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Topic: Proportional representation

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In the News (Wed 18 Oct 17)

  Proportional representation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is an electoral system delivering a close match between the percentage of votes that the political parties obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive in legislative assemblies.
Various forms of proportional representation exist, such as party-list proportional representation, in which voters can only vote for a party and their predefined (closed) list of candidates, compared to open list systems, where the position of the candidate on the list depends on the actual votes the candidate has received in the election.
In Ireland, proportional representation has resulted in a strange situation whereby a centre party with a large support base, known as Fianna Fáil, has 45% of the vote but the opposition parties are extremely fragmented with the only thing that unites them being their dislike of Fianna Fail.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proportional_representation   (2219 words)

 Proportional Representation The Case for Proportional Representation
The principle of proportional representation (PR), in essence, is that parties or blocs of like-minded voters should win seats in legislative assemblies in proportion to their share of the popular vote.
Our answer is the Golden Rule of Representation: "Give unto others the representation which you would have them give unto you." The fact is, many progressives overrate their current degree of support in the electorate, while others leap in equal error to desperate conclusions about the electorate's likely conservatism.
Proportional representation is based on the principle that the right of decision should belong to the majority, but the right of representation to all.
www.thirdworldtraveler.com /Political/CaseForPropRep.html   (4433 words)

 [No title]
These defects all spring from the same root cause--that the representation of any constituency is awarded to the majority of the electors in that constituency irrespective of the size of the majority; that the votes of the minority count for nothing.
A great proportion of these appeals relate to funds which are for public, or quasi-public purposes, such as those of hospitals; and there is no suggestion that any direct political influence is exercised in consequence of donations or contributions made to these institutions.
With proportional representation members of all three parties are returned in both areas, and this result has brought in its train a great national advantage, the political consolidation of Belgium.
www.gutenberg.org /dirs/etext06/8prep10.txt   (14405 words)

 Christian Science Monitor: The Argument for Proportional Representation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
With proportional representation, these efforts are far less rewarding, since the most to be gained from a 5 percent swing in a five-member district is 20 percent (and less for larger districts).
Under proportional representation, this dynamic is the norm, not the exception.
Conventional wisdom holds that proportional representation could not be introduced in the United States because it requires voting for political parties instead of individuals.
www.worldpolicy.org /globalrights/democracy/1995-0808-csm-proportional.html   (1033 words)

 Proportional Representation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
It is unnecessary because we have immediate opportunities, at local, state, and national levels, to join the vast majority of mature democracies that have already adopted systems of proportional representation.
Proportional representation (PR) is the principle that any group of like-minded voters should win legislative seats in proportion to its share of the popular vote.
Whereas the winner-take-all principle awards 100% of the representation to a 50.1% majority, PR allows voters in a minority to win their fair share of representation.
www.engin.umich.edu /class/eecs281/proj2/large0/f01676   (251 words)

 Proportional Representation: An argument for representative democracy, and a refutation of its opposition
An idea which is floated around with increasing frequency in the political debate is proportional representation - the idea that a party's representation in parliament ought to be roughly equivalent to the number of votes it receives - and it's not difficult to see why.
There are many types of proportional representation used by countries, many of them adding their own tweaks to them to suit their needs.
The Senate, with diverse representation and views, would merely act as a check on the power of the Commons, which is routinely controlled by a single party, ensuring that unpopular legislation could not be passed, but not at the peril of the fall of the government.
www.angelfire.com /vamp/seashore/pr.html   (8926 words)

 Proportional Representation Voting in Australia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Proportional Representation (PR) Voting is used in elections for the Australian Senate.
A variation of Proportional Representation, known as Hare-Clarke, is used in elections for the Tasmanian House of Assembly.
In a double dissolution election of 12 Senators, the quota is 7.7% of the formal vote.
www.australianpolitics.com /voting/systems/proportional.shtml   (591 words)

 Proportional Representation
Proportional Representation (PR) as a title covers a wide variety of electoral systems where seats in parliament are more or less in proportion to votes cast.
British Politics has used forms of proportional representation in elections for devolution in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
A form of proportional representation was used in the London mayoral election as well.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /proportional_representation.htm   (1223 words)

 Mixed member proportional representation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mixed member proportional representation, also termed mixed-member proportional representation and commonly abbreviated to MMP, is a voting system used to elect representatives to numerous legislatures around the world.
Hungary has a complex voting system that results in a less proportional representation than MMP but more proportional than Parallel voting.
In the case of Forza Italia (part of the House of Freedoms), the tactic was so successful that it did not have enough candidates in the proportional part to receive as many seats as it in fact won, missing out on 12 seats.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mixed_member_proportional_representation   (1121 words)

