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Topic: Pressure barrier osmosis

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 pressure - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about pressure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The SI unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa), equal to a pressure of one newton per square metre.
Pressure is commonly measured with a barometer, manometer, or Bourdon gauge.
In a liquid, the pressure at a depth h is given by ρgh where ρ is the density and g is the acceleration of free fall.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Pressure   (421 words)

 Flowmatic - Your Single Source Supplier for R.O. Systems
This head pressure, converted to the familiar pressure units of pounds per square inch (2.31 feet of water head equals 1 psi), allows the observation of a valuable rule of thumb.
When a pressure is applied to the concentrated solution which is great that the osmotic pressure difference, the direction of water passage through the membrane is reversed and the process that we refer to as reverse osmosis is established.
It is this elevated pressure that is used to propel the drinking water to the faucet.
www.flowmatic.com /aboutro.htm   (1300 words)

 osmosis. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Osmosis will occur if a vessel is separated into two compartments by a semipermeable membrane, both compartments are filled to the same level with a solvent, and solute is added to one side.
Properties such as osmotic pressure, freezing point, and boiling point, which depend on the number of particles present rather than on their size or chemical nature, are called colligative properties.
In plants osmosis is at least partially responsible for the absorption of soil water by root hairs and for the elevation of the liquid to the leaves of the plant.
www.bartleby.com /65/os/osmosis.html   (639 words)

Osmosis is the reason that a fresh water fish placed in the ocean desiccates and dies.
Osmosis is the tendency of water in salt water to flow from an area of low salt concentration to an area of high salt concentration across a semi permeable membrane.
A semi permeable membrane is a barrier that has holes large enough to allow molecules of water to pass but small enough to block the passage of the dissolved salt.
www.yarbroughlaw.com /Osmosis.htm   (808 words)

 Low Water Pressure - Water Pressure Boosters   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Years ago, the most common pressure tanks used with water systems were galvanized or glass lined and had no separation between their air and water contents.
Some attempt was made in the past to solve this problem by inserting a round float in the tank to act as a barrier between the air and water.
The factory set pressure also allows water to be drawn from the tank without the pump having to run every time a faucet is turned on.
www.low-water-pressure.com /faq/why-are-water-pressure-tanks-used.htm   (210 words)

 Reverse Osmosis Filtration Technology
Osmosis is a natural process in which a fluid passes through a semi-permeable membrane from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.
High water pressure on the source side is used to "reverse" the natural osmotic process, with the semi permeable membrane permitting the passage of the water while rejecting most of the other contaminants.
Reverse osmosis [RO] is known as the "high tech" method for reduction of dissolved inorganic contaminants and higher molecular weight organic contaminants.
www.thstore.com /thstore/technologies_2_Reverse_Osmosis.asp   (448 words)

Osmosis is a special case of diffusion in which all the molecules are in water, and the water crosses a barrier called a semipermeable membrane.
Osmosis can be reversed if sufficient pressure is applied to the membrane from the concentrated side of the membrane.
Osmosis is water moving through a semipermeable membrane from lower to higher concentrations.
www.csun.edu /~vchsc006/356b/ro.html   (549 words)

The cell membrane provides a barrier that both maintains the cell chemistry (prevents the loss of particles by diffusion) and provides a gradient of free energy across the membrane that is available for work.
Osmosis can be defined as the net movement of solvent molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration across a semipermeable barrier.
The pressure requires to counteract the osmosis of water is called the osmotic pressure.
www.usd.edu /biol/genbio/151/ken/L9.html   (886 words)

 Glossary of Water Resource Terms
It is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure on its surface.
the pressure of a fluid owing to its elevation, usually expressed in feet of head or in pounds per square inch, since a measure of fluid pressure is the height of a fluid column above a given or known point.
a measure of pressure at a given point in a liquid in terms of the vertical height of a column of the same liquid which would produce the same pressure.
www.edwardsaquifer.net /glossary.html   (7629 words)

 Reverse Osmosis Systems
Reverse osmosis uses a membrane that is semi-permeable, allowing the fluid that is being purified to pass through it, while rejecting the contaminants that remain.
The process of reverse osmosis requires a driving force to push the fluid through the membrane, and the most common force is pressure from a pump.
While the principle of reverse osmosis is simple, the RO process cannot go on indefinitely unless steps are taken to ensure that the membrane does not become clogged by the precipitated impurities forced against by the pressurized stream of feed water.
www.windtrax.com /featured_products/05_new_items.asp   (1274 words)

