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Topic: Proportional

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In the News (Tue 23 Jul 19)

  Proportional representation - Electowiki
Proportional Representation (PR) describes various multi-winner voting systems which try to ensure that the proportional support gained by different groups is accurately reflected in the election result.
However, district or constituency borders may be gerrymandered to create "majority-minority" districts or constituencies where a group of voters in the minority system-wide form the majority in a particular district or constituency, thus allowing a simulation of proportionality system-wide.
Proportional representation is unfamiliar to most citizens of the United States, but it is actually a much more common system of voting than first-past-the-post.
wiki.electorama.com /wiki/Proportional_representation   (721 words)

  Proportional representation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Proportional representation (PR) is any election system which ensures a proportionally representative result of a democratic election, x% of votes should be represented by x% in the democratic institutions, parliament or congress.
In general, first-past-the-post is only used in former British colonies, but a form of proportional representation known as the mixed member system is now being used in the United Kingdom to elect the members of the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh National Assembly.
Although once an unknown system, proportional representation is now gaining popularity in Canada with five provinces: British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick currently debating whether to abolish the first past the post system, and at the federal level, a Parliamentary Committee is now exploring the issue.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proportional_representation   (1889 words)

 Proportionality (disambiguation) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In problems of fair division, proportional means that each of n players thinks that he or she received at least 1 / n of the cake.
In art, body proportions are the study of relation of human body parts to each other and the whole, essential for depiction of human figure.
In typography, a proportional font is a font whose glyphs are displayed using varying widths.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proportional   (386 words)

 proportional representation - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about proportional representation
Electoral system in which share of party seats corresponds to their proportion of the total votes cast, and minority votes are not wasted (as opposed to a simple majority, or ‘first past the post’, system).
Proportional representation is used for the new Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales, both first elected in 1999, and, also since 1999, for European Parliament elections in Britain.
This proportional system was adopted for the 1986 National Assembly elections, but France has since reverted to a majoritarian system, in which candidates are required to gain a majority of votes either in a first ballot or a ‘run-off’ second ballot held a week later.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /proportional%20representation   (734 words)

 Rep.htmlProportional Representation What is Proportional Representation?
Proportional representation (PR) voting systems are used by most of the world's established democracies.
The trend in the world is toward proportional representation and away from "winner take all." Recently the United Kingdom, the grandmother of all "winner take all" democracies, chose to use PR to elect representatives to the European Parliament.
Research has shown that systems of proportional representation result in greater numbers of elected women, and that greater numbers of women are elected in multi-seat rather than single-seat districts.
www.thirdworldtraveler.com /Political/What_ProportionalRep.html   (2426 words)

 Proportional Valves - Hydraulic Cartridge Valves
Proportional valves are helping the hydraulic industry stay in tune with technology.
This unit is a electro-hydraulic, proportional, screw in cartridge style, direct acting, spool type, pressure reducing/relieving flow pressure control valve.
This unit is an electro-hydraulic, proportional, screw in cartridge style, pilot operated, sliding spool type, high pressure reducing and relieving control valve.
www.commandcontrols.com /catalog/11.htm   (215 words)

 [No title]
The basic approach of proportional representation is simple: legislators are elected in multimember districts instead of single-member districts, and the number of seats that a party wins in an election is proportional to the amount of its support among voters.
Proportional representation (PR) has now been used in the elections for the Scottish and Welsh Assemblies, and to elect the Mayor and members of the Greater London Assembly.
These systems are designed to ensure proportional representation, the idea that the candidates selected from a given party (or, in non-party-list systems, informal grouping) should be in proportion to the votes cast for that party.
www.lycos.com /info/proportional-representation--list-proportional-representation.html   (634 words)

 Proportional Representation Voting in Australia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Proportional Representation (PR) Voting is used in elections for the Australian Senate.
A variation of Proportional Representation, known as Hare-Clarke, is used in elections for the Tasmanian House of Assembly.
In a double dissolution election of 12 Senators, the quota is 7.7% of the formal vote.
www.australianpolitics.com /voting/systems/proportional.shtml   (591 words)

 Single Transferable Vote - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Unlike proportional representation systems employing party lists, voters in STV are not explicitly constrained by parties even when they do exist; voters may ignore candidate party labels and mix their preferred candidate rankings between parties.
Another issue commonly considered with STV elections is the size of the voting districts in terms of the number of candidates elected and, to a lesser extent, the total size of the body being elected.
STV or proportional voting is the system used in the Australian Senate and the Legislative Councils of New South Wales, Victoria (from 2006), Western Australia and South Australia.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Single_transferable_vote   (6350 words)

