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Topic: Prehistoric warfare


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War

In the News (Fri 24 May 19)

  
  Prehistoric warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states.
Historical warfare sets in with the standing armies of Bronze Age Sumer, but prehistoric warfare may be studied in some societies at much later dates.
What is common among those groups that remain and fight frequently is that warfare is highly ritualized, with a number of taboos and practices in place that limit the number of casualties and the duration of a conflict, a situation known as endemic warfare.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Prehistoric_warfare   (1152 words)

  
 War - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article
Asymmetrical warfare is a conflict between two populations of drastically different levels of military mechanization.
A conventional war is a war where nuclear or biological weapons are not used, whereas, unconventional warfare (nuclear warfare) is a war where such weapons are used.
As warfare shift back to the time when civilizations, cultures and religions attempted to obliterate their opponents, soldiers will have to understand the complex nature of the conflicts that surround them and state-based armies will have to undergo massive changes.
www.startsurfing.com /encyclopedia/w/a/r/War.html   (3441 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Prehistoric
An authority on prehistoric art and culture, especially of Africa, he organized 12 expeditions to Africa between 1904 and 1935.
The context of early southeastern prehistoric cave art: a report on the archaeology of 3rd unnamed cave.
Archaeology and archaeozoology of Phum Snay: a late prehistoric cemetery in Northwestern Cambodia.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Prehistoric&StartAt=1   (549 words)

  
 Athena Review 2,4: Book Review: Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest, by Stephen LeBlanc
Intensification of warfare during the late Pueblo I Period (AD 700s and 800s) is indicated by the increased number of burned sites that also had unburied bodies, people aggregating into larger communities that were located on hilltops or were palisaded, and vast empty land areas that likely served as buffer zones.
According to LeBlanc, the underlying cause for intense Late Period warfare was the marked deterioration of the climate caused by the Little Ice Age.
According to LeBlanc, warfare, famine, and disease are to blame for the population decline in the Southwest.
www.athenapub.com /8prewar.htm   (1855 words)

  
 [No title]
Perhaps the main difference between prehistoric and historic war is that in many cases prehistoric populations did not share a common frontier.
Primitive warfare, because it has often been conditioned in one way or another by civilized societies (for example, the introduction of the horse into North America by the Spanish) should not be confused with prehistoric warfare.
In recent anthropological studies of warfare the emphasis has been on the causes of prehistoric and primitive war and on the relationship of war to the formation of early states.
history.eserver.org /neolithic-war.txt   (4309 words)

  
 Sample text for Library of Congress control number 2002036880
That warfare, or some sort of intergroup conflict, was a possibility among the Anasazi that we mentioned in our National Science Foundation grant proposal, but it was neither of much interest to myself or my colleagues nor was it deemed important by academia at that time.
The prevailing scholarly view is that warfare was of little social consequence in the past and is relatively unimportant in understanding the human condition.
Warfare in popular culture and much of academia is perceived as a plague spreading and infecting innocent, "primitive" peoples who had previously been spared the scourge of intergroup conflict.
www.loc.gov /catdir/samples/hol051/2002036880.html   (2489 words)

  
 Prehistoric Society - Past No. 37
The Early Prehistoric activity was dominated by Neolithic material and includes the usual variety of pits containing Grooved Ware, polished stone axes (at least five were recovered), and flint tools.
The Later Prehistoric activity is dominated by two clusters of ring-ditch houses (a timber round-house with a gully or series of gullies within the interior).
Layton concludes that warfare was an emergent, rather than innate factor in human societies, thus its occurrence has to be seen as dependent on particular sets of circumstances.
www.ucl.ac.uk /prehistoric/past/past37.html   (7533 words)

  
 CHAPTER II
Warfare between individuals or nations to be carried to a successful conclusion requires rendering the enemy noncombatant through injury, or death, and concomitant loss of his ability to function within his assigned duties.
In modern warfare, antipersonnel weapons have been developed which are capable of injuring the enemy at a considerable distance from the origin of attack, and means, such as the atomic bomb, have been devised for the wholesale destruction of enemy personnel and materiel.
Analytical retrospection of the entire development of warfare from prehistoric time reveals man’s continual struggle to augment his human capability to inflict injury through the utilization of the law of kinetic energy as applied to the moving object.
history.amedd.army.mil /booksdocs/wwii/woundblstcs/chapter2.htm   (14650 words)

  
 peace war information
For example, the British Government was very careful to use the term "armed conflict" instead of "war" during the Falklands War in 1982 to comply with international law.
Warfare is indisputably destructive; it destroys lives, causes physical and psychological injury, and destroys property.
While some point to beneficial economic effects from warfare and defense spending, including invention and economic stimulus, opponents of this view argue that resources expended on warfare could be applied to education, research and infrastructure without the destructive or unproductive component, i.e., that the same good could have been achieved without the costs.
www.war-against-terror.net /peace-war.htm   (2828 words)

