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Topic: Property rights

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In the News (Wed 24 Jul 19)

  Property Rights, by Armen A. Alchian: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Library of Economics and Liberty
The definition, allocation, and protection of property rights is one of the most complex and difficult set of issues that any society has to resolve, but it is one that must be resolved in some fashion.
Thus, the three basic elements of private property are (1) exclusivity of rights to the choice of use of a resource, (2) exclusivity of rights to the services of a resource, and (3) rights to exchange the resource at mutually agreeable terms.
The fundamental purpose of property rights, and their fundamental accomplishment, is that they eliminate destructive competition for control of economic resources.
www.econlib.org /library/Enc/PropertyRights.html   (2576 words)

  Intellectual property - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term intellectual property reflects the idea that the subject matter of IP is the product of the mind or the intellect, and that once established, such entitlements are generally treated as equivalent to tangible property, and may be enforced as such by the courts.
Intellectual property laws are generally designed to confer a bundle of exclusive rights in relation to the particular form or manner in which ideas or information have been expressed or manifested, and not in relation to the underlying ideas or concepts themselves.
Exclusive rights may be analyzed in terms of their subject matter, the actions they regulate in respect of the subject matter, the duration of particular rights, and the limitations on these rights.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Intellectual_property   (6016 words)

 CRS Report: 95-200 - The Property Rights Issue - NLE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
The property rights issue has flared up because of (1) an increase in government restrictions on private land use in recent decades, (2) increased Supreme Court protection of private property, and (3) the political appeal of the property rights issue as an indirect means for easing regulatory controls.
Property rights groups tell of small landowners being robbed of any economic use of their property, and developers being needlessly delayed, by arbitrary federal bureaucrats; environmental groups assert that such instances are relatively few and that in any event there is no right to put one's land to harmful use.
Property rights activists suggest that the practical and jurisprudential difficulties of winning a taking action are the culprits, but this does not explain why the wetlands program has generated so much takings litigation, difficulties notwithstanding.
www.ncseonline.org /NLE/CRSreports/Economics/econ-11.cfm;?&CFID=273803&CFTOKEN=33261153   (10553 words)

 CafePress.com : Help Desk : Intellectual Property Rights Policy
We encourage intellectual property rights owners to contact us if they believe that a user of our service has infringed their rights.
If you let us know that your rights are being infringed by one of our users we will (in our discretion) require that the user's content is removed from products and, if the user continues to infringe your rights (or infringes the rights of others) terminate the user's access to our services.
A statement that you have a good-faith belief that use of the material in the manner complained of is not authorized by the rights owner, its agent or the law.
www.cafepress.com /cp/info/help/iprights.aspx   (355 words)

 A Positive Account of Property Rights
A further difficulty with moral accounts of rights, in particular of property rights, is the degree to which the property rights that people actually respect seem to depend on facts that are morally irrelevant.
The right strategy is to find some classification in terms of which there is a unique number, then choose that number&emdash;a strategy whose implementation depends on the particular classifications that pair of players uses.
The central project of this essay has been to give an account of rights, especially property rights, that is both amoral and alegal&emdash;an account that would explain the sort of behavior we associate with rights even in a world lacking law, law enforcement, and feelings of moral obligation.
www.daviddfriedman.com /Academic/Property/Property.html   (6304 words)

 Securing Property Rights   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
They may have different land-tenure and property rights systems, but they all have one thing in common: they protect the right of people to "transact" their property rights.
Intellectual property rights are crucial, but unless they are brought about in a context meaningful to the majority, they will be very difficult to enforce.
We have already seen the connecting links between property rights programs for the majority and successful private investment in infrastructure projects whether they be independent power producers and/or utilities involved in the distribution of energy and water.
www.cipe.org /publications/fs/ert/e19/desoto.htm   (4619 words)

 Property Rights Whac-A-Mole — Sightline Institute   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
There's rumors on the Internets, as they say, that property rights supporters are going to revive Washington's Initiative 933 and California's Proposition 90.
Property rightists are grasping for some kind of leverage going back to the Legislature.
I liken the process to an involutary land trust, with the taxes, i happen to live in a city and while most of the examples are rural, a similar landgrab is effecting city councils.
www.sightline.org /daily_score/archive/2006/11/13/property-rights-whac-a-mole   (2194 words)