 The Dominion: One Citizen, One Vote: Towards Proportional Representation
Proportional representation will essentially allow whatever political viewpoints the public has to be fairly and appropriately represented in parliament.
So proportional representation wouldn't stop regional parties from being formed or represented, but it would open up political space for other parties that right now cannot participate in the voting system because their support is scattered across the country.
Proportional representation does allow more parties to be formed, and essentially allows whatever political viewpoints there are to be represented.
dominionpaper.ca /features/2003/08/08/one_citize.html   (2912 words)

 Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform - proportional representation (PR)
Proportional representation refers to a family of electoral systems which stress the importance of ensuring that the proportion of seats won by a party in a representative assembly reflects as closely as possible the proportion of votes won by the party.
Proportional outcomes can also be achieved by mixing proportional representation with a non-proportional system; see mixed member proportional (MMP) systems.
Some of systems of proportional representation can be called quota preferential systems because they use quotas for working out which candidates are to be elected (see threshold).
www.citizensassembly.bc.ca /public/learning_resources/glossary/2003/csharman-10_0312241118-561   (185 words)

Proportional Representation was used in the "KPFA Model" of elections for their 2 station board elections.
Proportional representation refers to voting systems in which groups of voters win representation in proportion to their size.
Proportional representation/choice voting was the method used to elect the selectmen to New England town councils.
www.wbai.net /bylaws_revise/bylaws_revise_proportional_representation9-16-02.html   (1107 words)

 Boston Review | The Case for Proportional Representation
Proportional representation (PR) is based on the principle that any group of like-minded voters should win legislative seats in proportion to its share of the popular vote.
The advantage of district representation, it is said, is that all areas have someone to hold accountable for district issues.
Their choice of representation may be influenced by local considerations, and systems can be designed to ensure some geographic representation, but geographic interests are not assumed to be paramount.
bostonreview.net /BR23.1/richie.html   (6068 words)

 New Rules Project - Governance - Proportional Representation
Proportional representation means electing representatives to our legislatures in proportion to their support in the population.
Some other popular reforms are related to straightforward proportional representation in that they tend to allow representation for minority groups or opinions within the population, but differ in the details.
While proportional representation is a system for electing legislatures, Instant runoff voting can be used for elections of a single, executive position.
www.newrules.org /gov/proport.html   (736 words)

 Idealistic Pragmatist: Proportional representation FAQ
Proportional representation isn't just for wide-eyed idealists; it's a pragmatic solution to the inherent failings of First Past the Post.
Proportional representation isn't about giving more power to smaller parties, it's about giving each party no more and no less clout than that given to them by the voters.
Voting is easy under a Mixed Member Proportional system, too, because all you have to do is vote once for a person to represent your riding, and once for a party.
idealisticpragmatist.blogspot.com /2005/11/proportional-representation-faq.html   (3067 words)

 Proportional Representation Library
Proportional representation -- sometimes also called "full representation" -- is the voting system used in most Western democracies and is widely considered to be fairer and more democratic than the current U.S. system.
Those of you who are new to the issue of proportional representation might want to start with the beginning readings, which provide an overview of what voting systems are, how proportional representation voting works and why it is superior to our current voting system.
For example, several excellent books on proportional representation have been published, and they are essential reading for those who want an in-depth understanding of the issues involved in this electoral reform.
www.mtholyoke.edu /acad/polit/damy/prlib.htm   (521 words)

 Electoral Council of Australia - Electoral Systems- Proportional Representation in Australia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Proportional representation electoral systems are used in Australia to elect candidates to the Senate, the upper houses of NSW, Victoria, South Australia, and Western Australia, the Lower House of Tasmania, the ACT Legislative Assembly and many Local Government Councils. 
Proportional Representation (PR) is the term that describes a group of electoral systems used to elect candidates in multi-member electorates.
The composition of a Legislature where members are elected using PR usually better reflects the proportions of votes received by candidates on a State or Territory-wide basis than houses where members are elected to single seat electorates.
www.eca.gov.au /systems/proportional/proportion_rep.htm   (1131 words)

 The 1998 Tasmanian Election: Women and Proportional Representation (Australian Parliamentary Library Research Note 5 ...
A common view on how to rectify this problem is the introduction of proportional representation voting systems to increase the numbers of female representatives.
While the representation of women in Tasmania's House of Assembly stood at a record 31.4 per cent prior to the 1998 election, this strong showing is a recent phenomenon.
Proportional representation is regularly touted as being the key factor in 'fixing' the under-representation of women in Australian parliaments.(7)
www.aph.gov.au /library/pubs/rn/1998-99/99rn05.htm   (1221 words)

