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Topic: Prosencephalon


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In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

  
  Perinatal.nhs.uk
The two sides of the brain communicate via the corpus callosum, but the two sides are essentially separate entities with brain tissue surrounding a central fluid filled chamber, the lateral ventricle, on each side.
Holoprosencephaly is the absence or incomplete cleavage of the forebrain (prosencephalon) into the two cerebral hemispheres.
This process usually takes place during the third week of fetal life.
www.perinatal.nhs.uk /car/anomaly/cns/holoprosencephaly.htm   (696 words)

  
  Prosencephalon -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The prosencephalon, the (The middle portion of the brain) mesencephalon and rhombencephalon are three vesicles that develop during the (The development of nerve tissues) neurogenesis of a (Animals having a bony or cartilaginous skeleton with a segmented spinal column and a large brain enclosed in a skull or cranium) vertebrates brain.
Also recognized as the forebrain, the prosencephalon gives rise to the (The posterior division of the forebrain; connects the cerebral hemispheres with the mesencephalon) diencephalon and the (The anterior division of the forebrain; the cerebrum and related parts of the hypothalamus) telencephalon.
The prosencephalon emerges from the top, or front end of the (A tube of ectodermal tissue in the embryo from which the brain and spinal cord develop) neural tube, and is the most rostral of the three vesicles.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/p/pr/prosencephalon.htm   (196 words)

  
 Prosencephalon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the anatomy of vertebrates, the prosencephalon is a part of the brain (encephalon).
Also recognized as the forebrain, the prosencephalon gives rise to the diencephalon and the telencephalon.
The prosencephalon emerges from the top, or front end of the neural tube.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Prosencephalon   (113 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The structure of the early prosencephalon closely resembles the early neural tube i.e., thick lateral walls are connected by thinner floor and roof plates.
The early prosencephalon develops an ocular cup from its ventrolateral walls in the position of the future diencephalon.
In the 5th week, when the embryo reaches the 7 mm stage, the simple plan of the prosencephalon changes; paired telencephalic vesicles and the diencephalon begin to form; the optic cup continues its development.
isc.temple.edu /neuroanatomy/lab/embryo/dien.htm   (144 words)

  
 Dunty Figure 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon are all visible.
NBS staining illustrates scattered PCD within the prosencephalon and rhombencephalon as viewed from the inner surface of the neural tube.
Cell death in the neuroepithelium of the rhombencephalon (viewed in C) is deep to the plane of focus.
www-cellbio.med.unc.edu /dept/sulik/dunty/DuntyFig3.html   (292 words)

  
 Holoprosencephaly
Although we have been focusing on the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral specification of the neural tube, the right-left axis is also important, especially with regards to the prosencephalon.
The mecahnisms by which the prosencephalon splits and the corpus callosum forms is being investigated by looking at those human conditions where these events fail to occur.
In the fourth level of holoprosencephaly, the eyes are still close together, the nose is flat, and there is a medial cleft lip (Figure 1E,F), and in the fifth level, there is a bilateral cleft lip, closely spaced eyes, and a flat medial process representing the philtrum.
zygote.swarthmore.edu /ecto3.html   (909 words)

  
 Coordinate regulation and synergistic actions of BMP4, SHH and FGF8 in the rostral prosencephalon regulate ...
Coordinate regulation and synergistic actions of BMP4, SHH and FGF8 in the rostral prosencephalon regulate morphogenesis of the telencephalic and optic vesicles.
Coordinate regulation and synergistic actions of BMP4, SHH and FGF8 in the rostral prosencephalon regulate morphogenesis of the telencephalic and optic vesicles.These results suggest that optimal growth requires a balance of BMP, FGF8 and SHH signaling.
Increased BMP signaling and loss of FGF and SHH expression was correlated with decreased proliferation, increased cell death, and hypoplasia of the telencephalic and optic vesicles.
www.pdg.cnb.uam.es /UniPub/iHOP/gp/9434855.html   (231 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
As early as 51 h postfertilization (PF; hatching occurs 144-168 h PF, and the first monoaminergic neurons appear around 72 h PF) GABAir neurons appear in the ventral prosencephalon caudal to the optic recess, in the ventral mesencephalon, and in the spinal cord.
Then, there is a gradual addition of GABAir cell groups in the rostral prosencephalon and ventral rhombencephalon (66 h PF), dorsal and caudal hypothalamus and pretectum (72 h PF), ventral hypothalamus (78 h PF), preoptic region, thalamus, and in the mesencephalon and rhombencephalon (96 h PF).
Moreover, in the prosencephalon GABAir neurons are arranged in clusters that may reflect a neuromeric organization with six prosencephalic neuromeres.
www.elsevier.com /cdweb/journals/08910618/articles/9/4/089106189500093.abstract.en   (215 words)

