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Topic: Primary structure


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DNA

In the News (Fri 19 Oct 18)

  
  Primary structure Summary
In biochemistry, the primary structure (also known as the primary sequence) of a biological molecule is the exact specification of its atomic composition and the chemical bonds connecting those atoms (including stereochemistry).
For a typical unbranched, un-crosslinked biopolymer (such as a molecule of DNA, RNA or typical intracellular protein), the primary structure is equivalent to specifying the sequence of its monomeric subunits, e.g., the nucleotide or peptide sequence.
Other primary structures of proteins were proposed by various researchers, such as the diketopiperazine model of Emil Abderhalden and the pyrrol/piperidine model of Troensegaard in 1942.
www.bookrags.com /Primary_structure   (2198 words)

  
  Primary structure - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In biochemistry, the primary structure (also known as the primary sequence) of a biological molecule is the exact specification of its atomic composition and the chemical bonds connecting those atoms (including stereochemistry).
For a typical unbranched, un-crosslinked biopolymer (such as a molecule of DNA, RNA or typical intracellular protein), the primary structure is equivalent to specifying the sequence of its monomeric subunits, e.g., the nucleotide or peptide sequence.
Other primary structures of proteins were proposed by various researchers, such as the diketopiperazine model of Emil Abderhalden and the pyrrol/piperidine model of Troensegaard in 1942.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Primary_structure   (1870 words)

  
 Structural biology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology concerned with the study of the architecture and shape of biological macromolecules--proteins and nucleic acids in particular—and what causes them to have the structures they have.
This subject is of great interest to biologists, because macromolecules carry out most of the functions of a cell, and because typically it only is by coiling into a specific three-dimensional shape that they are able to perform their functions.
A third approach that structural biologists take to understanding structure is bioinformatics to look for patterns among the diverse sequences that give rise to particular shapes.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Structural_biology   (278 words)

  
 Proteins
The primary structure of a segment of a polypeptide chain or of a protein is the amino-acid sequence of the polypeptide chain(s), without regard to spatial arrangement (apart from configuration at the alpha-carbon atom).
An intermediate compact structure known as the molten globule which is different from the native structure and whose formation is determined mainly by non-specific interactions of amino acid residues with their environment was presented.
The degree to which the three-dimensional structure of a protein may differ from the native state may vary from a change in a single noncovalent bond or side-chain orientation to the case where almost no atom exist in the same spatial relationship to others except for the constraints of the primary structure.
www.friedli.com /herbs/phytochem/proteins.html   (11287 words)

  
 Proteins
Primary structure refers to the "linear" sequence of amino acids.
Primary structure is sometimes called the "covalent structure" of proteins because, with the exception of disulfide bonds (see below), all of the covalent bonding within proteins defines the primary structure.
The polypeptide chain folds such that the side chains of the nonpolar amino acids are "hidden" within the structure and the side chains of the polar residues are exposed on the outer surface.
webhost.bridgew.edu /fgorga/proteins/proteins.htm   (423 words)

  
 Street Numbering Ordinance
Primary structure numbers are assigned by determining the point at which the main vehicular access is to the primary buildings.
Where the structure is visible from the road and at such a distance that numbers are legible from the road, tile numbers shall be affixed to the structure.
The owner of any structure existing as of the penalty date (June 28, 1995) who fails to procure and affix primary structure numbers as assigned by the Board or displays unauthorized numbers shall be subject to a fine of not more than twenty-five ($25) dollars for each day of non-compliance.
www.warner.nh.us /streetnumord.htm   (883 words)

  
 Folding@Home Educational Project
An analysis of known protein structures is necessary for an understanding of protein folding and stability.
The most common secondary structure elements in proteins are the alpha (a) helix and the beta (b) sheet (sometime called b pleated sheet).
Quartenary structures are stabilized mainly by noncovalent interactions; all types of noncovalent interactions: hydrogen bonding, van der Walls interactions and ionic bonding, are involved in the interactions between subunits.
folding.stanford.edu /education/prstruc.html   (458 words)

