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Topic: Procedural memory

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  Memory (psychology) - MSN Encarta
Procedural memory is often contrasted with episodic and semantic memory.
Although long-term episodic, semantic, and procedural memory all represent independent systems, it would usually be wrong to think of a particular task as relying exclusively on one type.
Thus, the separation of procedural and declarative memory from one another is not clear-cut in all cases.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761578303_2/Memory_(psychology).html   (979 words)

 Memory (psychology) - ninemsn Encarta
Memory is so important to our lives that it is not surprising that its nature and mechanisms are a major theme of research in both psychology and neuroscience.
Normal human memory was studied experimentally by Hermann Ebbinghaus, who asked people to remember lists of words or nonsense syllables and noted that a large proportion were forgotten within the first hour or so, but that after that those items that remained persisted in memory—giving rise to the short-term, long-term distinction.
Procedural memory persists even in disease states such as Alzheimer’s where episodic and semantic memories are progressively lost, implying that the ways in which procedural and declarative memories are made and stored may differ.
au.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761578303/Memory_(psychology).html   (1612 words)

 Memory - Now Where Did I Put Those Keys?
Procedural memories are stored in parts of the brain known as the basal ganglia, the cerebellum, and the premotor cortex.
Memory loss that accompanies normal aging is primarily a deficit in working memory, due to changes in the prefrontal cortex.
The hippocampus of the temporal lobes is responsible for consolidating or solidifying the memory.
www.ect.org /effects/memory.html   (2331 words)

 Memory Loss & the Brain
Scientists theorize that this loss of past memories, or retrograde amnesia, occurs because harm to the hippocampus has disrupted the process of consolidation, by which recent memories are gradually transformed into enduring long-term memories.
By performing sets of actions (procedures), the brain forms a kind of unconscious memory of the skills that you "just know how to do." Areas of the brain outside the medial-temporal lobes are involved in procedural memory, which is why an injury that results in anterograde amnesia doesn't affect procedural memory.
Procedural memory is central to a subplot in Memento in which Shelby flashes back to an insurance investigation he carried out before his injury on a man claiming amnesia.
www.memorylossonline.com /spring2002/memlossatmovies.htm   (1412 words)

 Team projects on www for Psychbiology - 2000
Mechanisms of Procedural Memory Synaptic Mechanisms in Procedural Memory By Jessie Walkner It was thought by Ramon y Cajal almost 100 years ago that the role of the synapse in memory was that strengthening formed the basis of different types of memory.
Procedural memory is encoded in a very similar way as it was perceived, rather than as a reorganization of the data.
Thus procedural memory is distinct from other types of memory due to its ability to maintain relatively normal functioning after damage to systems of the brain normally associated with learning and memory.
www.humboldt.edu /~morgan/proc_s00.htm   (2363 words)

One of the most popular models of memory sees memory as a present act of consciousness, reconstructive of the past, stimulated by an analogue of an engram called the "retrieval cue." The engram is the neural network representing fragments of past experiences which have been encoded.
Memories might better be thought of as a collage or a jigsaw puzzle than as "tape recordings," "pictures" or "video clips" stored as wholes.
Not only could Penfield only elicit "memories" in about one out of every thirteen patients, he did not provide support for the claim that what was elicited was actually a memory and not a hallucination, fantasy or confabulation.
skepdic.com /memory.html   (2918 words)

 Physiological Psychology, 24. Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Procedural memory represents motor or skill learning which is memory without verbal mediation and thus without record.
While the exact nature of memory formation can't be observed in the brain, the general consensus of both cognitive psychologists and neuropsychologists is that memories are established in the brain as patterns of neuronal activity.
Memory consolidation (the ability to form new memories) increases with recovery of the diencephalon and is reflected in a gradual decrease in the level of PTA.
neuro.psyc.memphis.edu /ugp/css024.html   (3982 words)

 Learning and memory
Memory cannot be measured directly but instead must be inferred based on the behavior of the organism.
Working memory is an elaboration of short-term memory which allows for the possibility that different types of information may be encoded and stored in multiple brain regions.
Representational memory is similar to working memory, but is more specific in that behavioral tasks are established where performance depends upon recalling relevant cues that are not available at the time of choice.
www.neurosci.pharm.utoledo.edu /MBC4420/memory.htm   (909 words)

 Module 3: Memory
When "memory" becomes, to a greater or lesser extent, impaired, the qualitative and quantitative differences in loss of function attest to the anatomical and functional distinctions between these various systems--systems that may be impacted by emotional disturbances, pathological brain impairment, and the common pattern of diminishing mental efficiency that accompanies the aging process.
Procedural (nondeclarative) memory is generally not what people refer to when they mention experiencing problems with their memory, as this type of memory is largely unconscious.
Implicit memory is generally defined as "knowledge that is expressed in performance without the subjects' phenomenal awareness that they possess it" (Schacter et al., 1988), and the term is often used synonymously with procedural memory.
www.ageworks.com /course_demo/520/module3/module3.htm   (7935 words)

Biological memory must also involve some structural changes—but the biological nature of the brain requires that the changes be in the dynamics of the microcircuitry, rather than as physical bits of information.
Procedural memory is also referred to as implicit memory, because its presence can only be inferred from observing behavior or performance.
Procedural memory is active in cortical as well as subcortical (e.g., basal ganglia, cerebellum) brain structures.
www.unr.nevada.edu /~goodman/brain/memory_tutorial.html   (1975 words)

