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Topic: Pragmatics

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  Pragmatics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pragmatics is concerned with bridging the explanatory gap between sentence meaning and speaker’s meaning.
Pragmatics is interested predominantly in utterances, made up of sentences, and usually in the context of conversations.
Explorations in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pragmatics   (265 words)

 Pragmatics, modularity and mind-reading   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Pragmatic studies of verbal communication start from the assumption (first defended in detail by the philosopher Paul Grice), that an essential feature of most human communication, both verbal and non-verbal, is the expression and recognition of intentions (Grice, 1957; 1969; 1982; 1989a).
On this approach, pragmatic interpretation is ultimately an exercise in metapsychology, in which the hearer infers the speaker’s intended meaning from evidence she has provided for this purpose.
Reference resolution is another pragmatic ability that correlates in interesting ways with the ability to pass false-belief tasks (Mitchell, Robinson and Thompson, 1999); and there seems to be a well-established correlation between the interpretation of irony and second-order mind-reading abilities, (Happé, 1993; Langdon, Davies and Coltheart, this volume).
cogprints.org /2032/00/pragmatics-modularity-and-mindreading.htm   (8017 words)

Pragmatics is often described as the study of language use, and contrasted with the study of language structure.
References to pragmatics are found in philosophy since the work of Charles Morris (1938), who defined it as the study of the relations between signs and their interpreters; however, it was the philosopher Paul Grice’s William James lectures at Harvard in 1967 that led to the real development of the field.
When pragmatics emerged as a distinct discipline at the end of the 1960s, analytic philosophy was dominated by philosophy of language, and the cognitive sciences were still in their infancy.
www.dan.sperber.com /pragmatics.htm   (10867 words)

 Teaching Pragmatics -- Introduction -- Office of English Language Programs
The study of pragmatics explores the ability of language users to match utterances with contexts in which they are appropriate; in Stalnaker's words, pragmatics is "the study of linguistic acts and the contexts in which they are performed" (1972, p.
The goal of instruction in pragmatics is not to insist on conformity to a particular target-language norm, but rather to help learners become familiar with the range of pragmatic devices and practices in the target language.
Pragmatics can be integrated into the English-language curriculum at the earliest levels: There is no reason to wait to introduce learners to the pragmatics of a second language.
exchanges.state.gov /education/engteaching/pragmatics/intro.htm   (2862 words)

 Universal pragmatics: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Universal pragmatics is a program that tries to explain all of the conditions that are necessary for an understanding understanding quick summary:
Understanding is a psychological state in relation to an object or person whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to be able to deal adequately with...
Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/u/un/universal_pragmatics.htm   (2060 words)

 Pragmatics, Inc. - An Employee-Owned SEI CMMI 3 Company
From 1986 to 1995, Pragmatics was an 8(a) company with a distinguished record of outstanding customer service for a diverse customer base, including several cabinet-level departments.
Pragmatics became an employee-owned company in October 2000, when all employees were granted stock options.
Pragmatics has won an impressive array of over 19 contracting vehicles with a wide range of Defense and civilian agencies, including the Defense Information Systems Agency, the GSA, and the Department of the Army, Justice, Treasury, and Commerce.
www.pragmatics.com /about_us/history.jsp   (478 words)

Contrastive pragmatics, however, is not confined to the study of a certain pragmatic principles.
Throughout its development, pragmatics has been steered by the philosophical practice of pragmatism and evolving to maintain its independence as a linguistic subfield by keeping to its tract of being practical in treating the everyday concerned meaning.
Pragmatic principles are also finding their way into the study of literary works as well as language teaching classrooms.
www.gxnu.edu.cn /Personal/szliu/definition.html   (1680 words)

 Pragmatics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
"Pragmatics is the area of language function that embraces the use of language in social contexts (knowing what to say, how to say it, and when to say it- and how to "be" with other people).
She feels that it is "a necessity for pragmatics to be assessed within the context of an entire and naturally occurring discourse".
These pragmatic behaviors, when judged to be appropriate or inappropriate do however assist the SLP in determining if the child’s pragmatic language skills are typical or disordered.
www.kyrene.k12.az.us /resource/speech_program/spl_pragmatics_eligibility.htm   (1889 words)