  
 PPS 96' - Implications of Primary Structure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
There is a practically infinite number of different possible primary structures; this is the basis for the great diversity of three-dimensional structures, and functions, of proteins.
Consider how many different primary structures are possible for a polypeptide of 200 residues (which is in fact a relatively small polypeptide in terms of those found in nature; polypeptides of over 1000 residues exist).
In practice, primary structure is in fact more easily determined by interpreting a gene sequence of nucleotides (with reference to the genetic code), if it is known, than directly from a purified protein itself.
www.cryst.bbk.ac.uk /PPS2/course/section2/implications.html   (1303 words)

  
 primary structure
The ordinance says an accessory structure can't be more than 60 percent of the size of the primary structure, or home, at the site.
Plans call for a notch to be cut in the dam to allow the free flow of water, with the primary structure to remain in the river, she said.
The viability of the triple mutant suggested that a ‘novel’ enzyme, whose primary structure is different from those of all known NAD and NADH kinases...
www.mongabay.com /igapo/biotech/primary_structure.html   (467 words)

  
 BICH107_lecture7
Tertiary structure is the 3-dimensional folding of the secondary structure
Secondary structure is the local spacial arrangement along the axis of the primary structure, along the axis of the amino acid sequence.
The primary structure of a protein specifies the higher order structure of a protein, and this in turn specifies the unique function of a protein, the unique 3-D arrangement of amino acid residues (side chains) which together specify the properties of that protein.
www.tamu.edu /classes/bich/gunn/BICH107_lecture7.html   (997 words)

  
 Primary structure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Primary, secondary and tertiary refer to the molecules in a single polypeptide chain, and the fourth (quaternary) refers to the interaction of several polypeptide chains to form a multi-chained protein.
Primary structure is fairly straightforward and refers to the number and sequence of amino acids in the protein or polypeptide chain.
Determination of primary structure is an essential step in the characterisation of a protein.
www-biol.paisley.ac.uk /courses/stfunmac/glossary/primary.html   (203 words)

  
 CiteULike: Redesigning symmetry-related "mini-core" regions of FGF-1 to increase primary structure symmetry: ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Tertiary structure asymmetry in the vicinity of position 83 appears responsible for the inability to accommodate an Ile side chain at this position, and is known to contribute to functional half-life.
A mutant form of FGF-1 with enforced primary structure symmetry at positions 22, 64, and 108 (all Tyr) and 42, 83, and 130 (all Cys) is shown to be more stable than the reference FGF-1 protein.
The results support the hypothesis that a symmetric primary structure within a symmetric protein superfold represents a solution to achieving a foldable, stable polypeptide, and highlight the role that function may play in the evolution of asymmetry within symmetric superfolds.
www.citeulike.org /user/Alan/article/625698   (545 words)

  
 Primary Structure
This sequence of amino acid residues is generally represented using the abbreviations and is referred to as the primary structure of the protein.
The primary structure or amino acid sequence is unique for each protein.
This primary structure dictates the function of the protein indirectly through additional levels of structure.
dl.clackamas.cc.or.us /ch106-08/primary.htm   (259 words)

  
 Peptides and Proteins
The a-helix is a common secondary structure encountered in proteins of the globular class.
The structure formed by monomer-monomer interaction in an oligomeric protein is known as quaternary structure.
This change of a single amino acid alters the structure of hemoglobin molecules in such a way that the deoxygenated proteins polymerize and precipitate within the erythrocyte, leading to their characteristic sickle shape.
web.indstate.edu /thcme/mwking/protein-structure.html   (3144 words)

  
 Secondary Structure
Essentially what is involved in an alpha helix is that the primary structure of the protein twists around upon itself in such a way, somewhat like rolling up this paper model, to form a recurring pattern that is very important.
A third type of secondary structure involves three strands of protein bonded together between the chains with hydrogen bonds and then twisted into a helix that is referred to as a collagen helix.
Whatever type of secondary structure is involved in a particular protein, the secondary structure is held in place by hydrogen bonding interactions between the amino group of the amino acid residue and the carbonyl group of another amino acid residue.
dl.clackamas.cc.or.us /ch106-08/secondar.htm   (565 words)

  
 CHEMISTRY 102
You should be able to differentiate between the structures of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Primary structure of proteins: sequence of amino acids in the peptide.
Tertiary structure of proteins: the twisting, bending and coiling of the -helices due to ionic attractions, H-bonding.
virtual.parkland.edu /btreadway/102suplc.htm   (837 words)