 Introduction to Intellectual Property Rights: Glossary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
The assignment can be a transfer of all rights of exclusivity in the patent, of an undivided portion (for example, a 50 percent interest), or of all rights within a specified location (for example, a certain area of the United States).
In intellectual property law, there are important distinctions between “exclusive licenses” and “nonexclusive licenses.” An exclusive license is “exclusive” as to a defined scope; it is not the one and only license granted by a licensor.
Under copyright law, an exclusive licensee is the owner of a particular right of copyright, and he or she may sue for infringement of the licensed right.
usinfo.state.gov /products/pubs/intelprp/glossary.htm   (4279 words)

 Intellectual Property Rights Policy
We contractually prohibit our designers from using materials that infringes third party intellectual property rights (such as copyright, trademark, trade dress and right of publicity) in their designs.
We encourage intellectual property rights owners to contact us if they believe that a designer has infringed their rights.
If you let us know that your rights are being infringed by one of our designers we will (in our discretion) remove the template in question from products and, if the designer continues to infringe your rights (or infringes the rights of others) terminate our agreement with the designer.
www.templatemonster.com /intellectual-property.php   (310 words)

 Jefferson on Politics & Government: Property Rights
The right to procure property and to use it for one's own enjoyment is essential to the freedom of every person, and our other rights would mean little without these rights of property ownership.
It is also for these reasons that the government's power to tax property is placed in those representatives most frequently and directly responsible to the people, since it is the people themselves who must pay those taxes out of their holdings of property.
Society may give an exclusive right to the profits arising from them, as an encouragement to men to pursue ideas which may produce utility, but this may or may not be done, according to the will and convenience of the society, without claim or complaint from anybody...
etext.lib.virginia.edu /jefferson/quotations/jeff1550.htm   (1505 words)

 Property Rights
If the uncertainties and the vigilance required of property ownership in Costa Rica are not disagreeable to a foreign investor, he/she must still be prepared for the costs associated with maintaining legal ownership of the property.
When purchasing property in Costa Rica, proper registration of the property, and not the deed itself, is of the utmost importance (Carballo, 1995).
The difficulty of maintaining one's rights over those of the squatters is due to the nebulous nature of the law and what legally passes as "non-cultivated" or "unimproved" land.
www.usembassy.or.cr /proprigh.html   (4432 words)

 APC: Property Rights
In response to the ruling, the U.S. Congress is moving to enact legislation to restore the property rights protections in the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution.
It is equally hard to believe that, in the unfortunate event that private property would have to be used for a "public use", that the owners would not be made as whole as possible.
One condemned property was valued at $60,000 (Cristofaro’s) by the assessors hired by the city.
www.americanpolicy.org /prop/main.htm   (1279 words)

 FRB: Speech, Greenspan--Intellectual property rights--February 27, 2004
But regardless of its causes, conceptualization is irreversibly increasing the emphasis on the protection of intellectual, relative to physical, property rights.
Whether we protect intellectual property as an inalienable right or as a privilege vouchsafed by the sovereign, such protection inevitably entails making some choices that have crucial implications for the balance we strike between the interests of those who innovate and those who would benefit from innovation.
In the case of physical property, we take it for granted that the ownership right should have the potential of persisting as long as the physical object itself.
www.federalreserve.gov /boarddocs/speeches/2004/200402272   (2109 words)

 IIP: Publications: Introduction to Intellectual Property Rights: What Is Intellectual Property?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Under the terms of this social contract, the inventor is given the exclusive right to prevent others from making, using, and selling a patented invention for a fixed period of time in return for the inventor's disclosing the details of the invention to the public.
Although the right conferred by a patent is a right to exclude others from making, using, or selling a patented invention during the term of the patent, it is important to understand that a patent does not necessarily give the patent owner the right to make, use, or sell the invention himself or herself.
A copyright is an exclusive right to reproduce an original work of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, to prepare derivative works based upon the original work, and to perform or display the work in the case of musical, dramatic, choreographic, and sculptural works.
usinfo.state.gov /products/pubs/intelprp   (3868 words)

 The Space Review: Property rights and space commercialization
But an outer space pseudo property right is also just like the title deed to a house—the deed gives me the right to exclude others from using my house.
While it is not really a property right—since those are forbidden—these pseudo property rights would have the same effect as one if only US entities were in space.
Another way is more like water rights, mineral rights or spectrum licenses that entitle the holder to lease for a specific use for a specific amount of time and require the licensee to undertake development of the lease within a set amount of time or lose the lease.
www.thespacereview.com /article/141/1   (1750 words)

