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Topic: Prostacyclin


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In the News (Tue 18 Dec 18)

  
  Prostacyclin and analogues for acute ischaemic stroke (Cochrane Review)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Prostacyclin and related drugs, which can dilate brain blood vessels, are of no apparent benefit in the early treatment of strokes caused by blood clots.
Prostacyclin and related drugs have the ability to thin blood and increase brain blood flow.
Prostacyclin is an agent with a number of effects on platelets, blood vessels and nerve cells which might improve outcome after acute ischaemic stroke.
www.update-software.com /abstracts/AB000177.htm   (501 words)

  
 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Thromboxane
It is in homeostatic balance in the circulatory system with prostacyclin, a related compound.
Prostacyclin is a member of the family of lipid molecules known as eicosanoids.
Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-inflammatory.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Thromboxane   (579 words)

  
 Vascular homeostasis - a cholesterol balancing act?
Prostacyclin, by interacting with its prostacyclin receptor on the surface of the platelet, transmits signals to within the platelet and, in turn, leads to an increase in second messengers within the platelet itself.
This produced a mutated prostacyclin receptor that was found not to signal efficiently: upon measuring the mutated receptor's signalling, we found that it was reduced by 82% compared to that of the normal or wild type prostacyclin receptor.
This data confirmed that the prostacyclin receptor requires cholesterol to signal efficiently and that the amino acid we mutated is necessary for this cholesterol attachment to occur.
www.irishscientist.ie /2000/contents.asp?contentxml=201s.xml&contentxsl=insight3.xsl   (870 words)

  
 Prostacyclin for pulmonary hypertension in adults (Cochrane Review)
Prostacyclin may benefit patients with pulmonary hypertension (raised blood pressure in the lungs) in the short term but studies longer in duration are required.
Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and can be given orally, subcutaneously, intravenously or inhaled via a nebuliser.
To determine the efficacy of prostacyclin or one of its analogues in idiopathic primary pulmonary hypertension.
www.update-software.com /abstracts/AB002994.htm   (683 words)

  
 Prostacyclins: Pulmonary Hypertension Treatments
Prostacyclin is an synthetic chemical that mimics a substance called prostaglandin that is naturally produced in the body to dilate our blood vessels.
Researchers believe that an abnormally low ratio of prostacyclin in relation to endogenous thromboxane (a vasoconstrictor that serves the opposite function: it stimulates platelet aggregation) may be partially responsible for the development of primary pulmonary hypertension.
Thus prostacyclin improves cardiac output- the blood vessels are cleared out and it may slow the growth of muscle cells that cause these blood vessels to constrict.
www.pulmonary-hypertension-treatments.com /prostacyclin.html   (462 words)

  
 Oxford Biomedical Research (800) 692-4633
The potent biological activities of prostacyclin indicate an important role for prostacyclin synthase in the pathophysiology of thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases.
This solubilized and partially purified preparation of mammalian prostacyclin synthase should therefore facilitate basic and pharmaceutical research, including study of the factors involved in the regulation of prostacyclin synthase gene expression, development of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and development of new strategies for the prevention and management of thromboembolic episodes.
This fragment of the cDNA encoding human prostacyclin synthase is useful for the preparation, by nick translation or random priming, of labeled probes for Northern blot analysis of the expression of the brain isoform of prostacyclin synthase.
www.oxfordbiomed.com /pg61prossyn.html   (248 words)

  
 PTGIS - prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin) synthase
Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS), which catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin (PG) H(2) to prostacyclin (PGI(2)), is a member of the cytochrome P-450 (P450) superfamily, CYP8A1.
The P450s of the CYP7 and CYP8 families, except for CYP8A (prostacyclin synthase), catalyze the oxygenation of sterols from an alpha surface in the middle of the steroid skeleton.
Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS), a cytochrome P450 enzyme, catalyzes the biosynthesis of a physiologically important molecule, prostacyclin.
www.pdg.cnb.uam.es /UniPub/iHOP/gg/91463.html   (1587 words)

  
 Study led by University of Maryland Medical Center researchers shows new drug offers hope for treating an incurable ...
Prostacyclin is a natural substance made by the lining of the blood vessels.
Prostacyclin is administered in pre-set doses with a portable infusion pump.
Prostacyclin is manufactured by Glaxo Wellcome, which provided funding for both studies, along with the National Institutes of Health.
www.umm.edu /news/releases/news-releases-9.html   (540 words)

  
 Drug Watch: Prostacyclin in primary pulmonary hypertension [Oct 1994; 8-4]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Prostacyclin is licensed as an anticoagulant for use during renal dialysis, but not for primary pulmonary hypertension.
A third paper [3] investigated 44 patients at a British hospital; in 25 the decision to purchase prostacyclin treatment was made by the patients' health authority, and in 19 the decision was not to purchase, so the treatment decision was not randomised.
Deaths differed little between groups (9/25 compared with 9/19); prostacyclin apparently increased the chances of transplantation but the numbers were very small (7/25 compared with 3/19) and the difference was not significant.
www.jr2.ox.ac.uk /bandolier/band8/b8-4.html   (822 words)

