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Topic: Productive forces

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In the News (Sun 21 Apr 19)

  The Violence of Abstraction by Derek Sayer
Thus he avers that ‘productive forces strongly determine the character of the economic structure, while forming no part of it’, and in turn ‘the economic structure is separate from (and explanatory of) the superstructure’ (1978: 31, 218), all these entities being defined in empirical terms.
Productive forces are thus an attribute of human beings in association, their collective capacities, not a set of things as such at all.
On the contrary, when he says a force of production is a force of individuals he clearly intends that ‘force’ be understood as a power, an attribute, a characteristic, of those individuals in association — of social individuals — albeit a power which may frequently be materialised in things.
www.marxists.org /reference/subject/philosophy/works/en/sayer1.htm   (11992 words)

  Productive forces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Productive forces, "productive powers" or "forces of production" [in German, Produktivkräfte] is a central concept in Marxism and historical materialism.
Marx theorises productivity within the capitalist mode of production in terms of the social and technical relations of production, with the concept of the organic composition of capital and the value product.
Productive force determinism is then criticised on the ground that whatever technologies are adopted, these are the result of human choices between technical alternatives, influenced by the human interests and stakes existing at the time.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Productive_forces   (1395 words)

 Socialist Viewpoint
This rebellion of the productive forces, as they grow more and more powerful, against their quality as capital, this stronger and stronger command that their social character shall be recognized, forces the capital class itself to treat them more and more as social productive forces, so far as this is possible under capitalist conditions.
The socialized appropriation of the means of production does away, not only with the present artificial restrictions upon production, but also with the positive waste and devastation of productive forces and products that are at the present time the inevitable concomitants of production, and that reach their height in the crises.
But these two levers of production and of social well-being are unable to work together, because the capitalist form of production prevents the productive forces from working and the products from circulating, unless they are first turned into capital—which their very superabundance prevents.
www.socialistviewpoint.org /feb_04/feb_04_23b.html   (3400 words)

 Productivism and Marx
The development of the productive forces is the means by which the realm of human freedom is enlarged, as the realm of necessity, of human labour is reduced to a minimum.
But Marx and Engels, I believe, also mention production proper and the forces of production proper - simple cooperation, manufactory and then industrial production - as forces of production, and the first two were in the overlap period between capitalist prevalence and feudalist prevalence.
Feudalist relations of production were fetters on the forces of production which were the organization of production as cooperation and manufactory.
www.marxmail.org /archives/may98/journal_productivism.htm   (2689 words)

 The Polemic on the Stage of Revolution in India
Though the means of production and the labourers who set the means of production into action constitute the productive forces, yet to obtain vital material things, ‘for production to go at all’ IT IS NOT ENOUGH to have productive forces only - whatever may be the level, of their development.
Unquestionably the level of development of productive forces (means of production, technology, science, standard of knowledge and skill etc,...) of the past society predetermines the basis of relations of production corresponding to the given stage of history.
This spectacular onward march of the productive forces in agriculture is due to the change of relations of production in agriculture.
www.revolutionarydemocracy.org /rdv9n1/prolpath.htm   (3337 words)

 The Wandering of Humanity - 2. Growth of Productive Forces; Domestication of Human Beings
For Marx, gold remained a barrier to capital, the contradiction between valorization and devalorization remained in force, and the plunder and estrangement of proletarians remained an obstacle to the evolution of capital.
The moment when the productive forces were to reach the level required for the transformation of the mode of production was to be the moment when the crisis of capitalism began.
This crisis was to expose the narrowness of this mode of production and its inability to hold new productive forces, and thus make visible the antagonism between the productive forces and the capitalist forms of production.
www.geocities.com /~johngray/camwan03.htm   (2113 words)

 II. Decline of the Capitalist Mode of Production or Decline of Humanity? | libcom.org
Science as a productive force (thus also wealth, as was already shown in the 1844 Manuscripts and in The German Ideology) is determined by the development of these forces and corresponds to the appearance of a large number of externalizations, a greater possibility to appropriate nature.
Capital posits the production of wealth itself and hence the universal development of the productive forces, the constant overthrow of its prevailing presuppositions, as the presupposition of its reproduction.
But the socialization of production and of human activity, the universal development of the productive forces and thus the destruction of the limited character of the human being -- all this was only a possible ground for communism; it did not pose communism automatically.
libcom.org /library/wandering-humanity-jacques-camatte-5   (3698 words)

