on soft tissue balance in flexion and extension, along with moderate articular conformity in the coronal and sagittal planes for stability, because the PCL is excised but not substituted. To prevent posterior subluxation of the tibia and to improve both range of motion and stair climbing ability, the TCP was modified to the Insall Burstein Posterior Stabilized Prosthesis (IB I) in 1978. With the use of a cemented metalbacked tibial component, the posterior stabilized prosthesis has demonstrated a 14 year survivorship of 98.1%.12 In the cruciate-retaining knee the intact posterior cruciate ligament may be able to resist shear stresses that occur at the prosthesis interface. www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3794/is_200112/ai_n9007247   (1200 words)

 Nature of Multidimensional Posterior   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) Jarner [20] has considered in detail the theoretical speed of convergence for different shapes of the posterior, his work building on theoretical work of Roberts [43]. This phenomenon was observed in practice, in the context of the sampling in the models presented later on. it is mentioned that the chain took a very large number of steps to examine the posterior, and that this difficulty could have been avoided. www.maths.tcd.ie /~chas/node58.html   (318 words)

 eMedicine - Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury : Article by Thomas Agesen, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The primary function of the PCL is to prevent posterior translation of the tibia on the femur. The primary function of the PCL is to resist posterior displacement of the tibia in relation to the femur; its secondary function is to prevent hyperextension and limit internal and varus/valgus rotation. The bony calcaneus remnant is secured to the posterior tibia with 1 or 2 interfragmentary compression screws into a trough into the posterior tibia at the level of the PCL insertion. www.emedicine.com /sports/topic105.htm   (4950 words)

 MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Posterior fossa tumor Posterior fossa tumor is an abnormal growth located in or near the posterior fossa (a depression on the interior, back portion of the base of the skull, near the cerebellum part of the brain). Most tumors of the posterior fossa are primary brain cancers, which originate in the brain, rather than spreading from elsewhere in the body. Most tumors of the posterior fossa are surgically removed. www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/ency/article/001404.htm   (502 words)

 Posterior pituitary - SmartyBrain Encyclopedia and Dictionary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) Posterior pituitary - Pars nervosa - Median emminence - Infundibular stalk Hormones of the pituitary posterior lobe (Banting memorial lecture) On the presence of histamine in extracts of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and on preliminary experiments with the pressor constituent smartybrain.com /index.php/Neurohypophysis   (302 words)

 Posterior probability - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) In Bayesian probability theory, the posterior probability is the conditional probability of some event or proposition, taking empirical data into account. The posterior probability can be calculated by Bayes' theorem from the prior probability and the likelihood. $f_\left\{X\mid Y=y\right\}\left(x\right)is the$posterior density of X. open-encyclopedia.com /Posterior_distribution   (161 words)

 Morgan, et al., Clinical Effectiveness Of The Physical Examination In Diagnosis Of Posterior Pelvic Ring Injuries   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) If physical examination (PE) alone were sufficient to diagnose posterior pelvic ring injuries, then patients with negative PE findings of the posterior pelvis would not require more extensive evaluation with CT scan. The purpose was to determine if PE of the posterior pelvis in awake patients with known pelvic ring injuries could predict a posterior injury. A focused PE was performed, including posterior palpation, AP and lateral iliac compression, active hip range-of-motion, and digital rectal examination. www.aast.org /02abstracts/02absPoster_062.html   (282 words)

 MR Arthrography of the Posterior Labrocapsular Complex: Relationship with Glenohumeral Joint Alignment and Clinical ... MR Arthrography of the Posterior Labrocapsular Complex: Relationship with Glenohumeral Joint Alignment and Clinical Posterior Instability alignment on MR arthrography and the presence and extent of posterior Humeral Avulsion of the Posterior Band of the Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament: MR Arthrography and Clinical Correlation in 17 Patients www.ajronline.org /cgi/content/abstract/180/2/369   (421 words)

 Posterior cervical laminectomy If a posterior laminectomy is done without a cervical fusion surgery, there is a post-operative risk of developing instability that may lead to pain and deformity. The advantage of this technique is that it increases the size of the canal but leaves the posterior tether that helps keep the spine stable. The disadvantage is that the canal is not well visualized and it is difficult to assess whether or not the canal has been well decompressed. www.spine-health.com /topics/surg/overview/cervical/cerv06.html   (586 words)

 Read about Posterior probability at WorldVillage Encyclopedia. Research Posterior probability and learn about Posterior ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) Research Posterior probability and learn about Posterior probability here! Bayesian probability theory, the posterior probability is the Similarly a posterior probability distribution is the conditional encyclopedia.worldvillage.com /s/b/Posterior_distribution   (140 words)

 NSF Forums - anterior/posterior fusion I am wondering if there is anyone who had anterior and posterior fusion and then had a baby. Prior to my surgery I spoke to someone who had just posterior fusion and then had a baby, but nobody that had both anterior and posterior fusion. I'm trying to imagine why having both anterior and posterior surgery (as opposed to posterior only) might impact having a baby successfully. www.scoliosis.org /forum/printthread.php?t=1565   (925 words)

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