  
 Sumer's Radiology Site
Holoprosencephaly is a complex intracranial abnormality characterized by absent or incomplete cleavage of the Prosencephalon (1).From a genetic point of view all holoprosencephalies have the same significance.
Their frequency is estimated at 1 in 16,000 to 1 in 18,000 births (2).Holoprosencephalies have a heterogenous cause; chromosomal aberration is found in about one half of the cases.
Recurrence risk after an isolated case of holoprosencephaly with normal chromosome is 5-6% (3).During the fourth gestational week, the neural tube forms three primary brain vesicles: the prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon.
sumerdoc.blogspot.com /2004/10/alobar-holoprosencephaly.html   (380 words)

  
 Central nervous system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
First, the whole neural tube will differentiate into its two major subdivisions: spinal cord (caudal) and brain (rostral).
Consecutively, the brain will differentiate into brainstem and prosencephalon.
Later, the brainstem will subdivide into rhombencephalon and mesencephalon, and the prosencephalon into diencephalon and telencephalon.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Central_nervous_system   (487 words)

  
 Chapter 14: The Brain and Cranial Nerves
The primary brain vesicles are named for their relative positions: the prosencephalon, or "forebrain"; the mesencephalon, or "midbrain"; and the rhombencephalon, or "hindbrain."
The prosencephalon and rhombencephalon are subdivided further, forming secondary brain vesicles.
The prosencephalon forms the telencephalon and the diencephalon.
media.pearsoncmg.com /ph/esm/esm_martini_fundanaphy_5/bb/obj/14/CH14/html/ch14_2_2.html   (207 words)

  
 The first stage of   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
  A prosencephalon (forebrain), mesencephalon (midbrain) and rhombencephalon (hindbrain) are distinguishable.
Early in the second month of life, all five components of the brain are visible in some form.
  The lateral and third ventricles develop in the prosencephalon, the mesencephalic aqueduct develops in the midbrain and the fourth ventricle develops in the rhombencephalon.
www.rossvet.edu.kn /neuro/neuroembryology.htm   (694 words)

  
 Otx1 and Otx2 in the development and evolution of the mammalian brain
In wild-type embryos, at 8.5 d.p.c., the expression patterns of Otx2, Wnt-1 and En-1 define broader regions corresponding to the prosencephalon and mesencephalon (Otx2), mesencephalon (Wnt-1) and posterior mesencephalon and rostral rhomboencephalon (En-1), while Fgf-8 expression identifies the isthmic primordium.
Interestingly, at 12.5 d.p.c., the secondary prosencephalon expresses mesencephalic markers such as En-1 and Wnt-1 even though the expression of prosencephalic markers is retained.
Abbreviations: pros, prosencephalon; mes, mesencephalon; rho, rhomboencephalon; sec pros, secondary prosencephalon; met, metencephalon; is, isthmus; ZLI, zona limitans intrathalamica; p1, p2, p3, prosomeres 1, 2 and 3.
www.nature.com /emboj/journal/v17/n23/fig_tab/7591368f2.html   (276 words)

  
 Prosencephalon - Wikipedia
Das Prosencephalon (Vorderhirn) ist der vordere Teil des Gehirns und das übergeordnete Zentrum für die Mehrzahl der Prozesse im Zentralnervensystem.
Die Zusammenfassung von Tel- und Diencephalon zum Prosencephalon ergibt sich neben den engen funktionellen Beziehungen auch aus der Embryologie.
Die vordere Blase wird zum Prosencephalon, die mittlere zum Mesencephalon, die hintere zum Rhombencephalon.
de.wikipedia.org /wiki/Prosencephalon   (131 words)

  
 TheFetus.net - Holoprosencephaly: alobar -Reuwen Achiron, MD, Anat Achiron, MD, PhD, Shlomo Lipitz, MD, Shlomo ...
Pathogenesis: Failure of cleavage of the prosencephalon which gives rise to the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon during early first trimester (5-6 weeks) results in a single primitive monoventricle, fused basal ganglia, absence of corpus callosum, falx cerebri, optic tracts, and olfactory bulbs.
Associated anomalies: The facial anomalies include a broad spectrum of defects due to median central structure aplasia or hypoplasia: extreme hypotelorism or even cyclopia, cebocephaly (a flat nose or a nasal-like tubular appendix [proboscis] with hypotelorism), ethmocephaly (extreme hypotelorism with arhinia with proboscis and median cleft palate).
Holoprosencephaly is a rare central nervous system malformation resulting from absent or incomplete cleavage of the forebrain (prosencephalon) into the two cerebral hemispheres and lateral ventricles.
www.thefetus.net /page.php?id=115   (1650 words)

  
 Developmental Biology Online: Holoprosencephaly
The mechanisms by which the prosencephalon splits and the corpus callosum forms is being investigated by looking at those human conditions where these events fail to occur.
Holoprosencephaly is characterized by the incomplete cleavage of the forebrain (prosencephalon) into right and left hemispheres, into diencephalon and telencephalon, and into olfactory and optic bulbs.
The third level of holoprosencephalic conditions is cebocephaly, wherein the closely spaced eyes are above a nose with a single nostril (Figure 1D).
www.devbio.com /article.php?id=256   (1346 words)

