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Topic: Property (conflict)


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 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, The Hague, 14 May 1954.
The Protecting Powers shall lend their good offices in all cases where they may deem it useful in the interests of cultural property, particularly if there is disagreement between the Parties to the conflict as to the application or interpretation of the provisions of the present Convention or the Regulations for its execution.
In the event of an armed conflict not of an international character occurring within the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the provisions of the present Convention which relate to respect for cultural property.
During an armed conflict, cultural property under special protection shall be marked with the distinctive emblem described in Article 16, and shall be open to international control as provided for in the Regulations for the execution of the Convention.
www1.umn.edu /humanrts/instree/1954b.htm   (6303 words)

  
 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict - 1954: UNESCO Culture Sector
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict - 1954: UNESCO Culture Sector
Learn more about the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.
consider registering a limited number of refuges, monumental centres and other immovable cultural property of very great importance in the International Register of Cultural Property under Special Protection and obtain special protection for such property;
portal.unesco.org /culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=8450&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html   (205 words)

  
 AIA News - AIA Urges Protection of Iraq's Archaeological Heritage
In the aftermath of the 1991 Gulf War, the Archaeological Institute of America passed a Resolution Regarding War and the Destruction of Antiquities (PDF), which urges all governments to honor the terms of the 1954 Hague Convention on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.
This cultural heritage is of great value to the people of Iraq (as well as people throughout the world) and plays an important role within civil society.
The AIA therefore urges all governments, working in accordance with the terms of the Hague Convention, in concert with recognized experts in the scholarly community, to develop and implement carefully-researched programs to protect ancient sites, monuments, antiquities, and cultural institutions in the case of war.
www.archaeological.org /webinfo.php?page=10174   (714 words)

  
 Let's Not Be Too Hasty
After 45 years of review, the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict has been sent to the Senate for ratification (the U.S. has abided by the convention in the meantime).
More than 80 countries are party to the 1954 convention, which provides for safeguarding cultural property during time of war or military occupation.
In a letter to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, President Clinton noted, "The United States signed the Convention on May 14, 1954.
www.archaeology.org /9905/newsbriefs/hasty.html   (158 words)

  
 Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: UNESCO Culture Sector
Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: UNESCO Culture Sector
Intergovernmental Conference on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict The Hague
Commemorative Symposium to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.
portal.unesco.org /culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=2407&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=-277.html   (422 words)

  
 General Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings
These include mass killings that have taken place during the conflicts in Bangladesh, Bosnia, Kosovo, and Manchuria, as well as the Holocaust and the killings of Soviet prisoners of war subsequent to the invasion of the USSR by the Third Reich.
There is also a listing of the signatories to the Geneva conventions and their additional protocols, a link to the ICRC's summary of International Humanitarian Law, and the UN Security Council resolutions establishing the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, and that for Rwanda.
Generally, this is a well organised presentation which should be found very useful by anyone with an interest in an overview of the subject of genocide or in specific case studies of mass man-made killings.
www.ess.uwe.ac.uk /genocide/general.htm   (1275 words)

  
 Workshop on cultural heritage management begins Friday   
The 50th anniversary of the signing of the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict was recently celebrated and the Second Protocol of the Convention entered into force in 20 states on March 9, 2004.
The escalation in tensions registered in the Mediterranean region during the last two decades calls on cultural heritage operators and stakeholders to respond with a realistic and effective action in the protection of cultural heritage in areas of conflict, the statement said.
AMMAN (JT) — An international workshop on “Cultural Heritage Management in Times of Armed Conflicts” is scheduled to take place in Amman between April 15-17, according to a statement released by the European Commission Delegation to Jordan.
www.jordanembassyus.org /04132005003.htm   (318 words)

  
 50th anniversary of the 1954 Hague Convention for the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict
The year 2004 marks two important dates for the “1954 Hague Convention for the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict”.
50th anniversary of the 1954 Hague Convention for the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict
On 14th May 2004, the 1954 Convention celebrated its 50th anniversary, and on 9th March 2004 the Second Protocol of the Convention finally entered into force.
www.international.icomos.org /hague140504.htm   (323 words)