  
 PERSONALMD.com - Personalized Medical Information and Services
Prostacyclin levels, which were, on average, 17 percent lower in the women with preeclampsia, acts to relax the walls of blood vessels.
Mills theorizes that lack of prostacyclin creates an imbalance between the compounds in the body that act to constrict and dilate arteries, with the result that blood vessels suffer excessive tightening during preeclampsia, sending blood pressure skyward.
The study authors said the variation of prostacyclin levels in women was too wide to use as an indicator of the condition.
www.personalmd.com /news/n0728100712.shtml   (565 words)

  
 prostacyclin - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about prostacyclin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
It is also a potent vasodilator, causing blood vessels to dilate.
Prostacyclin, either alone or in combination with heparin, is used to inhibit platelet aggregation in patients undergoing renal dialysis.
It has to be given by continuous intravenous infusion because its half-life is only three minutes.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /prostacyclin   (144 words)

  
 Serious Injury Lawyers - Overview of Adverse Vioxx-Related Medical Events
Prostacyclin is formed in the vascular endothelium by the Cox-1 enzyme.
Prostacyclin has important properties designed to confer vasoprotective properties by inhibiting the clotting process.
Their actions include a reduction in the effective prostacyclin antagonism of thromboxane activity leading to the creation of prothrombotic states and blood clot formation.
www.seriousinjurylawyers.com /vioxxthree.html   (1104 words)

  
 Aspirin might prevent Vioxx cardiac damage
The new study found that, in a strain of mice prone to high blood pressure, an inability to respond to prostacyclin led to cardiac complications, including hypertension, enlarged hearts and severe scarring of the heart.
To examine the consequences of prostacyclin decline for blood pressure and cardiac damage, the team manipulated mice such that they completely lacked the receptors that normally respond to the vessel dilator.
While prostacyclin activity can be substantially reduced in patients taking the painkillers, the animals lacked this important blood component altogether, he explained.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2005-09/dumc-amp090705.php   (868 words)

  
 Treatment and Services   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Prostacyclin is a difficult therapy to administer because it must be mixed on a daily basis and administered through a central (Hickman) catheter 24 hours a day.
Because of the complexities of this form of treatment, prostacyclin therapy should be obtained only at a specialized center with experience in the management of patients with pulmonary hypertension.
A growing body of published evidence indicates that prostacyclin is also of benefit in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease and collagen/ vascular disease.
heart.amc.edu /treatment_and_services.htm   (321 words)

  
 Prostacyclin [Apr 1995; 14-2]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension with continuous intravenous prostacyclin (epoprostenol).
The value of prostacyclin (epoprostenol) and heart-lung transplantation for severe pulmonary hypertension.
Survival in primary pulmonary hypertension with long-term continuous intravenous prostacyclin.
www.jr2.ox.ac.uk /bandolier/band14/b14-2.html   (681 words)

  
 Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists
Inhaled prostacyclin (PGI2) is an effective addition to the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and hypoxia in the operating room and intensive care unit.
Inhaled prostacyclin for term infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension refractory to inhaled nitric oxide.
The additive pulmonary vasodilatory effects of inhaled prostacyclin and inhaled milrinone in postcardiac surgical patients with pulmonary hypertension.
www.scahq.org /sca3/newsletters/2003jun/drug3.shtml   (1259 words)

  
 The Journal of Invasive Cardiology
Nausea and headache persisted and were intolerable at a prostacyclin dose of 20 ng/kg/min, requiring repeated treatment with narcotic analgesics.
In view of this improvement, and the continuing adverse effects of prostacyclin, it was decided to gradually reduce the dose of prostacyclin.
Even with the advent of newer, orally effective agents for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, discontinuation of chronic therapy with prostacyclin is considered hazardous because of the development of rebound pulmonary hypertension.
www.invasivecardiology.com /jic/displayArticle.cfm?articleID=article3346   (1422 words)

  
 A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO DIABETIC NEUROPATHY TREATMENT
In the case of diabetics, it behaves very much like prostacyclin because it causes prostacyclin to be liberated by the body.
The problem with GLA produced prostacyclin is that it takes time, it might not work well and the level of prostacyclin might be low or non-existant.
Given a choice of anti-hypertensive drugs, the ACE-inhibitors mentioned have been shown to achieve part of their blood-pressure reduction activity through prostacyclin release; but they are also prescibed for diabetics by virtue of the prophylaxis they offer against the deveopment of kidney and heart complications.
www.geocities.com /bsy53/dn/neuropat.html   (5332 words)

  
 Aspirin and Retinopathy in Rats   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The importance in experimental diabetic retinopathy of prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO), as well as the possible effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), are well known.
In diabetic rats platelet aggregation and thromboxane concentration were increased, and prostacyclin, NO and area occupied by HRP-permeable vessels were decreased.Acetylsalicylic acid reduced platelet aggregation, and lowered thromboxane production by 82%--99%.
Prostacyclin production was inhibited by 92%--95% with 10 mg ASA/kg per day, and by 8%--20% with 2 mg ASA/kg per day.
www.islet.org /forum024/messages/21629.htm   (371 words)