 Condorcet Internet Voting Service   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The factor (k+1) may be surprising in the validity condition, but it actually agrees with proportional representation voting schemes developed elsewhere; it is analogous to the Droop quota used by many STV election methods.
Using a different criterion for when a proportional preference is valid would result in a higher level of overrepresentation in some cases.
In proportional representation mode, there is only one difference from the voter's perspective: instead of ranking the candidates, the voter gives a nonnegative weight to each candidate.
www.cs.cornell.edu /w8/~andru/civs/proportional.html   (1292 words)

 PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Proportional Representation (PR) is the method by which voters in Cambridge elect members of the City Council and School Committee.
Any group of voters that number more than one-tenth of the total population can be sure of electing at least one member of a nine-member Council, but a majority group of voters can be sure of electing a majority of the Council.
Under PR a candidate needs to win a certain proportion of the votes to be elected.
www.cambridgema.gov /Election/proprep.html   (517 words)

 Herbinator: Proportional Representation
Proportional Representation (PR) is a green value thing in and of itself.
It is more democratic in the populist sense and, since giving voice to all people is within the the green value set, we naturally support Proportional Representation.
I notice from your post on proportional representation that you are calling for a simple party list system.
herbinator.blogspot.com /2005/12/proportional-representation.html   (603 words)

 PR Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The rationale underpinning all proportional representation (PR) systems is to consciously reduce the disparity between a party's share of the national vote and its share of the parliamentary seats.
However, it can be achieved just as easily if the proportional component of an MMP system compensates for any disproportionality arriving out of the majoritarian district results (see Mixed Member Proportional).
The greater the number of representatives to be elected from a district, and the lower the required threshold for representation in the legislature, the more proportional the electoral system will be, and the greater chance small minority parties will have of gaining representation.
www.aceproject.org /main/english/es/esf.htm   (494 words)

 Proportional Representation
The major arguments against proportional representation are that the system tends to produce minority government situations more often than does first-past-the-post and that in supplanting the current practice of electing a single Member of Parliament for each constituency it "eliminates the one direct tie each of us with government" (Barker 300).
In addition, the particular system of proportional representation suggested by Hiemstra (281 and 285), list-system PR, would have the great disadvantage of placing far too much power in the hands of the party leaders who would decide whose names would appear on the party list at the next election.
Many supporters of proportional representation seek to justify their scheme by pointing out problems with the first-past-the-post system, some of them quite serious, as evidenced by provincial elections in New Brunswick in 1987 (Hiemstra 282), Prince Edward Island in 1993 (Hiemstra 281), and British Columbia in 2001.
www3.telus.net /irobertson/PR.html   (1055 words)

 Trinidad News, Trinidad Newspaper, Trinidad Sports, Trinidad politics, Trinidad and Tobago, Tobago News, Trinidad ...
The primary (but not necessarily chief) cause of this confusion may be that the advocates of so-called proportional representation in Trinidad and Tobago had mixed up the issue in the first place.
Proportional representation simply refers to a system in which the distribution of parliamentary seats is proportional to the distribution of votes.
Notably, despite Dr Williams's opposition to communal representation, the Senate was originally introduced to Trinidad and Tobago in 1961 by the PNM in order to represent special interests and religious communities, but not in proportion to their population size.
www.trinidadexpress.com /index.pl/article_opinion?id=22955237   (1176 words)

 San Mateo County -- County Managers Office -- -- Instant Runoff Voting and Proportional Representation
While there are several types of Proportional Representation (PR), the common goal is ensure that the right of decision-making belongs to the majority but the rights of representation belong to all (or most) voters.
Voters’ proportional support for a party is represented in the number of seats the party receives.
While there are a number of different approaches to applying a proportional representation concept, the applicability of such models generally fail on the notion that PR can only be used when multiple candidates are elected.
www.co.sanmateo.ca.us /smc/department/cmo/printable/0,,1909_16418019_160464514,00.html   (817 words)

 Mixed Member Proportional   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A proportion of the parliament (roughly half in the cases of Germany, Bolivia, and Venezuela) is elected by plurality-majority methods, usually from single-member districts, while the remainder is constituted by PR lists.
This structure might on the surface appear similar to that of the Parallel systems described earlier; but the crucial distinction is that under MMP the list PR seats compensate for any disproportionality produced by the district seat results.
For example, if one party wins ten percent of the national votes but no district seats, then they would be awarded enough seats from the PR lists to bring their representation up to approximately ten percent of the parliament.
www.aceproject.org /main/english/es/esf03.htm   (234 words)

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