  
 Safeguarding of Cultural Property During Occupation
Despite the manifold activities and achievements of UNESCO - particularly by the means of the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict of 1954[1] - the Hague Regulations of 1907 have retained their practical legal importance and even come to be of increasingly topical interest.
56 of the Convention had as a consequence that, after an armed conflict, cultural property was not at disposition as part of the common property of a State.
The ernormous amount of cultural property carried off as spoils of war during and after World War II shows that the war was used by different parties, in a way unheard of and with quite diverse intentions, to knowingly carry off the cultural heritage of peoples and States and take it to their own territory.
www.jura.uni-sb.de /FB/LS/Fiedler/Fiedler/Aufsaetze/safegu.html   (3872 words)

  
 Giorgio Filibeck
In particular, in conflicts in which, devastating splits between ethnic or national communities have occurred, the outrage of dignity and the upheaval of peace cannot be restored by: the dynamics of law alone.
Rather, one should question oneself on the causes of the conflict and on the conditions in which the criminal acts were perpetrated: to e1iminate them once and for all they must be uprooted, and it is therefore necessary to know how to follow the path of truth and reconciliation.
It is an argument based on a superficial interpretation of contemporary conflicts because, with a more detailed analysis, one realizes how the roots of these conflicts are sunk in a power struggle which eventually exploits religious identity and aims to reinforce the capacity to fight.
www.ewtn.com /library/curia/pcjpgen.htm   (797 words)

  
 Hague Convention
Hague III -- Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of Principles of Geneva Convention of 1864
Hague Convention X -- Adaptation to Maritime War of the Principles of the Geneva Convention
Hague Convention II -- The Limitation of Employment of Force for Recovery of Contract Debts
www.lib.byu.edu /~rdh/wwi/hague.html   (385 words)

  
 The 1954 Hague Convention
The centerpiece of this law is the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, signed at The Hague in 1954.
The Cultural Property Convention is not intended to apply ­ and the protection of cultural property in general in wartime is not intended to apply merely to big things.
One is a reminder that the nation that controls the property has the primary responsibility for avoidance of placement of military objects in the vicinity of cultural property.
www.kakarigi.net /manu/ceip4.htm   (5131 words)

  
 news - UK: WHAT PROPERTY SHOULD WE BE SEEKING TO PROTECT IN THE EVENT OF ARMED CONFLICT
The UK will, under the terms of the Convention and its Protocols, have to take measures in order to ensure the protection of cultural property during armed conflicts in which it is involved, either at home or abroad.
The Minister for Culture, David Lammy, launched a consultation today on the best way for the UK to implement the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the event of Armed Conflict and its two Protocols.
The key issues being addressed include what property we should be seeking to protect in the event of armed conflict.
www.noticias.info /asp/aspComunicados.asp?nid=95811&src=0   (543 words)

  
 Hague Convention - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (signed May 14, 1954; entered into force August 7, 1956), requiring its signatories to avoid damaging culturally significant sites during wartime.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, agreements providing, among others things, regulations for the commencement of hostilities and conduct of belligerents and neutral powers towards each other and other nations, and outlawing the use of certain types of weapons in warfare.
One of the better known of these is Convention #12, the Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement for Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hague_Convention   (304 words)

  
 Institute of Art & Law
An Analysis of the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict
It will be of particular use to members of the armed forces who need to be fully conversant with the rules of international humanitarian law in relation to cultural property.
The book also analyses other instruments of international humanitarian law relevant to the protection of cultural property, in particular the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocols, which had a profound influence on the drafting of the 1954 Convention and the Second Protocol respectively.
www.ial.uk.com /hague.php   (376 words)

  
 DArV - Infos zu Tagungen
The recent war in Iraq has shown very bluntly that international conventions for the protection of cultural property (as the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict) have a very limited effect and are not strictly observed in the course of war.
The endangering of the mankind's world cultural heritage in the Near East became clearly evident during the course of and in the aftermath of the 3rd Gulf War in Iraq in 2003.
B) The use of digitalisation and the employment of databases for the documentation and protection of artefacts: the archival and image-based documentation of excavations and collections of museums, e.g.
www.darv.de /tag_wien.html   (893 words)