 Pragmatics (English translation glossary) language,Linguistics,Art/Literary
Pragmatics is the study of language from the point of view of the users -especially of the choices they make, the constraints they encounter in using language in social interaction, and the effects their use of language has on the other participants in an act of communication.
The study of the principles governing the communciative use of language, especially as encountered in conversations, is sometimes called "general pragmatics"; the study of verbal interaction in such domains as counselling, medical interviews, language teaching, and judicial sessions, where problems of communcation are of critical importance, is the domain of "applied pragmatics".
Pragmatics is sometimes contrasted with semantics, which deals with meaning without reference to the users and communicative functions of sentences.
www.proz.com /?sp=h&id=688127   (683 words)

 Glossary of Linguistic Terms n-z
Semantics is sometimes said to be the study of sentence meaning; pragmatics to be the study of utterance meaning.
Pragmatic meanings can be inferred in this way because, owing to the context of the language use, we are able to 'read into' a word the extra meaning - the utterance's pragmatic force - conferred on it by the way it is used within a particular social situation.
Pragmatics can allow language to be used in interesting and social ways: knowing that your listener or reader shares certain knowledge with you allows your conversation to be more personal, lively or less extended.
www.englishbiz.co.uk /grammar/main_files/definitionsn-z.htm   (3879 words)

 An Introduction to Pragmatics: Social Action for Language Teachers
Various linguists' definitions are offered, but LoCastro proposes this broad one: "[P]ragmatics is the study of speaker and hearer meaning created in their joint actions that include both linguistic and nonlinguistic signals in the context of socioculturally organized activities" (p.
Although there are suggestions for teaching pragmatics, one might debate how effective these would be in light of this possible designated development of pragmatic knowledge/use.
In the chapter on cross-cultural pragmatics, LoCastro writes, "Generally, Americans consider their culture egalitarian and avoid displays of power through language, whereas other cultures are characterized by explicit marking of a hierarchical structure, with overt signaling of an individual's social status, occupation, and age" (p.
www-writing.berkeley.edu /TESL-EJ/ej30/r6.html   (1724 words)

 Association of the United States Army: Pragmatics Inc.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Pragmatics was selected as the Army Surface Deployment Distribution Center (SDDC) Small Business of the year in 2004 and nominated for Army Small Business of the year in 2004.
Pragmatics is looking forward to achieving CMMI Levels 4 and 5 within the next 12 months.
Pragmatics is also the only company (large or small) that holds prime contracts on all four of the existing Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) indefinite delivery; indefinite quantity (IDIQ) contacts (NexGen, ENCORE, I-Assure and GEMS).
www.ausa.org /webpub/DeptIndustry.nsf/byid/KCAT-6HJJ3Z   (706 words)

 Pragmatics and time
Within the Gricean pragmatic tradition, a sharp line is drawn between decoding and inference, and the temporal and causal connotations of (1) and (2) are seen as purely inferential.
Grice assumed that the truth-conditional content of an utterance is recovered largely by decoding, and it seems not to have occurred to him that his CP and maxims could play a role in determining what is said.
The speaker of (16a) would generally be understood as saying that she had had breakfast that morning, whereas the speaker of (16b) might be understood as saying merely that she had visited Tibet at some time in her life.
www.dan.sperber.com /time.htm   (8036 words)

 Pragmatics to Test Software for Customs, Border Patrol
Pragmatics Inc. of McLean won a contract potentially worth $65 million over five years for software-testing services for the customs and border-protection agency, part of the Homeland Security Department.
Pragmatics is testing software used in major agency programs such as the U.S. Visit program, which processes international travelers at airports and major land border crossings, and the Automated Commercial System, which processes imports and exports crossing the borders.
Pragmatics also will be checking the software CBP uses to pay its employees and to manage departmental finances.
www.washingtonpost.com /wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/12/AR2005061201364.html?nav=rss_nation/special   (358 words)

I gave a paper at a conference in Italy on a topic in pragmatics in 1978 or 1979 and the paper was awful and I thought ``this is it, I'm not going to do this again''.
Defaults and their use in linguistic description have remained as a kind of theme throughout your career although the kind of defaults that you are dealing with in a system like DATR or the lexical inheritance problem look, at least at first glance, very different.
In the work that you did later, you didn't ever explicitly mention the work on pragmatics or go back and look at it from the perspective of the work that you were doing on the lexicon.
www.cogs.susx.ac.uk /research/nlp/gazdar/briscoe/pragmatics.html   (2597 words)