 PROPORTIONAL - Definition
Having a due proportion, or comparative relation; being in suitable proportion or degree; as, the parts of an edifice are proportional.
(Math.) Constituting a proportion; having the same, or a constant, ratio; as, proportional quantities; momentum is proportional to quantity of matter.
{Proportional scale}, a scale on which are marked parts proportional to the logarithms of the natural numbers; a logarithmic scale.
www.hyperdictionary.com /dictionary/proportional   (137 words)

 Learn more about Proportional Representation in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Proportional Representation describes various election systems which try to ensure that the proportional support gained by different groups is accurately reflected in the election result.
Some election systems that strive to achieve proportional representation include the single transferable vote (STV) and the party-list proportional representation systems.
These include the single member constituency/plurality, also called the first-past-the-post, the single member constituency/ majority, also called the majority run-off, the alternative vote, and the bloc vote, in which parties can receive seat numbers that bear no relationship to the national percentages they received in parliament.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /p/pr/proportional_representation.html   (526 words)

 CAW - TCA CANADA : Who We Are
Proportional representation is a voting system that allocates seats in proportion to the popular vote.
Which candidate(s) wins is determined in accordance with either the proportion of votes their party receives or they themselves receive depending on the type of PR system used.
Proportional representation as a means of electing representatives to parliament has been around for over a century.
www.caw.ca /whoweare/CAWpoliciesandstatements/discussionpapers/proportional_index.asp   (7087 words)

 Proportional Representation Systems
Proportional representation voting (PR) is the main rival to plurality-majority voting.
Mixed-member proportional representation goes by a variety of other names, including "the additional member system," "compensatory PR," the "two vote system," and "the German system." It is an attempt to combine a single-member district system with a proportional voting system.
Proponents claim that mixed-member proportional voting (MMP) is the best of both worlds: providing the geographical representation and close constituency ties of single-member plurality voting along with the fairness and diversity of representation that comes with PR voting.
www.mtholyoke.edu /acad/polit/damy/BeginnningReading/PRsystems.htm   (2963 words)

 Electoral Council of Australia - Electoral Systems- Proportional Representation in Australia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Proportional representation electoral systems are used in Australia to elect candidates to the Senate, the upper houses of NSW, Victoria, South Australia, and Western Australia, the Lower House of Tasmania, the ACT Legislative Assembly and many Local Government Councils. 
Proportional Representation (PR) is the term that describes a group of electoral systems used to elect candidates in multi-member electorates.
The composition of a Legislature where members are elected using PR usually better reflects the proportions of votes received by candidates on a State or Territory-wide basis than houses where members are elected to single seat electorates.
www.eca.gov.au /systems/proportional/proportion_rep.htm   (1131 words)

 Proportional Representation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
In Ireland, the system of voting in all Dáil elections, Seanad elections, Presidential elections, European elections and local elections is proportional representation with a single transferable vote in multi-seat constituencies (3-, 4- and 5-seat constituencies at Dáil elections).
Proportional representation means that as a voter, you can indicate your first and subsequent choices for the candidates on the ballot paper.
If a candidate receives more than the quota on any count, the surplus votes are transferred to the remaining candidates in proportion to the next available preferences indicated by voters (i.e., the next preference on each vote for a candidate who has not been elected or eliminated).
oasis.gov.ie /.../elections/proportional_representation.html   (1023 words)

 The Progressive Case for PR
One thing is clear: proportional representation will move us toward a much more level playing field where most policy changes will need majority support or at least acquiescence.
The principle of proportional representation (PR), in essence, is that parties or blocs of like-minded voters should win seats in legislative assemblies in proportion to their share of the popular vote.
Proportional representation is based on the principle that the right of decision should belong to the majority, but the right of representation to all.
www.fairvote.org /pr/progressive.htm   (4746 words)

 The Dominion: One Citizen, One Vote: Towards Proportional Representation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Proportional representation will essentially allow whatever political viewpoints the public has to be fairly and appropriately represented in parliament.
So proportional representation wouldn't stop regional parties from being formed or represented, but it would open up political space for other parties that right now cannot participate in the voting system because their support is scattered across the country.
Proportional representation does allow more parties to be formed, and essentially allows whatever political viewpoints there are to be represented.
dominionpaper.ca /features/2003/08/08/one_citize.html   (2883 words)

 Mean Proportional
Remember the rule for working with proportions: the product of the means equals the product of the extremes.
of a right triangle is the mean proportional between the hypotenuse and the projection of the leg on the hypotenuse.
In a starfish, the outer leg length, AB, is the mean proportional between the length of the base of the leg, BC, and the length of the outer leg plus the base, AC.
www.regentsprep.org /Regents/math/geometry/GP12/LMeanP.htm   (271 words)