  
 A new developmental compartment in the forebrain regulated by Lunatic fringe - Nature Neuroscience
We identified a compartment in the avian prosencephalon, whose cell-lineage-restricted borders enclose about one-third of the early prosencephalic vesicle, defining a region that later narrows to form the zona limitans intrathalamica (zli).
The lack of similarly oriented fringe borders elsewhere in the prosencephalon indicates that the mechanism for forming the zli compartment differs from that for the proposed segmental subdivisions of the forebrain, prosomeres
We found that L-fng is expressed throughout the forebrain except for a broad wedge-shaped domain occupying the middle third of the prosencephalon at stage 12−13 (Fig.
www.nature.com /neuro/journal/v4/n7/full/nn0701_683.html   (1412 words)

  
 The Anatomy of Big Brain Editing >> Speaking of Big Brains...
The superior genu is the forward-directed concavity of the central sulcus, otherwise known as the fissure of Rolando.
What [prosencephalon]: We wrap our brains around your prose to make it as sharp and appealing as possible.
The prosencephalon is informally known as the forebrain.
sunahweb.com /BigBrainEditing/brain.html   (287 words)

  
 [No title]
Prosencephalon develops into the telencephalon (origin of primitive cerebral hemispheres and basal ganglia) and the diencephalon.
Ventricular system is developed from contributions from the prosencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon.
Sunkeness of the anterior fontanelle (“soft spot”) is used clinically to gauge the degree of dehydration of a baby with fever or gastroenteritis.
academic.sun.ac.za /Health/schools/basic_appl_health/anat/dept/NOTES2002WORD.doc   (5721 words)

  
 Anatomical compartmentalization - Wikibooks
The brain can be further subdivided into three main sections that arise very early in embryonic development: the forebrain (Prosencephalon), midbrain (Mesencephalon) and hindbrain (Rhombencephalon).
The Cerebellum is a separate brain region only attached to the rest of the brain by three stalks (Pedunculi) on each side: the Pedunculus cerebellaris superior, Pedunculus cerebellaris medius and Pedunculus cerebellaris inferior.
Ventral areas are dedicated to motor function and accomodate tracts that convey motor information from the Prosencephalon.
en.wikibooks.org /wiki/Anatomical_compartmentalization   (829 words)

  
 Prosencephalon
English words defined with "prosencephalon": Procerebrum, Procoele, Prosencephalic, Prosocoele.
Holoprosencephaly is a disorder caused by the failure of the prosencephalon (the forebrain of the embryo) to divide to form bilateral cerebral hemispheres, causing defects in the development of the face and in brain structure and function.
Words rhyming with "prosencephalon" (pronounced 'Pros`en*ceph"a*lon'): Abutilon, Aquilon, Bellon, Billon, Bouillon, Bullon, Carillon, Cephalon, Chalon, Coilon, Confalon, Decathlon, Erythroxylon, Haematoxylon, Mamelon, Merlon, mesencephalon, Mesocephalon, mesocolon, metencephalon, Moellon, Monoxylon, Mouflon, Muflon, Myelencephalon, Myelon, Myroxylon, Orillon, Paillon, Phylon, Pilon, Postencephalon, Propylon, rhinencephalon, semicolon, shallon, Sideroxylon, Sillon, solon, Stallon, stolon, upsilon, Vellon.
www.websters-online-dictionary.org /definition/Prosencephalon   (291 words)

  
 Temporal sequence of gene expression leading caudal prosencephalon to develop a midbrain/hindbrain phenotype.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Temporal sequence of gene expression leading caudal prosencephalon to develop a midbrain/hindbrain phenotype.
Temporal sequence of gene expression leading caudal prosencephalon to develop a midbrain/hindbrain phenotype.Transplantation of prosomeres 1-2 into the cerebellar plate were used, by using chick/quail chimeras, to analyse the temporal sequence of the genetic cascade leading the graft to develop a midbrain/hindbrain phenotype.
Our results show that (1) at Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage 13, Pax2 and En2 are already induced within the graft, before all other genes of the cascade, whereas misexpression of Fgf8 is also observed within the contiguous host cerebellar plate; (2) within the graft, Otx2 repression and Gbx2 induction (see Hidalgo-S?nchez et al.
www.pdg.cnb.uam.es /UniPub/iHOP/gp/9359054.html   (147 words)

  
 Prosencephalon   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
En la anatomía de vertebrados, el prosencephalon es una pieza del encéfalo, o cerebro.
El prosencephalon, el mesencephalon y el rhombencephalon son tres vesículas que se convierten durante el neurogenesis de un cerebro de los vertebrados.
El prosencephalon emerge de la parte superior, o del extremo delantero del tubo de los nervios, y es el ma's rostral de las tres vesículas.
www.yotor.net /wiki/es/pr/Prosencephalon.htm   (140 words)

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