 Pragmatics, Socially Speaking
Adults may also have difficulty with pragmatic aspects of language, for example, as a result of a brain injury or stroke.
A child with pragmatic problems may also have little variety in language use, may say inappropriate or unrelated things during conversations, or may tell stories in a disorganized way.
It is not unusual for children to have pragmatic problems occasionally or in a few situations.
www.asha.org /public/speech/development/pragmatics.htm   (605 words)

 BBC - AS Guru - English - Language Frameworks - Pragmatics
Pragmatics is a very difficult term to define because it wanders over most of the other systematic frameworks.
It could loosely be described as not sticking your foot in it socially, but that is rather vague.
Have you ever been in a position where you find yourself saying, 'But I didn't mean that!' Pragmatics is the study of what you actually did mean to say (between the lines) and the words you carefully chose to say it (sometimes called 'speaker meaning').
www.bbc.co.uk /education/asguru/english/05languageframeworks/23pragmatics/index.shtml   (213 words)

 LINGUIST List 7.722: Literary Pragmatics
Literary Pragmatics: Cognitive Metaphor and the Structure of the Poetic Text.
Pragmatic Approaches to Shakespeare: Essays on Othello, Coriolanus and Timon of Athens.
In addition, I have been told that Jacob Mey is about to finish a book on Literary Pragmatics, and that the forthcoming issue of Language and Literature (to be edited by Adrian Pilkington) will be devoted to Relevance Theory and Literary Studies.
www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de /linguist/issues/7/7-722.html   (427 words)

 SIL Bibliography: Pragmatics
Hardin, Karol J. Pragmatics of persuasive discourse of Spanish television advertising.
Kopesec, Michael F. "The integration of semantic and pragmatic concerns in a hierarchical framework."
Dooley, Robert A. Review of: Pragmatics and linguistics: An analysis of sentence topics, by Tanya Reinhart.
www.ethnologue.com /show_subject.asp?code=PRG   (499 words)

 The Pragmatic Programmers, LLC
Not just "what you should do," but "how it really works." Venkat Subramaniam and Andy Hunt share their experiences and reveal the pragmatic, practical, Practices of an Agile Developer that work in the real world of modern, commercial software development.
Our Pragmatic Bookshelf publishes award-winning, practical books for pragmatic programmers at all levels to help ensure that your project becomes a success, not a statistic.
Pragmatic Bookshelf titles are available by calling 800-699-7764, directly from the publisher (we offer volume discounts), and in bookstores worldwide.
www.pragmaticprogrammer.com   (1223 words)

 TEFL Smiler: Pragmatastic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
If we allow pragmatics to rule then the content of any discussion is meaningless because we could all be talking about different elements (semantically).
Although this kind of work is also being carried out within comparative pragmatics, there has also been a tendency – within Anglophone pragmatics, at least – to treat the subject as a branch of philosophy, and in a very Anglo-centric manner.
However, I actually think that a lot of Anglo-centric pragmatics is of little use when it claims to have found universals, based primarily on supposed features typical of English.
teflsmiler.typepad.com /weblog/2004/07/pragmatastic.html   (1992 words)

 LSA.311 Pragmatics in Linguistic Theory
Special emphasis on the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics.
We will devote some time to current ongoing work, to illustrate how the basic concepts of pragmatics are involved in cutting edge work.
The course is appropriate for students interested in work in syntax/semantics and for students interested in the philosophy of language.
web.mit.edu /lsa2005/courses/descriptions/311.html   (94 words)

Besides understanding broad notions of how context is important, pragmatics also examines the kinds of Speech Acts that people employ when they speak.
All of these are errors that aren't exactly pragmatic errors in the sense that we want to discuss here.
The kind of pragmatic error that we want to think about here is the situationally inappropriate use of a sentence.
www.unc.edu /~gerfen/Ling30Sp2002/pragmatics.htm   (3774 words)

 Pragmatics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Recall that we made a distinction between semantics ;, or context-independent meaning ;, and pragmatics, or context-dependent meaning.
Let us first look briefly at the other side of pragmatics  we mentioned, the context ; of use.
It is obvious that the identity of the speaker/writer and the addressee will affect the translation of indexical expressions  such as I and you since some languages make a distinction, for instance between you (singular) and you (plural).
clwww.essex.ac.uk /MTbook/HTML/node61.html   (1153 words)

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