 Communism: A New Critique And Counterproposal - TOC
In the case of the development of productive forces, the Hyung Sang factors are the social conditions such as the level of scientific development and the level of productivity, and the material conditions such as capital, resources, scale of factory facilities.
Communists maintain that the productive forces are usually developed by the ruled class, and the revolution occurs because the oppressed class comes to destroy the old system of established production relations, which has become a hindrance to the development of the productive forces.
The cause of their mistake is that they maintain that the spirit is a product of matter, and that, by applying this assertion to society, they compare spirit to the superstructure (the various views and the institutions) and likewise, matter to the production relations (economy).
www.unification.org /ucbooks/cncc/cncc-04.htm   (3611 words)

 The Socialist Standard - February '98
It is the level of development of productive forces, and the way in which society organises their operation, which marks out the different stages of human development.
In the social production of their life, men enter into definite relations that are indispensable and independent of their will, relations of production which correspond to a definite stage of development of their material productive forces.
It had fulfilled its historic role-that of developing the productive forces to such a point that it was both feasible and desirable to end class society and exploitation.
www.worldsocialism.org /spgb/feb98/lead3.html   (1633 words)

 HACKETT BLOG: Examination of the Paris Manuscrits of Karl Marx
The productive forces are therefore the result of practically applied human energy; but this energy is itself conditioned by the circumstances in which men find themselves, by the productive forces already acquired, by the social forms which exists before they exist, which they do not create, which is the product of the proceeding generation.
Since the productive forces determine both the material production process and the valorization process that produces the specific social relations of production (bourgeois production relations), the manuscripts must fail to adequately consider the social relations particularly with reference to their origin, development and limitations.
By positing capital as production relation, as being independent of history and by identifying the productive forces in general with capital, they deify the productive forces.24 They invest it with a metaphysical essence a spirit, that determines both their existence and character.
hakett.blogspot.com /2006/07/examination-of-paris-manuscrits-of.html   (3876 words)

 Theory of Productive Forces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term "Theory of Productive Forces" should not be confused with the Marxist analysis of productive forces that is a cornerstone of Marxist theory.
The Theory of Productive Forces (sometimes referred to pejoratively by opponents as productive force determinism) is a widely-used concept in communism and Marxism placing primary emphasis on achieving abundance in a nominally socialist economy before real communism, or even real socialism, can have a hope of being achieved.
In acquiring new productive forces men change their mode of production; and in changing their mode of production, in changing the way of earning their living, they change all their social relations.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Theory_of_Productive_Forces   (705 words)

 Theory Marxism Classics main
The mode of production peculiar to the bourgeoisie, known, since Marx, as the capitalist mode of production, was incompatible with the feudal system, with the privileges it conferred upon individuals, entire social ranks and local corporations, as well as with the hereditary ties of subordination which constituted the framework of its social organization.
And this conflict between productive forces and modes of production is not a conflict engendered in the mind of man, like that between original sin and divine justice.
Further, it sets free for the community at large a mass of means of production and of products, by doing away with the senseless extravagance of the ruling classes of today, and their political representatives.
www.bu.edu /econ/faculty/kyn/newweb/theory_marxism_classics_main_lg.htm   (5341 words)

 Economic Perspectives 1946
The general crisis of capitalism is reflected in the contradiction between the development of the productive forces and the private ownership of the means of production and the national state.
Despite the immense increase in the productivity of labour and the continued development of technique, production on a world scale finds itself hampered and restricted by the fetters of private ownership of the means of production, transport and exchange, and the national state.
The general crisis of capitalism was reflected in the fact that the productive forces had ceased to grow with the same rhythm as in the past.
www.marxist.com /TUT/TUT5-1.html   (3055 words)

 Concerning the Theory of Productive Forces   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The thesis is that the Theory of Productive Forces, which in orthodox circles is seen as the explanation for and inspiration of all social change, is not a theory appropriately rooted in dialectical materialism, but is mechanically materialist.
At a certain stage of their development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or--what is but a legal expression of the same thing--with the property relations within which they have been at work hitherto.
No social order ever perishes before all the productive forces for which there is room in it have developed; and new, higher relations of production never appear before the material conditions of their existence have matured in the womb of the old society itself.
www.pipeline.com /~rgibson/THEORYPR.htm   (6429 words)

 Historical Materialism
Development of the productive forces is measured by the degree to which the same goods can be produced with less human labor.
In acquiring new productive forces, men change their mode of production and in changing their mode of production, in changing their way of earning their living, they change all their social relations.
At a certain stage of their development, the material productive forces of society come in conflict with the existing relations of production...
spruce.flint.umich.edu /~simoncu/485/histmat.htm   (700 words)