 Memory I - Lecture Notes by E. Pritchard
Some have suggested that procedural memory is related to tacit knowledge, which is knowledge that individuals have but that they cannot express.
That relationship is one of increasing encapsulation, as episodic memory is said to be dependent on semantic memory, which is in turn dependent on procedural memory.
Memories may or may not be consistent with facts about the world, but I'm not sure that I would call that consistency truth (or inconsistency falsehood).
io.uwinnipeg.ca /~epritch1/ltm2000.html   (3351 words)

 Procedural Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Procedural memory can be related to the knowledge of rules of action and procedures, which can become quite automatic with repetition.
Practicing a certain task a lot or a little is procedural knowledge.
This occurs when the individual is using their procedural memory.
ahsmail.uwaterloo.ca /kin356/proced/procedmem.htm   (140 words)

Both procedural and declarative memories are long-term memories and we also have a working (short-term) memory which enables the brain to evaluate the mass of incoming information and select what is to be retained and memorised and what is to be rejected.
Memories are associated, crossindexed if you like, with their different aspects and can be recalled by recalling an aspect associated with the memory one wishes to recall.
Human beings store memories by means of changed neural pathways, by means of persistent modifications to the structure of neurons and their synaptic connections, by means of biochemical changes.
a.parsons.edu /~nyunny/thesis/memory.html   (3004 words)

 Team projects on www for Psychbiology - 2001
An individual that has had damage to other areas associated with learning and memory, such as the hippocampus, are often able to maintain their procedural memory, as well.
Procedural memory is unique in its ability to be maintained once it has been learned, as well as continue normal functioning after damage to systems of the brain normally associated with learning and memory.
Most memories that were not intact were declarative memories, procedural task were still intact which confirms the storage for these types of memories are not in the same locations.
www.humboldt.edu /~morgan/skil_s01.htm   (1934 words)

 Pathways to Procedural Long Term Memory
Procedural memory is memory storage of skills and procedures.
Procedural memory has been broken down into three separate groups; conditioned reflexes, emotional associations, and skills and habits.
Memories and learning of conditioned reflexes such as pulling your hand away from a hot fire is related to the cerebellum.
ahsmail.uwaterloo.ca /kin356/ltm/procedural.htm   (468 words)

 Tulving's Model: Episodic, Semantic, and Procedural Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Procedural includes knowledge that is almost impossible to explain.
Episodic memory may be an important type of semantic memory.
Procedural memory is widely believed to be separate - yet the evidence is still weak.
luna.cas.usf.edu /~brazas/cognitive/memory3.htm   (408 words)

 Medical World Search
Procedural memory in humans is related to the knowledge of rules of action and procedures, which can become quite automatic with repetition.
Due to this anatomical organization, declarative memory is said to be controlled by higher brain mechanisms, while procedural memory appears to depend on lower regions and systems.
On the neural level, a notable difference between the dichotomy between procedural and declarative memory, and the dichotomy between STM and LTM, is that in the latter there seems to be involved either higher and lower brain structures, and in some cases the same anatomical area is necessary for both STM and LTM.
www.mwsearch.com /Alzheimer.html   (4154 words)

 SparkNotes: Memory: Types of Memory
Declarative memory is recall of factual information such as dates, words, faces, events, and concepts.
Procedural memory is recall of how to do things such as swimming or driving a car.
Procedural memory is usually considered implicit because people don’t have to consciously remember how to perform actions or skills.
www.sparknotes.com /psychology/psych101/memory/section2.rhtml   (273 words)

 Memory main page
The portion of memory tends to be where your conscious thoughts are.
It can be viewed as the part of memory which holds and mixes information from the different parts of memory.
When we learn a skill such as riding a bike or playing a sport motor memory is necessary.
www.crossroadsinstitute.org /memory.html   (252 words)

 Neuropsychology/Behavioral Neuroscience Home   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Discuss the differences between declarative and procedural memory.
- Memory that has been consolidated or stored so that it is available after distraction.
While the limbic system is important in determining what information is converted to long-term memories, the actual memory stores represent multi-modal network of neurons throughout the nervous system.
neuro.psyc.memphis.edu /NeuroPsyc/np-ugp-memory.htm   (1725 words)

 Procedural - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Procedural, as an adjective, refers to the concept of procedure.
Procedural generation, a term often used in connection with computer graphics applications to indicate that data is created algorithmically rather than directly specified by an artist
Police procedural, a type of mystery fiction in written or dramatized form
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Procedural   (111 words)

 BehaveNet® Clinical Capsule™: memory
Brown, Daniel P., et al Memory, Trauma Treatment, and the Law Hardcover - January 1998
Gluck, Mark A. and Myers, Catherine E. Gateway to Memory- An Introduction to Neural Network Modeling of the Hippocampus and Learning (Issues in Clinical and Cognitive Neuropsychology) Hardcover
Searleman, Alan et al Memory In A Broader Perspective Hardcover
www.behavenet.com /capsules/nrml/memory.htm   (230 words)

 Impaired Bidirectional Synaptic Plasticity and Procedural Memory Formation in Striatum-Specific cAMP Response ...
Impaired Bidirectional Synaptic Plasticity and Procedural Memory Formation in Striatum-Specific cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein-Deficient Mice -- Pittenger et al.
Correspondence should be addressed to Riccardo Brambilla, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milano, Italy.
acquisition and storage of this form of memory remain poorly
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/abstract/26/10/2808   (240 words)

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