 Proportional Representation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
It is unnecessary because we have immediate opportunities, at local, state, and national levels, to join the vast majority of mature democracies that have already adopted systems of proportional representation.
Proportional representation (PR) is the principle that any group of like-minded voters should win legislative seats in proportion to its share of the popular vote.
Currently there are 41 well-established democracies with at least two million inhabitants and high ratings from the human rights organization Freedom House, and of these 41 nations only two (the United States and Canada) do not use a form of proportional or semi-proportional voting systems to elect one of their national legislatures.
www.polizeros.com /stories/2002/11/11/proportionalRepresentation.html   (259 words)

 Proportional Reasoning
Proportional reasoning is a form of mathematical reasoning that involves a sense of co-variation and of multiple comparisons, and the ability to mentally store and process several pieces of information.
Because proportional reasoning deals with one of the most common forms of structural similarity, it is often linked to some of the most important elementary but deep concepts at the foundation level of many areas of science or mathematics.
Although developmental psychologists have tended to speak of proportional reasoning as though it were a global ability related to some general cognitive structure, mathematics education research clearly shows that the evolution of proportional reasoning is characterized by a gradual increase in local competence.
education.umn.edu /rationalnumberproject/88_8.html   (8362 words)

 Proportional Betting
Equation 10 says that when you bet the optimal proportion of your bankroll, your expected win divided by your bet size is half of your expected arithmetic win rate.
Under proportional betting, when you lose you have to scale down your bet sizes; you then have to win more bets to get even than what you lost in going down.
Note that you are better off with proportional bets than with flat bets (all bets equal to your first bet, and your first bet is 1% of your beginning bankroll) at 108 or more wins, and also with 93 or fewer wins.
www.bjmath.com /bjmath/paper1/proport.htm   (1426 words)

 [No title]
Katie, who was a strong supporter of proportional representation, was a PRSA member from the inauguration of the Society on 1st January 1982, and she and Jack formed a very good team for the cause.
Proportional representation (PR) voting systems are used by most of the world’s major democracies.
Unfortunately neither this nor other attempts, both before and since, to introduce proportional representation for elections to the Victorian Parliament were brought to a successful conclusion.
www.lycos.com /info/proportional-representation.html   (489 words)

 ::Proportional Representation::
Proportional Representation (PR) as a title covers a wide variety of electoral systems where seats in parliament are more or less in proportion to votes cast.
British Politics has used forms of proportional representation in elections for devolution in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
A form of proportional representation was used in the London mayoral election as well.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /proportional_representation.htm   (1254 words)

 Proportional Reasoning Lesson Example
However, the ability to apply this rule is not an accurate indicator of students' understanding of proportions or their ability to recognize a proportional relationship.
Time is spent exploring proportions from a variety of perspectives: equivalent fractions, multiplication by unit rates, graphing, as well as the cross multiply method.
It is important that students realize not all number patterns represent proportions.
www.nde.state.ne.us /NMSI/mathvantage/proportional/lesson.html   (1260 words)

 Party-list proportional representation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e.g.
In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, and seats get allocated to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives.
The unmodified Sainte-Laguë method and the LR-Hare method rank as the most proportional followed by LR-Droop; single transferable vote; modified Sainte-Laguë, d'Hondt and largest remainder Imperiali.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Party-list_proportional_representation   (276 words)

 KoreaTimes : Proportional Seats   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
New rules for the April 15 general elections strengthen the proportional representation in the National Assembly by raising the number of seats allocated under this system and introducing a one-voter-two-ballot system _ one for candidate and the other for a party.
Under the new rules, the threshold for a party’s qualification for proportional seats is lowered from five percent of the total votes cast to three percent.
In the past, a voter cast only one vote in the past general elections and political parties were allocated proportional representatives in proportion to the number of ballots they collected for their candidates in the polls.
times.hankooki.com /lpage/nation/200404/kt2004040217491111990.htm   (251 words)

 Proportional Representation at opensource encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Proportional Representation (PR) describes various multi-winner electoral systems which try to ensure that the proportional support gained by different groups is accurately reflected in the election result.
Proportional representation is unfamiliar to most citizens of the United States and Canada, but it is actually a much more common system of voting than first-past-the-post.
In general, first-past-the-post is only used in former British colonies, but even Britain uses a form of proportional representation known as the mixed member system to elect the members of the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh National Assembly.
wiki.tatet.com /Proportional_representation.html   (623 words)

 Proportional Hazards Model
Introduced by D. Cox, the Proportional Hazards (PH) model was developed in order to estimate the effects of different covariates influencing the times-to-failure of a system.
In, the proportional hazards model is included in its parametric form and can be used to analyze data with up to eight variables.
Note that for the case of the failure rate of a unit being dependent not only on time but also on other covariates, the above equation must be modified in order to be a function of time and of the covariates.
www.weibull.com /AccelTestWeb/proportional_hazards_model.htm   (748 words)

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