  
 Archaeological Methods, Theory, and Practice: Warfare
In this module, students consider the possible causes and consequences of warfare, how warfare is studied in the archaeological record, and the possible implications for descendent groups when warfare or violence is studied.
The class format was modified to allow time for students to discuss their reactions to the war and their thoughts on the causes and consequences of this conflict.
The film was made during a period of nearly constant warfare between two alliances, with frequent back-and-forth raids and battles as each side sought to avenge deaths.
www.indiana.edu /~arch/saa/matrix/amtp/amtp_mod10.html   (826 words)

  
 Prehistoric warfare
Prehistoric hunters equipped themselves with weapons to make their living.
In the 1960’s, a burial site was discovered along the Nile in ancient Nubia that provided what may be the earliest skeletal evidence for prehistoric warfare.
Archaeological evidence supports the theory that warfare accompanied the earliest beginnings of civilization.
members.tripod.com /thorbloodaxe/armies/prehistoric_warfare.htm   (1281 words)

  
 Prehistoric Warfare   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
"Paleoepidemiolgical patterns of trauma in a prehistoric population from central California," American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
"Beyond palisades: The nature and frequency of late prehistoric deliberate violent trauma in the Chickamauga Reservoir of East Tennessee." American Journal of Physical Anthropology: 121 (4), 2002, pp.
Whitehead, Neil L. History of Research on Warfare in Anthropology--reply To Keith Otterbein." American Anthropologist: 102 (4), Dec 2000.
www.une.edu.au /library/experimental/arpa.htm   (231 words)

  
 Books
Prehistoric warfare has become a hot topic in recent years.
In the early days of archaeology the prehistoric past was perceived as an appallingly dangerous place, full of violence and savagery of all kinds.
Since the demise of invasionist explanations, however, warfare has faded dramatically from archaeological accounts of the past, creating what Keeley (1996) has dubbed a 'pacified past', where violence and aggression were eerily, and rather unconvincingly, absent.
www.shef.ac.uk /archaeology/publications/books/warfare-prehist.html   (279 words)

  
 Nineteenth-Century Arrow Wounds and Perceptions of Prehistoric Warfare - Questia Online Library   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Warfare in prehistoric North America has attracted considerable attention over the past 15 years or so, much like it has elsewhere in the Americas (Haas 1999; Haas and Creamer 1993, 1997; Keeley 1996, 1997, 2001; LeBlanc 1999; Lambert 1997, 2002; Milner 1999; Milner et al.
If low-mortality warfare occurred only sporadically, one might conclude that conflicts were generally inconsequential and had little, if any, effect on life in the vast majority of local communities.
Perhaps that is why prehistoric warfare, particularly its social, economic, and demographic aspects, has not received the attention that some scholars feel it deserves (e.g., Haas 1999; Keeley 1996, 1997, 2001; LeBlanc 1999; Milner 1999; Webster 1993, 2000).
www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5008884474   (626 words)

  
 War of all against all   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
That's because the academy's prevailing view of the evolution of warfare is exactly backward, imagining a peaceful prehistory populated by noble savages living in edenic harmony with the environment.
"Prehistoric warfare was common and deadly, and no time span or geographical region seems to have been immune," he writes.
LeBlanc is careful to remind us that prehistoric warfare didn't involve grand battles between armies led by generals.
www.taivaansusi.net /politiikka/warofall.html   (773 words)

  
 FrontPage magazine.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
As Pax Romana so ably argued, Indians waged aggressive and savage displacement warfare against each other - that is, they fought for territory, driving the inhabitants off the land they wanted, or exterminating them completely.
The warfare was frequently so costly (relative to the populations involved) that an equivelant would be if the British fought the Battle of the Somme not for six months, but chronically, generation after generation.
Another, more narrowly focused book is Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest, which goes into detail about similar massacres of whole communities, as well as scalping, headhunting and cannibalism.
www.frontpagemag.com /GoPostal/commentdetail.asp?ID=3782&commentID=22179   (262 words)

  
 | Book Review | Journal of World History, 14.3 | The History Cooperative
In applying this concept to warfare, Perlmutter posits that the driving force behind the metonym often controls the interpretations and conclusions drawn from it.
Finally, the long introductory chapters on warfare's origins and the conduct of prehistoric war might be seen as tedious, although in Perlmutter's defense they frame several of his larger points concerning the continuity of war through the ages.
His ability to assemble and analyze a vast array of the visions of war over a wide spectrum of time have resulted in an important work that is essential reading for the serious student of military history.
www.historycooperative.org /journals/jwh/14.3/br_2.html   (1193 words)