  
 United Kingdom and Ireland BLUE SHIELD Organisation
UNESCO, Second protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention for the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict, The Hague: UNESCO, 1999
UNESCO, Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, Paris; UNESCO, 1970 http://exchanges.state.gov/culprop/unesco01.html
UNIDROIT, Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, Rome: UNIDROIT, 1995 http://www.unidroit.org/english/conventions/c-cult.htm
www.bl.uk /services/npo/blueshield/resources.html   (1273 words)

  
 ihl_gomez.doc
The Hague Convention of 1954 on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its two Protocols of 1954 and 1999 represent significant progress in this respect.
The concern to preserve intangible cultural heritage, including the cultural wealth of traditions and folklore, is a significant contribution to protecting cultural property, since it is an intrinsic part of the idiosyncrasies of the American peoples.
A constitutional state must provide for the protection of cultural property, as the inheritance of its past and its legacy to future generations.
www.oas.org /JURIDICO/english/ihl_gomez.doc   (472 words)

  
 International Law In Brief: April 5-10, 1999
UNESCO: Second Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict
Waiver of provisions limiting the use of cultural property on grounds of imperative military necessity use may only be invoked "when and for so long as no choice is possible between such use of the cultural property and another feasible method for obtaining a similar military advantage...." art.
Cultural property with enhanced protection is to be immune from attack or military use.
www.asil.org /ilib/ilib0209.htm   (2171 words)

  
 The Hague Convention on the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict
The International Committee of the Blue Shield (ICBS) welcomes the entry into force, on 9 March 2004, of the 1999 Second Protocol to the to the 1954 Hague Convention on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.
It introduces new measures, including the designation of a new category of cultural property under Enhanced Protection.
It also establishes an Intergovernmental Committee responsible mainly for supervising the implementation of the Convention and the Second Protocol, and an International Fund for the Protection of Cultural Heritage.
www.ifla.org /VI/4/admin/hague-convention.htm   (294 words)

  
 Art Law 2004
The primary convention protecting art, monuments, cultural institutions, and cultural property in general from destruction by war or removal by looting is the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (Hague 1954).
Destruction of cultural property report of the UN Commission of Experts investigating war crimes in the former Yugoslavia, which deals with the cases of Dubrovnik and Mostar as examples of cultural destruction recommended for prosecution.
The application of the Beneš decrees to the Liechtenstein property remained an unresolved issue between Liechtenstein and Czechoslovakia until the dissolution of the latter, and it continues to be an unresolved issue as between Liechtenstein and the Czech Republic, on whose territory the vast majority of Liechtenstein property is located.
www.law.harvard.edu /faculty/martin/art_law/war.htm   (6928 words)

  
 ICA - news
Meanwhile, the ICBS calls upon all governments which have not yet become party to The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its two Protocols to do so.
In the case of looting of cultural property, detailed plans by trained experts should be prepared for the repatriation or restitution of the property concerned, with the involvement of Iraqi scholars and heritage professionals.
The ICBS wishes to stress that international humanitarian law prohibits the use of cultural property for military purposes or to shield military objectives.
www.ica.org /news.php?pnewsid=54&plangue=eng   (507 words)

  
 The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and the notion of military necessity
The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and the notion of military necessity
Following the submission of the Preliminary Draft for consideration to the States party to the 1954 Convention, States not party to that Convention and the international organizations concerned, the Secretariat received a number of substantial comments on the definition of “military necessity” applicable both to generally and to specially protected cultural property.
Preliminary Draft Second Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention, HC/1999/1, October 1998, distributed by the Netherlands in preparation for the Diplomatic Conference to be held in the Netherlands in March 1999.
www.icrc.org /Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList260/FF7F81319B1F96DAC1256B66005D8A96   (3799 words)

