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Topic: Programming language

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In the News (Wed 20 Mar 19)

  Programming language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A programming language is a stylized communication technique intended to be used for controlling the behaviour of a machine (often a computer).
Programming languages are not error tolerant; however, the burden of recognizing and using the special vocabulary is reduced by help messages generated by the programming language implementation.
The rigorous definition of the meaning of programming languages is the subject of formal semantics.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Programming_language   (2161 words)

 Oz programming language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Oz is a concurrency-oriented language, as the term was introduced by Joe Armstrong, the main designer of the Erlang language.
In addition to multi-paradigm programming, the major strengths of Oz are in constraint programming and distributed programming.
For constraint programming, Oz introduces the idea of computation spaces, which allows user-defined search and distribution strategies that are orthogonal to the constraint domain.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Oz_programming_language   (432 words)

 ML programming language: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In computer science, imperative programming, as opposed to declarative programming, is a programming paradigm that describes computation in terms of a program...
The sml programming language is a modern descendant of the ml programming language used in the lcf theorem-proving project....
The cyclone programming language is intended to be a safe dialect of the c programming language....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/m/ml/ml_programming_language1.htm   (1187 words)

 The Simula Programming Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The SIMULA programming language was designed and built by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard at the Norwegian Computing Center (NCC) in Olslo between 1962 and 1967.
It was originally designed and implemented as a language for discrete event simulation, but was later expended and reimplemented as a full sacle general purpose programming language.
Although SIMULA is an extension of the programming language ALGOL 60, it is not a true extension of it.
www.engin.umd.umich.edu /CIS/course.des/cis400/simula/simula.html   (251 words)

 Programming Language Comparison
Thus, while object-oriented languages strive to remain at a fairly high level of abstraction, to be suitable for systems programming a language must provide such features or relegate such low-level tasks to a language with which it can interact.
The Capers Jones Language Level is a study that attempts to identify the number of source lines of code is necessary in a given language to implement a single function point.
Of the languages we're considering that were included in the study, Smalltalk, Eiffel, and Perl were the highest with a language level of 15.
www.jvoegele.com /software/langcomp.html   (5997 words)

 The Logo Programming Language
In our language sample we used the procedure pick to randomly select an item from a list, for example in the procedure who.
Programming in Logo is done by adding to its vocabulary, teaching it new words in terms of words it already knows.
Many programming languages are pretty strict about wanting to know exactly what kind of data you claim to be using.
el.media.mit.edu /logo-foundation/logo/programming.html   (677 words)

 The Goedel Programming Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Gödel is a declarative, general-purpose programming language in the family of logic programming languages.
This means that theoreticians can apply their "pure" theories of program transformation, program analysis, etc., more or less directly to Gödel and do not have to be concerned with complications of extending their theories to cope with the many non-logical aspects of languages such as Prolog.
Gödel is developed by Antony Bowers and John Lloyd at the University of Bristol and Pat Hill at the University of Leeds.
www.cs.bris.ac.uk /~bowers/goedel.html   (813 words)

 Which Programming Language? | Linux Journal
Despite the fact that C is a small programming language, the devil is in the details, and all that control comes at a price.
Pascal was best known as the teaching language of choice, despite its use in some high-profile technologies: when Apple Computer released The Macintosh, its applications programming language was Pascal; and Inprise Corporation use an object-oriented Pascal as the basis of their Delphi RAD tool.
The C Programming Language, 3rd Edition, by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie (Prentice Hall)--originally written in 1978, this is the classic introduction to C by the language authors.
www2.linuxjournal.com /article/4402   (3548 words)

 What is programming language? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary
High-level programming languages, while simple compared to human languages, are more complex than the languages the computer actually understands, called machine languages.
Assembly languages are similar to machine languages, but they are much easier to program in because they allow a programmer to substitute names for numbers.
The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer the program is to run on, what sort of program it is, and the expertise of the programmer.
www.webopedia.com /TERM/P/programming_language.html   (684 words)

 The Scheme Programming Language
Scheme was one of the first programming languages to incorporate first class procedures as in the lambda calculus, thereby proving the usefulness of static scope rules and block structure in a dynamically typed language.
Scheme is also the first programming language to support hygienic macros, which permit the syntax of a block-structured language to be extended reliably.
PLT Scheme is an umbrella name for a family of implementations of the Scheme programming language.
swiss.csail.mit.edu /projects/scheme   (700 words)

 The Miranda Programming Language
Miranda was the successor of the functional languages SASL and KRC.
In Non-Strict functional languages, the arguments to a function are not evaluated until they are actually required within the functions being called.
This is also known as lazy evaluation, and the main advantage of using this method is that it allows for passing infinite element data structures to a function.
www.engin.umd.umich.edu /CIS/course.des/cis400/miranda/miranda.html   (309 words)

 The Unlambda Programming Language
A note on terminology: The phrase “purely functional programming language” is usually applied to languages, like Haskell or Clean, which are lazy and demand explicit sequencing of side effects.
If the underlying language does not have first-class functions, then they must be emulated by means of data structures (indeed, the only “variable” part in a first-class function is its closure, and that can be represented by a data structure, since the code is always the same).
As in any language having first-class (higher-order) functions, and, therefore, escaping closures, the lifetime of the various structures is not statically determined in Unlambda, and some kind of automatic memory management (aka “garbage collection”) is necessary.
www.madore.org /~david/programs/unlambda   (7293 words)