  
 People of the Colorado Plateau-The Zuni (part 1 of 4)
Contemporary Zuni Indians are the direct descendants of the prehistoric Pueblo people who settled the region sometime prior to A.D. Mirroring the developments that took place throughout the region occupied by prehistoric Pueblo Peoples, the first settlements in the area were comprised of agriculturalists living in pithouses of various types.
As the prehistoric population of the Zuni region gradually increased in size through internal population growth and immigration, the mobility of communities became constrained.
By the end of the prehistoric era, a Zuni settlement system had emerged that entailed the occupation of a few, very large villages in a core area of habitation that contained the best agricultural land in the region.
www.cpluhna.nau.edu /People/zuni.htm   (612 words)

  
 Price Compare ISBN 0874805813 Prehistoric Warfare In American Southwest by Steven Leblanc - Direct Textbooks   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
During the late prehistoric period fighting was particularly intense, and the structure of the historic pueblo societies was heavily influenced by warfare.
Why don't we hear their voices here?

Chapter Two, entitled "Evidence for Warfare" cites an excerpt of the story "The Destruction of Awatovi" (44), as written by Malotki (1993), suggesting to the reader that the fall of Awatovi was an act of war.

Evidence for violence and warfare is common in this age from 1275 to 1400.
www.directtextbook.com /prices/0874805813   (1325 words)

  
 neolithicwar
The killer instinct in the prehistoric male is clearly attested by archaeology in fortifications, weapons, cave paintings, and skeletal remains.
Within the last generation there has been a dramatic change--now at least some anthropologists are beginning to realize that war is a nearly universal social activity and that patterns of military organization within prehistoric and primitive societies are as important as the political, economic and religious systems they developed.
One popular misconception about prehistoric warfare is that populations were so small that warfare on a modern, historic scale is
www.witiger.com /centennialcollege/GNED117/neolithicwar.htm   (4281 words)

  
 The Harvard Crimson :: Arts :: LeBlanc's Book Explores Warfare Through the Ages
The image of prehistoric tribal groups in these areas as “peaceful noble savages” is widely accepted, LeBlanc says, yet his work has uncovered evidence of ancient wars in both places.
Both anthropologists and the general public have romanticized prehistoric societies and contemporary tribal groups as peaceful, LeBlanc argues, when in fact populations have perished or flourished as a result of warfare.
LeBlanc cites groups as diverse as the Maoris of New Zealand and the Greek Mycenaeans to demonstrate that warfare was prevalent in both prehistoric and tribal societies.
www.thecrimson.com /printerfriendly.aspx?ref=347505   (690 words)

  
 H-Net Review: Charles C. Kolb on Man Corn: Cannibalism and Violence in the Prehistoric American ...
Hassig (1988:121) reminds us that warfare during the Late Postclassic Aztec period emphasized the taking of captives, usually nobles and warriors, for purposes of sacrifice, and he writes that "after they were killed, the bodies were laid by the skull rack, and each warrior identified the one he had captured.
LeBlanc proceeds to evaluate the evidence for warfare, the evolution of warfare technology, the endemic nature of early warfare, and the sociopolitical consequences of warfare during the later Pueblo periods.
The warfare hypothesis can be supported by the evidence the Turners have amassed and tends to "fit" the cross-cultural data assembled by Ember and Ember (1992), and the conclusions reached by Haas (1990) and Haas and Creamer (1993).
www.h-net.org /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=12807942422197   (7489 words)

  
 Prehistory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prehistory can be said to date back to the beginning of the universe itself, although the term is most often used to describe periods when there was life on Earth; dinosaurs can be described as prehistoric animals and cavemen are described as prehistoric people.
Because, by definition, there are no written records from prehistoric times, the information we know about the time period is informed by the fields of palaeontology, astronomy, biology, geology, anthropology, archaeology—and other natural and social sciences.
Nevertheless, the primary scholars of Human prehistory are prehistoric archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation, geographic survey, and scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Prehistoric   (546 words)

  
 [No title]
Third, the remarkable statistical evidence showing that, on a per capita basis, tribal and prehistoric warfare was both more endemic and far more deadly than the famous wars of the historical and civilised world.
The prehistoric and tribal world was not one of peace, plenty and emotional richness and it does not offer the solutions we need to the problems of the modern world.
In reality, pre-civilised warfare was in general more brutal and took a higher toll of the populations involved in it than have the wars of recorded history.
www.austhink.org /monk/War2.doc   (2523 words)

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