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Topic: Prior


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  Arthur Prior (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Prior had been brought up on the view -- prevalent even today -- that such an expression is incomplete until a time-reference is supplied, and hence that one cannot speak of the truth-value of the expression as altering with the passage of time.
Between them Prior and von Wright pioneered the now much investigated field of general intensional logic, as it may be called, in which the syntax, and latterly the semantics, developed for the study of the alethic modalities is used in the analysis of a wide range of quasi-modal concepts.
Prior's own work was an exemplary fusion of philosophy and logic, and he went to Oxford with the intention of interesting the mathematical logicians in philosophy and the philosophers in mathematical logic.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/prior   (9524 words)

  
  Prior art - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In most patent laws, prior art is expected to provide a description sufficient to inform the average worker in the field (or the man skilled in the art), published in fixed form and made available in public libraries.
To assess the validity of a patent application, patent offices explore the prior art that was disclosed before the invention occurred (in the United States and all first-to-invent patent systems) or before the filing date (in Europe and all first-to-file patent systems).
Prior art searches may also be used to invalidate existing patents (these searches are called "validity searches" or "invalidity searches") by showing that the patent office erred in the issuance of a patent because the patent holder is not the first inventor.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Prior_art   (693 words)

  
 When is something prior art against a patent? (in Patents @ iusmentis.com)
Prior art basically means any disclosure of the contents of a claim, prior to the application for patent.
A prior art document is said to anticipate a claim of a patent if the prior art document describes all the features of that claim, either implicitly or explicitly.
Such prior art documents are often referred to as "killer prior art", although patent attorneys discussing their own cases prefer the term "relevant prior art".
www.iusmentis.com /patents/priorart   (3375 words)

  
 The life of A.N. Prior
In general, Prior's younger years are described in a little more detail than the later and better known part of his life (which was, of course, the most important part as regards Prior's contributions to logic and philosophy).
Prior's last years, in Oxford, were characterised by an increasingly abstract interest in and use of formalism; but at the same time, he was developing a generalised interest in the philosophical questions of "Worlds, Times, and Selves" (cf.
In September Prior went to Oslo; he was to give a course at the University of Oslo and lectures at Norwegian Universities during the fall term of 1969.
www.kommunikation.aau.dk /prior/on_prior/lifeofan.htm   (1254 words)

  
 Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind - prior intention   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-14)
Because the prior intention bears a causal relation to the action as a whole, it transitively bears a causal relation to the intention-in-action, which forms the mental component internal to the action and which in turn causes the bodily movement associated with the action.
For the prior intention, the relevant conditions in the world encompass the planned action and may extend as well to the final results the action is intended to bring about.
The prior intention's mind-to-world direction of causation follows from the fact that the prior intention causes the action and, when relevant, the conditions the action is intended to bring about.
www.artsci.wustl.edu /~philos/MindDict/priorintention.html   (675 words)

  
 Prior Snowboards | Buy Snowboards Online | Custom Snowboard Design | Whistler BC Canada
Prior is offering great deals on all new, used and demo boards.
Post a Prior video on youtube.com (max 2 1/2 minutes) and you could be the winner of a Prior snowboard or pair of skis.
Prior is offering free Factory Tours on Wednesdays and Saturdays at 5:15pm (PST) throughout April.
www.priorsnowboards.com   (373 words)

  
 Chicago Cubs : News : Chicago Cubs News
Prior, who was to have started on Tuesday, underwent an MRI on his elbow on Sunday.
Prior had prepped for his first spring start by doing more simulated games, and Rothschild said the problem could be related to the right-hander possibly over-extending when he faced hitters in his first game.
Prior, who was 6-4 in 21 starts last year, will not throw at least until Wednesday, and that would be on the side.
chicago.cubs.mlb.com /NASApp/mlb/news/article.jsp?ymd=20050314&content_id=966677&vkey=spt2005news&fext=.jsp&c_id=chc   (921 words)