  
 Biochemistry, UCD
We also have an active research prorgamme investigating the role of protein isoprenylation and protein function particularly pertaining to the role of isoprenylation of the prostayclin receptor and of members of the p21-ras subfamily of (proto)oncoproteins in their control of cell growth and differentiation, as relevant to various cancers.
Dual lipidation of the prostacyclin receptor: Identification of the sequence determinants of palmitoylation and analysis of the relevant roles of isoprenylation and palmitoylatin for receptor signalling.
The effects of the statins lovastatin and cerivastatin on signaling by the prostacyclin receptor.
www.ucd.ie /biochem/btk   (897 words)

  
 Vascular hemostasis — a biochemist's perspective
Prostacyclin, on the other hand, inhibits these processes by blocking platelet aggregation and by causing relaxation of the blood vessel.
These opposing actions of thromboxane and prostacyclin play a central role in the maintenance of circulatory hemostasis and, accordingly, imbalances in their levels have been implicated in a number of cardiovascular disorders.
Both thromboxane and prostacyclin act or signal by binding to specific proteins, termed receptors, located on the surface of their target cell (Figure 2).
www.irishscientist.ie /2001/contents.asp?contentxml=01p218.xml&contentxsl=IS01pages.xsl   (623 words)

  
 Sarnoff Endowment Fellows: James Muldowney   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Prostacyclin, or PGI2 is one of the many short lived products of arachidonic acid metabolism.
In vivo, prostacyclin and its analogs have been demonstrated to reduce blood pressure, inducing reflex tachycardia, prolong bleeding time, increase gastric motility, cause facial flushing, and possibly increase cardiac ejection fraction.
Despite the side effects of hypotension and GI upset, prostacyclin is used in Europe as treatment for peripheral vascular disease and, to a limited extent, for pulmonary hypertension.
www.sarnoffendowment.org /fellows/muldowney.shtml   (560 words)

  
 PPH Cure Foundation - Internet Journal - Volume 4, Issue 10   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
“Prostacyclin is a strong vasodilator that inhibits the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells and is also the most potent endogenous inhibitor of platelet aggregation.
Prostacyclin synthase is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and prostacyclin has been shown to inhibit collagen expression.”
Excess stiffness in these vessels, due to an inadequate supply of prostacyclin (which in turn would result from depressed promoter activity of the prostacyclin synthase), is a hallmark characteristic of pulmonary hypertension.
www.pphcure.org /journals/issues/0011.htm   (414 words)

  
 Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
In 2000, we discovered that human oviducts produce abundant prostacyclin (Human Fallopian Tubes Express Prostacyclin (PGI) Synthase and Cyclooxygenases and Synthesize Abundant PGI).When prostacyclin was supplemented in the culture media, it enhanced the hatching of mouse embryos (Prostacylin enhances embryo hatching but not sperm motility).
Recently we showed increased prostacyclin production by the oviducts corresponds to the development of embryos in the oviduct: peak prostacyclin production, associated with the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene, occurs in post-coitus days 2 and 3 mouse oviducts (Oviduct prostacyclin functions as a paracrine factor to augment the development of embryos).
Thus, supplementing embryo culture media with prostacyclin may enhance the developmental and implantation potentials of human embryos; the safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in women desiring fertility may need to be re-evaluated.
obg.med.uth.tmc.edu /reproductive_edocrinology.htm   (485 words)

  
 Medical Policy DRUG.00004 | Prostacyclin Infusion Therapy for Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension (Epoprostenol ...
The causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension are varied and include scleroderma and its variants (i.e., the CREST syndrome), and various congenital heart defects.  In patients with secondary pulmonary hypertension, management is directed at early recognition and treatment of the underlying disease and may also include therapy of the hypertension itself.
Because of epoprostenol’s short half-life, it must be administered intravenously with a portable infusion pump attached to a permanent indwelling central venous catheter.  Continuous intravenous epoprostenol infusions are reserved for those patients who are unresponsive to conventional therapy, and may be used either as long-term therapy or as a bridge to transplantation.
Effect of nebulized epoprostenol (prostacyclin) on exhaled nitric oxide in patients with pulmonary hypertension due to congenital heart disease and in normal controls.
medpolicy.bluecrossca.com /policies%5CDRUG%5Cprostacyclin.html   (1569 words)

  
 Effects of prostaglandins on the isolated human bladder and urethra. Prostacyclin and thromboxane production of rat and ...
Prostacyclin and thromboxane production of rat and cat arterial tissue is altered independently by several vasoactive substances.
The modulation of the production of prostacyclin and thromboxane from cat and cat aortic tissue slices by different vasoactive agents has been studied in order to reveal whether the release of these main two vasoactive prostanoids goes in parallel or may be controlled independently.
Gallopamil decreased prostacyclin release and increased thromboxane release from vessel wall slices in a certain concentration range causing a characteristic dose dependent minimum in the ratio of prostacyclin and thromboxane release.
www.hairmillion.com /rx-online-info/propranolol-online-rx/propranolol-online-rx.1092.html   (722 words)

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