 Flash animation: Reverse osmosis can improve water quality
Osmosis is the movement of water from one side of a membrane or barrier to the other side.
A pressure can be applied to the concentrated solution which is greater than that of the osmotic pressure.
The common storage vessel is a 10L to 20L pressure tank with a low pressure bladder.
www.agr.gc.ca /pfra/flash/osmosis/en/revosmosistxt_e.htm   (988 words)

 ISF-Plasma Exchange
The hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries is lower than that of the arteries, and decreases along the length of the capillary as blood flows through.
This pressure is proportional to the difference in protein concentration between the plasma and the ISF.
The decrease in hydrostatic pressure results in a diminution in the region where fluid is lost from the plasma, and an expansion in the region where fluid returns back to the plasma.
physioweb.med.uvm.edu /bodyfluids/isf-plas.htm   (1035 words)

 FilterCo. - Reverse Osmosis
Reverse Osmosis is a process for rejecting dissolved mineral salts, organic molecules, and certain other impurities from water by forcing water under increased pressure to pass through a semi-permeable membrane.
With reverse osmosis, water is made to pass from a state of high concentration to a state of low concentration.
The pressure applied to the feed side of the RO membrane must be much higher than the natural osmotic pressure of the water in order for the osmotic process to be reversed.
www3.telus.net /filterco/aireverseOsmosis.htm   (908 words)

 Teacher Background Information
This difference in the rate of diffusion through the membrane causes the solvent to accumulate on the side of the membrane with the higher initial concentration until the solution concentrations on both sides of the membrane are equal and an equilibrium is established.
Equilibrium can also occur when the pressure due to the added column of liquid in the high-concentration side is great enough to increase the flow of the solvent to the other side.
This pressure is called the osmotic pressure, and it is capable of rupturing cells placed in solutions with low concentrations of solutes.
biology.arizona.edu /sciconn/lessons/mccandless/tchrinfo.html   (2429 words)

 How Reverse Osmosis Works-Hidrocare
High water pressure on the source side is used to "reverse" the natural osmotic process, with the semi-permeable membrane still permitting the passage of water while rejecting most of the other contaminants.
High pressure industrial units typically provide from 10 gallons to thousands of gallons per day of water with an efficiency of 1-9 gallons of reject water per gallon of treated water.
These systems tend to be larger and more complicated than low pressure systems, and this is reflected in their costs, which range from US $1000 through tens of thousands of dollars for a large, multi-module unit capable of providing desalinated drinking water for a resort facility or water bottling plant.
www.hidrocare.com /howrevoswork.asp   (964 words)

 Reverse Osmosis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Osmosis is a natural process involving fluid flow across a semipermeable membrane barrier.
Equilibrium occurs when the hydrostatic pressure differential resulting from the volume changes on both sides is equal to the osmotic pressure.
The reverse osmosis technology developed about 50 yr ago, as a scientific experiment, is used extensively today to reduce salinity of various water sources and produce potable water in commercial systems.
www.dekker.com /sdek/210326913-13343056/abstract~db=enc~content=a713542023~words=?waited=1   (421 words)

 GET, Inc
Osmotic Pressure: This is the pressure differential that develops as a result of a solution containing water and a particular concentration of dissolved solids, including minerals and salts.
Pressure Vessel: Membrane elements must be installed in a pressure vessel to provide the means to supply feed water, remove the reject or concentrate stream, delivery product water, and contain the pressure at which membrane systems much operate.
Pressure gauges indicate these pressures, and are usually installed before and after each filtration device so that the pressure drop can be determined.
www.get-inc.com /GlossaryWaterTreatmentTerms.html   (2222 words)

 Water Treatment || Reverse Osmosis
By applying a certain pressure, the water is forced through the membrane: the pure water (permeate) will be separated from the water containing the salts (reject).
The osmotic membrane, which reaches the highest practicable level of filtration, acts as a barrier to salts and inorganic matter, and also to organic substances: it therefore provides an excellent defense against micropollutants, pesticides, pyrogenics, viruses and bacteria that may also be found in the water.
Reverse Osmosis plays a role in the drinking water sector, and everything suggests that this trend is bound to become stronger in the future.
www.snapa.co.th /products/water/reverse_osmosis/reverse_osmosis.htm   (600 words)