  
 Prior Knowledge
Prior knowledge is properly understood not as a causes of errors or success, but rather as the raw material that conditions all learning.
Prior knowledge and conventional instructed knowledge may not be in conflict, but rather may be ships passing in the night.
Prior knowledge was invoked both in creating the original problematic (seeing a brush as releasing paint) and the new understanding (metaphors of pumping and channeling).
www.exploratorium.edu /IFI/resources/museumeducation/priorknowledge.html   (10924 words)

  
 George Graham Revues Maddy Prior's "Ravenchild"
Prior's new recording continues in that vein, drawing on a good deal of traditional material, but also featuring some interesting original tunes, or in some cases combining original lyrics with traditional music and vice versa.
Prior has recorded before in a keyboard dominated setting, and June Tabor also does the same, it still remains a distinctive sound hearing such traditional-sounding music in such arrangements.
Prior describes as "an eerie ballad from the Sheltand Islands." In an often difficult dialect, the song tells of sea creature part man, part seal who has an encounter with a mortal woman.
georgegraham.com /reviews/priorrc.html   (1230 words)

  
 USATODAY.com - Cubs have Prior on fast track   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-14)
Jackson's most notable citizen of the moment, Class AA pitcher Mark Prior, also is on the fast track, and Cannonball Express is an apt description for the pitching style that has the 21-year-old projected to be in a Chicago Cubs uniform in his first pro season.
Prior has further heightened expectations with a solid spring training and a 3-1 start for the West Tenn Diamond Jaxx and by leading the Southern League in strikeouts (33 in 20 1/3 innings).
Another key for Prior is that his last pitch in a game tends to be as good, or even better, than his first.
www.usatoday.com /sports/baseball/cubs/2002-04-25-prior.htm   (1624 words)

  
 Prior - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prior is a Latin adjective, meaning 'coming before', as 'earlier' (as in a priori, regardless what comes next).
The head of a priory, a type of monastery.
It can also be a short form, as for "prior conviction" (thus "no priors" means a clean sheet).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Prior   (130 words)

  
 COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: PRIOR ART PITFALLS
However, §103 does not explicitly define the prior art against which obviousness is assessed; courts and the patent office have come to use the categories of prior art as defined in §102 in their determinations of obviousness under §103.
Thus, even where a second patent application is filed prior to the issuance of a patent on a first-filed application, the later issued patent is effective §102(e) art as of the filing date of its patent application.
Such a continuation application must be filed prior to the issuance of any patent on the first application, and prior to any publication relating to the initial invention (since a publication becomes prior art distinct from the patent application due to §102(a) or (b)).
www.sristi.org /mdpipr2004/day3/D3S3R2.htm   (2541 words)

  
 Considering What Constitutes Prior Art in the United States
In analyzing an existing patent or in deciding whether to file a patent application for an invention, it is almost always necessary to consider the "prior art." Prior art may be defined very broadly as the entire body of knowledge from the beginning of time to the present.
The prior art is defined by Title 35, United States Code, Section 102, which states: "A person shall be entitled to a patent unless...." This language is followed by a series of definitions, the most important of which are summarized in the following.
Prior knowledge or use in a different country, however, is not a bar to a patent application in the United States.
www.tms.org /pubs/journals/JOM/matters/matters-9106.html   (1023 words)

  
 Light on the Familiar: The Paintings of Scott Prior
Prior's paintings are a dialogue on his intimate surroundings, including people, places, and things.
Prior turned to his family and their domestic surroundings as his primary source of inspiration.
Prior was subsequently included in several group exhibitions at DeCordova, and by 1977 the Museum owned five of his paintings.
www.tfaoi.com /aa/2aa/2aa494.htm   (815 words)

  
 Building on Prior Knowledge and Meaningful Student Contexts/Cultures
Teachers who link classroom activities and instruction to prior knowledge build on their students' familiarity with a topic (Beyer, 1991) and enable students to connect the curriculum content to their own culture and experience.
Prior knowledge influences how the teacher and students interact with the learning materials as both individuals and a group.
By tapping their students' prior knowledge in all subject areas, teachers can plan lessons that will: clarify incomplete or erroneous prior knowledge, determine the extent of instruction necessary in a particular topic area, and discern necessary adjustments to planned independent activities and assessment materials.
www.ncrel.org /sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr100.htm   (1192 words)