  
 SAVING OUR CULTURE, SAVING OURSELVES: WHY WE SHOULD RATIFY THE HAGUE CONVENTION ON THE PROTECTION OF CULTURAL PROPERTY IN THE EVENT OF ARMED CONFLICT
Cultural property is a much more slippery issue, and in legislating for its protection we cannot rely on the standards of "gentlemanly conduct" which established the laws of a different age.
The overarching goal of the Hague Convention, the protection of cultural property, speaks to its most important objective: the protection of the cultural and historical artifacts which define a culture, and which are the identifiers of a specific ethnic or national group.
The US has ratified the Geneva Conventions which govern armed conflict, so that attacks on civilians, on hospitals, the taking of prisoners of war, and the use of torture may be curtailed, or where they occur, to allow their victims legal redress.
www.law.harvard.edu /faculty/martin/art_law/carson_hague.htm   (1261 words)

  
 Australian Association of Consulting Archaeologists Inc.
The 1999 Second Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict
The Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Act 2003 and the Torres Strait Islander Cultural Heritage Act 2003 were passed to manage Indigenous cultural heritage, and are administered by the Department of Natural Resources and Mines.
This is the most important cultural protection advance in international law for 50 years.
www.aacai.com.au /newsletter/100.html   (4868 words)

  
 WIDER ADHERENCE TO EXTRA PROTOCOLS TO GENEVA CONVENTION ON VICTIMS OF ARMED CONFLICT IS SOUGHT BY LEGAL COMMITTEE
By the provisions of the second text, United Nations Convention on jurisdictional immunities of States and their property (document A/C.6/59/L.16), the Assembly would adopt the Convention, which is annexed to the draft resolution, and request the Secretary-General as depositary to open it for signature.
The 33-articles Convention applies to the immunity of a State and its property from the jurisdiction of the courts of another State.
By other provisions of the text approved on the Status of the Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, the Assembly would call on States to become parties to other relevant instruments, including the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflicts.
www.un.org /News/Press/docs/2004/gal3267.doc.htm   (3138 words)

  
 Iraq Cultural Heritage Protection Act
(1) cultural property is defined by the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict as `movable or immovable property of great importance to the cultural heritage of every people, such as monuments of architecture, art or history.
(d) CONFORMING AMENDMENTS- The Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act is amended--
H. To provide for the recovery, restitution, and protection of the cultural heritage of Iraq.
www.theorator.com /bills108/hr3497.html   (2177 words)

  
 Resolution on the protection of the cultural heritage of Afghanistan
Resolution on the protection of the cultural heritage of Afghanistan adopted by the General Assembly of States Parties to the World Heritage Convention at its Thirteenth session (Paris, 30-31 October 2001)
Resolution on the protection of the cultural heritage of Afghanistan
Condemns the wilful destruction of the cultural heritage of Afghanistan by the Taliban forces, particularly the statues of Bamiyan, as "crime against the common heritage of humanity";
whc.unesco.org /archive/13ga01-res.htm   (330 words)

  
 Safeguarding the cultural heritage of Jerusalem - UNESCO resolution (17 October 2003)
Safeguarding the cultural heritage of Jerusalem - UNESCO resolution (17 October 2003)
Resolution adopted on the report of Commission IV at the 21st plenary meeting, on 17 October 2003.
that nothing in the present resolution, which aims at the safeguarding of the cultural heritage of the Old City of Jerusalem, will in any way affect the relevant United Nations resolutions and decisions, in particular the relevant Security Council resolutions on the legal status of Jerusalem,
domino.un.org /unispal.nsf/361eea1cc08301c485256cf600606959/ec635fb7bc566b7685256fbf006b84b3!OpenDocument   (300 words)

  
 MyDD :: Babylon damaged by military occupation; Hague convention violated by U.S. war
Link to ICOMOS, the International Council on Monuments and Sites, for the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.
Tim Schadla Hall, reader in public archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology at University College London, said: "In this case we see an international conflict in which the US has failed to take into account the requirements of the Hague convention...
Babylon damaged by military occupation; Hague convention violated by U.S. war
www.mydd.com /story/2005/1/15/123813/806   (235 words)

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