 Full Text of Jiang's Speech at CPC Anniversary Gathering(II)
Science and technology are the primary productive forces and a concentrated expression and a hallmark of advanced productive forces.
Although we have made tremendous achievements in socialist modernization, the productive forces in China have generally remained underdeveloped as China is still at the primary stage of socialism and it has a large population, a weak foundation and uneven economic and cultural development.
To ceaselessly develop advanced productive forces and culture is, in the final analysis, aimed at meeting the growing material and cultural needs of the people and continuously realizing the fundamental interests of the people.
english.peopledaily.com.cn /200107/01/eng20010701_73927.html   (2758 words)

 Critical Remarks on Contemporary ‘Decolonisation’ Theory
It is this force which determines the physiognomy of the whole of society, the character of the social system, the development of society from one system to another.
The mode of production is the embodiment of the unity of the productive forces of society and men’s relations of production which develop in production.
This, however, does not mean that the relations of production do not influence the development of the productive forces and that the latter are not dependent on the former.
www.revolutionarydemocracy.org /rdv9n1/decolonisation.htm   (4626 words)

 Deng Xiaoping 1992
The essence of socialism is liberation and development of the productive forces, elimination of exploitation and polarization, and the ultimate achievement of prosperity for all.
Production of processed food, clothing, housing, transportation and commodities for daily use, including major appliances such as colour TV sets, refrigerators and washing machines, increased by a wide margin.
In short, so long as we develop our productive forces, maintain a reasonable economic growth rate, promote reform and opening and, at the same time, crack down on crime, we shall be able to build a socialist society with advanced ethical standards.
www.olemiss.edu /courses/pol324/dengxp92.htm   (5447 words)

 The Human Mind, Absurdity of Any Materialistic Philosophy
As Marx sees it, the material productive forces bring forth—independently of the will of men—the "production relations," i.e., the social system of property laws, and their "ideological superstructure," i.e., the juridical, political, religious, artistic, or philosophical ideas.
In fact, the production relations, the necessary effect of the prevailing stage of the material productive forces, are determining their ideas, volitions, and actions.
Now let us for the sake of argument admit that the material productive forces have a constitution such that they are continually trying to free themselves from fetters upon their development.
www.mises.org /books/ufofes/ch1~8.aspx   (1026 words)

 Political Affairs Magazine - Our Way: Building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics
One was to talk about production relations without taking into account the level of the development of the productive forces, thinking that with regard to socialist ownership, the bigger and more public the better.
Things that fettered development of the productive forces and were not essential to socialism were regarded as socialist principles and adhered to.
Their reform and improvement must be in line with the level of the development of productive forces and must favor the expansion of production.
www.politicalaffairs.net /article/view/36/1?PrintableVersion=enabled   (2704 words)

 Economic Problems of the USSR
On the contrary, the new relations of production are the chief and decisive force, the one which in fact determines the further,and, moreover, powerful, development of the productive forces, and without which the latter would be doomed to stagnation, as is the case today in the capitalist countries.
This peculiar development of the relations of production from the role of a brake on the productive forces to that of the principal mainspring impelling them forward, and from the role of principal mainspring to that of a brake on the productive forces, constitutes one of the chief elements of the Marxist materialist dialectics.
Marxism regards social production as an integral whole which has two inseparable sides: the productive forces of society (the relation of society to the forces of nature, in contest with which it se-cures the material values it needs), and the relations of production (the relations of men to one another in the process of production).
www.marxists.org /reference/archive/stalin/works/1951/economic-problems/ch13.htm   (5741 words)

The development of the productive forces of social labour is the historical task and privilege of capital.
A development of the productive forces which would diminish the absolute number of labourers, that is, which would enable the entire nation to accomplish its total production in a shorter time, would cause a revolution, because it would render the majority of the population superfluous.
Destruction in place of construction; restricted production in place of increased production; closed "national" (i.e., imperialist) economic blocs in place of the formal objective of international interdependence; social and political repression in place of liberalism- these are the characteristic watchwords of capitalism in the present period.
www.plp.org /books/Dutt.html   (16358 words)

 Marxism and the Productive Forces
Marx and Engels’ description of how capitalism becomes a fetter on the productive forces has been interpreted as meaning that capitalism has reached (or will reach) a stage of decay when any further growth in production becomes impossible, misery increases and the working class suffers a permanent and generalised reduction in its standard of living.
In the fact that the development of the productive power of labour creates in the falling rate of profit a law which turns into an antagonism of this mode of production at a certain point and requires for its defeat periodical crises.
Furthermore, the general increase in the productivity of labour means that an increase in the standard of living is not incompatible with an increase in the rate of surplus value appropriated by capital.
www.whatnextjournal.co.uk /Pages/Ratner/Marxprod.html   (5063 words)

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