 Osmosis Summary - Osmosis Information
Osmosis is the passage of water from a weak solution to a strong solution through a semi permeable membrane.
Osmosis is a passive process as opposed to an active one.
This is due to the pressure exerted by the wall of the plant cell.
www.bookrags.com /sciences/chemistry/osmosis-woc.html   (750 words)

 USGS Water Science Glossary of Terms
The pressure in such an aquifer commonly is called artesian pressure, and the formation containing artesian water is an artesian aquifer or confined aquifer.
With reverse osmosis, the product water passes through a fine membrane that the salts are unable to pass through, while the salt waste (brine) is removed and disposed.
The coefficient of transmissibility is the rate of flow of water, at the prevailing water temperature, in gallons per day, through a vertical strip of the aquifer one foot wide, extending the full saturated height of the aquifer under a hydraulic gradient of 100-percent.
ga.water.usgs.gov /edu/dictionary.html   (5521 words)

 Reverse Osmosis
Reverse Osmosis is a process that is often described as crossflow filtration and is used to remove a wide range of salts to give water of high purity.
This effect is utilised in a Reverse Osmosis plant to allow water containing a high level of natural salts to be purified without the need for chemical regenerants and the inherent impilcations of handling hazardous substances.
The rejection rate of contaminants from the water is generally in the region of 90 to 99.5% depending upon the type of membrane used and water to be treated.
www.aquaflow.co.uk /reverse_osmosis   (262 words)

 Dictionary O   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Osmosis is the passage of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane which acts as a barrier to the passage of the solute dissolved in the solution.
The passage of water through the walls of living cells, which consist of very thin membranes that act as a barrier to substances dissolved in the water, is an essential process in living cells and is an example of osmosis.
Osmotic pressure is similar to gas pressure and is caused by the dissolved substances (i.e.
www.ucc.ie /ucc/depts/chem/dolchem/html/dict/000o1.html   (1124 words)

 REVERSE OSMOSIS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Over 250 years later, a modification of this process, known as reverse osmosis, allows people throughout the world to affordably convert undesirable water into water that is virtually free of contaminants.
Reverse osmosis systems can be found under counters for residential use, at car washes for a spot free rinse and on manned spacecraft.
High water pressure on the source side is used to "reverse" the osmotic process, with the semipermeable membrane still permitting the passage of water while rejecting most of the other contaminants.
www.harriswater.com /reverseosmosis.htm   (1039 words)

 Glossary of terms for Southwest Groundwater Remediation Project
Feed water is a term representing water that is pumped to high pressure and fed to reverse osmosis membranes.
The pressure vessel is specially designed to direct high pressure feed water through RO membrane.
The water flowing into and out of reverse osmosis process are typically described as streams, consisting of the feed water stream, the permeate stream, and byproduct stream.
www.jvwcd.org /swjvgp/glossary.html   (1339 words)

 Unique Niagara+ Reverse Osmosis System Components
The discharge of polluting molecules to the drain is ensured by a continuous backwash operation.
A premium TFC (Polyamide Thin-Film Composite) reverse osmosis membrane, is used to eliminate more than 96% of total dissolved solids (TDS), suspended matter up to 1,000 PPM (mg/l), and up to 99% of organic, inorganic and biological material.
The PES membrane creates a physical barrier that ensures an excellent protection against all dead or living bacteria, viruses, etc. all the while preventing these pollutants from clogging the membrane surface.
www.excelwater.com /spa/b2c/roprocessf2.php   (1031 words)

 Reverse osmosis water filtration proces
It is the natural tendency of water with a high concentration of dissolved particles to move across a semi-permeable membrane to an area of water with a low concentration of dissolved particles.
In conventional filtration, the entire water solution to be filtered is pumped through the filter media and all contaminants too large to pass through the pores of the membrane are trapped or retained on the surface.
A second barrier, such as ultraviolet light, should be used if bacteria are present.The ability of the membrane to reject or repel dissolved particles, while allowing water to readily permeate, is based on the incredibly small size of the multitude of pores that penetrate its surface.
www.waterforhealth.co.za /roprocess.shtml   (473 words)

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