  
 Concept 5 Review: Primary Structure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Primary structure refers to the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide, without any reference to how the molecule folds up in three-dimensional space.
Primary structure is often written as a sequence of amino acids using three-letter, or one-letter, abbreviations: N-ala-glu-asp-C, or AEN, for example.
Because all polypeptides are synthesized starting at the N-terminal amino acid, it is customary to describe primary structure with the N-terminus on the left, and the carboxyl, or C-terminus, on the right.
www.phschool.com /science/biology_place/biocoach/bioprop/primary.html   (77 words)

  
 Primary (etc.)
For example, CH Cl (chloroethane or ethyl chloride) is a primary alkyl halide, because the Cl is attached to a primary C. Ouellette 2/e briefly mentions this, p 204.
Secondary structure refers to the interactions of the backbone chain (that is, the amide linkages).
The terms primary, etc., are used in essentially the same way for nucleic acids as for proteins, discussed in the previous section.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Thebes/5118/obc/primary.htm   (793 words)

  
 Dr Chromo's school: protein structure and diversity
The primary structure of a protein is its amino acid sequence and the disulphide bridges, i.e.
Beta - pleated sheets: the amino acids adopt the conformation of a sheet of paper and the structure is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between amino acids in different polypeptide strands.
The tertiary structure (or conformation) is the way random coils, alpha -helixes and beta -pleated sheets fold in respect to each other, ie it refers to the protein as a whole.
www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk /notebook/courses/guide/prot.htm   (541 words)

  
 CHEMISTRY II: WATER AND ORGANIC MOLECULES
Waxes are an important structural component for many organisms, such as the cuticle, a waxy layer covering the leaves and stems of many land plants; and protective coverings on skin and fur of animals.
The primary structure of a protein is the sequence of amino acids, which is directly related to the sequence of information in the RNA molecule, which in turn is a copy of the information in the DNA molecule.
The primary structure is the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.
www.emc.maricopa.edu /faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookCHEM2.html   (4272 words)

  
 Large Molecules Problem Set
It is convenient to describe protein structure in terms of 4 different aspects of covalent structure and folding patterns.
Tertiary structure of the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) molecule.
The quaternary structure describes the way in which the different subunits are packed together to form the overall structure of the protein.
www.biology.arizona.edu /biochemistry/problem_sets/large_molecules/03t.html   (280 words)

  
 Primary Structure
This sequence of amino acid residues is generally represented using the abbreviations and is referred to as the primary structure of the protein.
The primary structure or amino acid sequence is unique for each protein.
This primary structure dictates the function of the protein indirectly through additional levels of structure.
dl.clackamas.edu /ch106-08/primary.htm   (259 words)

  
 Shoreland Protection Frequently Asked Questions
While a municipality that established a primary structure setback of less than 50 feet prior to January 1, 2002, may maintain that lesser setback, it may not waive any portion of the setback.
By contrast, a municipality that established a primary structure setback greater than the state minimum of 50 feet may waive a portion of its setback, but only to the limit of the state 50-foot setback.
An accessory structure is defined as a structure that is on the same lot and is customarily incidental and subordinate to the primary structure.
www.des.state.nh.us /cspa/shoreland_removed_8_23_05.htm   (1562 words)

  
 January 10: Protein Structure and Function
Primary structure - is simply the linear sequence of amino acids of the protein.
Pauling predicted that a change (the result of a genetic mutation) in the primary structure of hemoglobin would be responsible for the "molecular disease" sickle cell anemia
Secondary structure - refers to the formation of alpha helices and beta sheets, both stabilized by hydrogen bonding between amino groups and carboxyl groups (Figure 2.15) L. Pauling predicted that these structures would occur in proteins before the advent of X-ray crystallography methods for solving the three-dimensional structure of proteins.
www.biosci.ohio-state.edu /~mgonzalez/Micro521/03.html   (1069 words)

  
 protein structure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
This primary structure is usually shown using abbreviations for the amino acid residues.
The wider definition of primary structure includes all the features of a protein which are a result of covalent bonds.
The tertiary structure of a protein is a description of the way the whole chain (including the secondary structures) folds itself into its final 3-dimensional shape.
www.chemguide.co.uk /organicprops/aminoacids/proteinstruct.html   (1947 words)

  
 proteins
-helix is a common secondary structure encountered in proteins of the globular class.
Tertiary structure refers to the complete three-dimensional structure of the polypeptide units of a given protein.
Structural complexes involving protein associated with lipid via noncovalent interactions are termed lipoproteins.
www.med.unibs.it /~marchesi/proteins.html   (1338 words)

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