
 Malaspina Great Books  Isaac Newton (1642) 
  Sir Isaac Newton, (December 25, 1642  March 20, 1727), was an English philosopher, mathematician, and physician who published the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, more commonly referred to as the Principia, where he described the laws of gravity and, via his laws of motion, laid the ground work for the field of Classical Mechanics. 
  The Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), also referred to as the Principia Mathematica or Principia, is a threevolume work on the foundations of classical mechanics, written by Isaac Newton and published in 1687. 
  Newton first gave his laws in the first volume of his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 and, using the mathematical tools of his newly developed calculus, proved many results concerning the motion of idealised particles. 
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