  
 Prior Restraints on Publication
If there is anything that the framers clearly intended to prohibit by way of the First Amendment it was prior restraints in the form of licensing laws that existed in England.
The Court said that after-publication punishment was much to be preferred: the state is less likely to suppress protected speech, the defendant can enjoy the safeguards of the criminal process, and courts will be in a better position to judge the allegedly unlawful speech.
The Court did not rule out, however, upholding a prior restraint in some future case, suggesting that "the publication of sailing dates" or "location of troops in wartime" might be appropriate cases for an injunction.
www.law.umkc.edu /faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/priorrestraints.htm   (732 words)

  
 Transworld Snowboarding.com | Snowbiz | Prior Adds Splitboard For Women   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-14)
Prior Snowboards, the third largest splitboard manufacturer in the world, is introducing a 154cm women’s Splitboard this season, designed to meet the growing number of female backcountry riders.
Chris Prior, founder of Prior Snowboards is pleased with the rollout of splitboards to date.
All Prior snowboards are handcrafted at the Prior factory in Whistler, Canada, where the company has access to its team of local pro riders who provide comprehensive testing, research and development for the snowboard line.
www.transworldsnowboarding.com /snow/snowbiz/article/0,13009,337493,00.html   (757 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prior
prior is assisted by a subprior, who holds the third place in the monastery.
prior in dignity and, besides assisting the abbot in the government of the monastery, had some delegated jurisdiction over external dependencies of the abbey.
prior is the superior over a number of monasteries that are united into a province.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/12427c.htm   (676 words)

  
 [No title]
A statement by an applicant during prosecution identifying the work of another as "prior art" is an admission that that work is available as prior art against the claims, regardless of whether the admitted prior art would otherwise qualify as prior art under the statutory categories of 35 U.S.C. Riverwood Int'l Corp. v.
However, even if labeled as "prior art," the work of the same inventive entity may not be considered prior art against the claims unless it falls under one of the statutory categories.
In re Ehrreich, 590 F.2d 902, 909-910, 200 USPQ 504, 510 (CCPA 1979) (holding preamble not to be admitted prior art where applicant explained that the Jepson format was used to avoid a double patenting rejection in a co-pending application and the examiner cited no art showing the subject matter of the preamble).
www.uspto.gov /web/offices/pac/mpep/documents/2100_2129.htm   (592 words)

  
 ESPN.com - MLB - Mark Prior - Chicago Cubs - Player Card
Mark Prior has not been involved in any transactions this season.
Mark Prior isn't happy about going to be the minors and Greeny nominates him for the Just Shut Up!
Mark Prior, who won 18 games for the Chicago Cubs four years ago before a series of injuries slowed his career, was optioned to Triple-A on Wednesday.
sports.espn.go.com /mlb/players/profile?statsId=6787   (98 words)

  
 Prior Lake Wrestling   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-14)
Youth wrestling is for kids Pre-K to 6th grade in Prior Lake, Savage and the surrounding areas.
Prior Lake Youth Wrestling (PLYW) is a non profit organization for K-6th graders is Prior lake, Savage, and surrounding areas.
PRIOR LAKE / SAVAGE FREESTLE CLUB - (Grades K-12) begins practices in April and runs through May. Practice are on Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 6:30 — 7:45 p.m.
eteamz.active.com /priorlakewrestling/index.cfm   (1077 words)

  
 AGPS FAQ - Prior Fiscal Year?New Fiscal Year   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-14)
A common cause for a failed payment when processing payments for a prior fiscal year is that the order shows the prior fiscal year but the receipt date is for the new fiscal year.
Yes, new orders can be entered prior to July 1, but will not be encumbered until your agency budget is loaded into ISIS and a batch encumbrance run takes place.
Until the agency budget for the new fiscal year is loaded into the system, skip status code 435 and print your order with a status 440 as usual.
www.state.la.us /ois/FAQ/AGPS/PriorFY_NewFY.htm   (774 words)