 CNET Networks - Editorial - Copyright Notice
CNET Networks is not in a position to arbitrate disputes between the owners of intellectual property rights and companies who advertise or list their products on our sites.
As a courtesy to owners of intellectual property rights, we are willing to perform a limited investigation of reasonable complaints.
We encourage the owners of intellectual property rights who believe their rights are being infringed by a company who advertises or lists its products on our site to resolve their disputes directly with that company.
www.cnetnetworks.com /editorial/copyright.html   (600 words)

 Coalition for Property Rights
As the Florida Legislature was in deep negotiations over property tax relief, they were besieged by numerous city and county commissioners blustering, "Which services would you like us to cut first?" and similar mantras.
It appears now that the property tax cuts have dollar totals, a few local governments may be refreshingly looking at regulatory reform as a way to produce real, long-term cost savings.
Private property ownership is the bedrock upon which the free enterprise system is built, and home ownership is the bulwark of stable and safe neighborhoods.
www.proprights.com   (443 words)

 Property Rights Post I-933 • Make incentives better available to landowners - Puget Sound Business Journal ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Purchasing development rights: King County used this tool to conserve thousands of acres of farmland in the 1980s Farmland Preservation Program and has conserved tens of thousands more acres of forestland through various initiatives, including the purchase of development rights on more than 90,000 acres of the Snoqualmie Tree Farm in the Cascade foothills.
Transfer of development rights: While the public must tax itself to purchase development rights, with a Transfer of Development Rights, a private landowner may sell the right to develop property to another landowner, who may increase the development on his property.
The constitutional protections afforded property owners against regulatory takings simply are not practical for many property owners because of the cost and delay of litigation.
seattle.bizjournals.com /seattle/stories/2006/12/11/focus11.html   (1335 words)

 Intellectual Property Rights Overview
How should the rights be expressed, and should the expression of the rights be used for notification, enforcement, or payment negotiation?
The W3C Intellectual Property Rights Activity Page describes how the W3C is addressing these questions.
draft-reagle-pics-copyright-00.txt demonstrates the use of the PICS protocol as a mechanism for expressing intellectual property rights.
www.w3.org /IPR   (774 words)

 WTO | Intellectual property (TRIPS) - gateway
Intellectual property rights are the rights given to people over the creations of their minds.
second, in 2001, is a similar programme for least-developed countries, to help them with their 1 January 2006 deadline, and to make use of intellectual property protection for their economic, social and cultural development.
Link to the website of the organization responsible for promoting intellectual property protection throughout the world, and for various multilateral IP treaties.
www.wto.org /english/tratop_e/trips_e/trips_e.htm   (811 words)

 Defenders of Property Rights to Submit Comments to USTR During Review of GSP Trade System
Defenders of Property Rights looks forward to submitting comment on the GSP trade program in hopes that the system can be improved to protect American innovators," Ms.
Intellectual property related industries in the United States account for 15% of American GDP and 10% of the American workforce.
About Defenders of Property Rights Defenders of Property Rights was founded in 1991 to counterbalance the governmental threat to private property as a result of a broad range of regulations.
www.prnewswire.com /cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/10-12-2005/0004166917&EDATE=   (610 words)

The Department of Justice and other agencies are continually working to improve protections for intellectual property rights and the enforcement of intellectual property laws.
Pursuant to 28 CFR § 0.64-5, for five years after the enactment of the EEA, all prosecutions brought under 18 U.S.C. § 1831 and 1832 must be approved by the Attorney General, Deputy Attorney General, or Assistant Attorney General for the Criminal Division.
The Intellectual Propety Rights (IPR) Training Database website is designed to provide information regarding international IPR training in coordination with the IPR Training Coordination Group, a group compromised of several United States Government agencies and industry associations involved in intellectual property rights enforcement.
www.usdoj.gov /criminal/cybercrime/ip.html   (378 words)

 intellectual property rights
The TRIPS agreement came into effect on 1 January 1995 and is currently the most comprehensive multilateral agreement on intellectual property.
The site provides information on intellectual property rights and the history and full-text of the TRIPS agreement, TRIPS work in the WTO, TRIPS- related disputes, and links with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
Information is also given on sustainable agricultural biodiversity, governance, genetic engineering, and intellectual property rights and benefit sharing.
agrifor.ac.uk /browse/cabi/f4971004031f113bd6ca466ffbe07afd.html   (335 words)

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