 Popular Programming Language Timelines Tutorials Extensions
Assembly language is very flexible and powerful; anything that the hardware of the computer is capable of doing can be done in assembly.
This language became so popular in the early 1960s that other vendors started to produce their own versions and this led to a growing divergence of dialects (by 1963 there were 40 different compilers).
Until the early 1980s, although compilers existed for a variety of machine architectures and operating systems, the language was almost exclusively associated with Unix; more recently, its use has spread much more widely, and today it is among the languages most commonly used throughout the computer industry.
home.cfl.rr.com /eaa/Languages.htm   (697 words)

 JetBrains onBoard Online Magazine :: Language Oriented Programming: The Next Programming Paradigm
It is not yet fully formed—different parts have different names: Intentional programming, MDA, generative programming, etc. I suggest uniting all of these new approaches under one name, ‘language-oriented programming’, and this article explains the main principles of this new programming paradigm.
First I will show what is wrong with mainstream programming today, then I'll explain the concept of LOP by using the example of my existing implementation, the Meta Programming System (MPS).
Alternatively, we could use domain-specific languages (DSLs, aka ‘little languages’), which are tailored to be highly productive in a specific problem domain, such as SQL for writing database queries.
www.onboard.jetbrains.com /articles/04/10/lop   (815 words)

 Amazon.com: The C Programming Language (2nd Edition): Books: Brian W. Kernighan,Dennis Ritchie,Dennis M. Ritchie   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The book focuses on the language itself - this is no hands-on book (no explanations on how to use this compiler or that debugger, though it is a little biased toward Unix) in a clear, concise, and thorough way covering all of the language and it's standard libraries.
This book is *not* for people who study C as their first programming language (those would be better served with a pair of books - a first course in programming and compiler guide).
Authored by the guy who invented the C language and the first edition of the book being the known standard for C for over a decade, this book is one of those unique books that is a must read if you want to learn how to program.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0131103628?v=glance   (1723 words)

 Java Programming Language
The Java Programming Language is a general-purpose, concurrent, strongly typed, class-based object-oriented language.
This leads to a "declarative" programming style where the programmer says what should be done and tools emit the code to do it.
Evaluating assertions at runtime to confirm their validity is one of the most powerful tools for improving code quality, as it quickly uncovers the programmer's misconceptions concerning a program's behavior.
java.sun.com /j2se/1.5.0/docs/guide/language   (457 words)

 Programming language concepts
Computer Science 302 deals with programming languages generally, considered as formal, executable notations for expressing algorithms: their syntactic structures, the ``virtual machines'' or models of computation that they implicitly rely on, the data values and structures that they support, and the semantics of the various constructions from which programs are built.
The textbooks for the course are Essentials of programming languages, second edition, by Daniel P. Friedman, Mitchell Wand, and Christopher T. Haynes (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2000), ISBN 0-262-06217-8, and Concepts in programming languages, by John Mitchell (Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2003), ISBN 0-521-78098-5.
All of the Scheme code presented in Essentials of programming languages is available on line, along with several customization files to adapt various Scheme implementations to the dialect used in the book.
www.math.grin.edu /~stone/courses/languages   (1114 words)

 PC AI - Forth Programming Language
A number of Forth's features (such as its interactive style) make it a useful language for AI programming, and devoted adherents have developed Forth-based expert systems and neural networks.
Using a stack in this way (Forth's unique contribution to the world of programming languages) enables Forth applications to run quickly and efficiently.
These are the stack-based postfix languages, usually interpreted, descended from the FORTH language.
www.pcai.com /web/ai_info/pcai_forth.html   (303 words)

 How do Klingons compute?
This page is sort of a speculative glance at what a programming language on a Klingon computer system would look like.
The language itself is named var'aq, which happens to be meaningless in standard Klingon but sounds like it might be named after some famous Klingon computer scientist or mathematician.
It's really something of a Klingon Basic, a simple, loosely-typed programming language designed mostly just to be used for programming things like command displays and high-level control systems.
www.geocities.com /connorbd/varaq   (712 words)

 Java Programming Language And History - Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia's Article On 'Java Programming Language'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Programming in C ANSI History Culture Literature What's for maintaining and updating the C language definition; the second devising a standard for the C programming language.
Java is an object-oriented programming language developed initially by James Gosling and colleagues at Sun Microsystems.
Java is an object-oriented programming language developed initially by James Gosling C++ to Java as its featured programming language in the 2003-2004 school year.
www.vlasishost.com /articles/java-programming-language-and-history.html   (490 words)

 The XPL Programming Language
The XPL programming language is a derivative of PL/I designed for compiler writing.
XPL is the name of both the programming language and the compiler generator system (or TWS: translator writing system) based on the language.
A number of languages are based on XPL, including the PL/M family and Hal/S.
www.cs.toronto.edu /XPL   (382 words)

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