  
 W3C USPTO Section 301 Filing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-14)
While we understand that the submitted prior art was introduced during the course of the recent trial proceedings, the issue of whether it renders the '906 patent invalid was never considered.
The '906 patent acknowledges that Web browsers were in the prior art and in fact describes its alleged invention in terms of modifications to one such prior art browser, the NCSA Mosaic browser, Version 2.4.
In addition, Raggett I and II comprise a single prior art publication because both were posted on or incorporated by reference in the same Website at the same time more than a year before the filing date of the '906 patent.
www.w3.org /2003/10/301-filing.html   (5230 words)

  
 Sage CRM MME (ACCPAC), GoldMine & HEAT CRM Software from Prior Analytics, UK
Prior Analytics is fully certified by a number of leading software providers including FrontRange Solutions (GoldMine and HEAT) and Sage UK (Sage CRM MME), it provides easy-to-use, flexible and affordable solutions that address the needs of the individual client; integrate into the existing client infrastructure and are scalable to grow with the client's business.
Prior Analytics, a dedicated Customer Relationship Management Consultancy with headquarters in Richmond, Surrey, is delighted to have been named winner of the 'Customer Service' category at the prestigious Local Business Awards held in Twickenham this month.
Prior Analytics are delighted to announce nomination for the Computer Reseller News ‘Reseller of the Year’ Award for the second year running.
www.prior-analytics.com   (815 words)

  
 FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: First Amendment: Annotations pg. 9 of 21   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-14)
Obscenity and Prior Restraint.--Only in the obscenity area has there emerged a substantial consideration of the doctrine of prior restraint and the doctrine's use there may be based upon the proposition that obscenity is not a protected form of expression.
President & Comm'rs of Princess Anne, 393 U.S. (1968), the Court held invalid the issuance of an ex parte injunction to restrain the holding of a protest meeting, holding that usually notice must be given the parties to be restrained and an opportunity for them to rebut the contentions presented to justify the sought-for restraint.
Keefe, 402 U.S. (1971), the Court held invalid as a prior restraint an injunction preventing the petitioners from distributing 18,000 pamphlets attacking respondent's alleged ''blockbusting'' real estate activities; he was held not to have borne the ''heavy burden'' of justifying the restraint.
caselaw.lp.findlaw.com /data/constitution/amendment01/09.html   (1557 words)

  
 Prior Knowledge
Although prior knowledge is essential to learning, inappropriate or incorrect prior knowledge can be detrimental.
Teachers must keep in mind that just having prior knowledge is not sufficient -- students' prior knowledge "must be activated in order to facilitate one's current abilities to understand and learn" (Bransford in Anders, 370).
For example, a theme leading up to the American Revolutionary War is that of "taxation without representation." Prior to the content of the unit, you could brainstorm with the class ways that decisions have been made for them affecting their lives, without their consent.
www.wcer.wisc.edu /step/ep301/Spr2000/John-B/priorknow.html   (667 words)

  
 City of Prior Lake, MN
City of Prior Lake, MN Do you believe the City could provide more accessible customer service by utilizing summer hours: Monday to Thursday (7 a.m.
Scott County has advised the City of Prior Lake that Howard Lake Rd. from County Rd. 82 to County Rd. 12 is closed until further notice because of nightly frost damage.
Prior Lake City Hall is an official drop off site for cash donations and food items as part of the “Let’s Raise a Ton” food drive from Sunday, April 1 to Monday, April 30 for the CAP Agency in Shakopee serving Scott County and Prior Lake residents.
www.cityofpriorlake.com   (1044 words)

  
 In Thanksgiving for the Life and Witness of Michael Prior   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-14)
It is with deep sorrow that we mourn the sudden death of the Rev. Dr.
Michael Prior - a wonderful friend, a priest of the church, a meticulous researcher and scholar, a stimulating lecturer and educator, a liberation theologian, a courageous intellectual, and a passionate
His strong prophetic message will reverberate until justice for the Palestinians is done and peace and reconciliation are achieved in the Holy Land for all of its people.
www.hcef.org /hcef/index.cfm/mod/news/ID/16/SubMod/NewsView/NewsID/1138.cfm   (460 words)

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