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Topic: Proteoglycan

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Proteoglycans are a special class of glycoprotein that contain extra carbohydrates; their structure is a protein with one or more glycosaminoglycan chains.
Proteoglycans may contain chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, heparin and heparin sulfate, and keratin sulfate; these substances are associated strongly with the proper function of skin and joints.
Proteoglycans form most of the extracellular matrix, the stuff between an animal's cells.
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Proteoglycan   (158 words)

 Arthritis Research & Therapy | Full text | Long-term cyclical in vivoloading increases cartilage proteoglycan ...
Proteoglycan and collagen are two important structural components of the cartilage extracellular matrix [1,2].
To identify depth-specific changes in proteoglycan due to loading, the outcome measures were mean integrated value of proteoglycan in the superficial zone of cartilage, mean integrated value of proteoglycan in the mid zone of cartilage, and mean integrated value of proteoglycan in the deep zone of cartilage.
We hypothesize that the increase in proteoglycan in the cartilage deep zone is due to the localized increase in hydrostatic pressure caused by cyclical in vivo loading that leads to signal transduction within the resident chondrocytes.
arthritis-research.com /content/8/5/R147   (4806 words)

 Therapeutic method using fucose-containing proteoglycan or acidic glycan - Patent 6596689
The proteoglycans of the invention are produced by proliferating cells, for example by sponge cells, sea urchin cells, and, in the case of higher animals (including humans), by embryonic cells and tumor cells.
Novel fucose-containing proteoglycans and acidic glycans, and or fragments thereof, preferably proteoglycans, isolated or capable of being isolated from organisms of the genus Halichondria and/or Mycale and/or Cliona.
Supernatant was centrifuged at 100,000.times.g for 4 h at +40 C., and the pelleted proteoglycan redissolved in buffer B at concentration of 1-2 mg/ml.
www.freepatentsonline.com /6596689.html   (4887 words)

 Proteoglycan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Proteoglycans represent a special class of glycoproteins that are heavily glycosylated.
Proteoglycans can be categorised depending upon the nature of their glycosaminoglycan chains.
An inability to break down proteoglycans is characteristic of a group of genetic disorders, called mucopolysaccharidoses.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proteoglycan   (348 words)

 Decreased Glomerular Basement Membrane Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan in Essential Hypertension -- Heintz et al. 25 (3): ...
The small heparan sulfate proteoglycan is located predominantly in the glomerular basement membrane and, to a lesser extent, in the basement membrane of tubuli but also in the mesangium.
Heparan sulfate proteoglycan isolated from human kidney (lane 1) or urine (lane 2) was submitted to sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on an 8% to 25% gradient gel and subsequently blotted onto a positively charged nylon membrane.
The negative staining phenomenon in the urine sample is caused by urinary albumin, which prevents immobilization of heparan sulfate proteoglycan on the nylon membrane (indicated by an arrow).
hyper.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/full/25/3/399   (3697 words)

 Decreased Proteoglycan Synthesis Associated with Form Deprivation Myopia in Mature Primate Eyes -- Rada et al. 41 (8): ...
Proteoglycans were extracted from the sclera of a normal adolescent marmoset (248 days old) using 4 M guanidine HCl, applied to a molecular sieve column, and fractions counted for radioactivity.
Proteoglycan synthesis and collagen were significantly reduced in the posterior sclera of form-deprived eyes, compared with control eyes.
Linear regression analysis indicated that the magnitude of the reduction in proteoglycan synthesis rates in the posterior sclera of form-deprived eyes was correlated with the rate of vitreous elongation rate in form-deprived eyes during the post-lid-suture period.
www.iovs.org /cgi/content/full/41/8/2050   (5299 words)

 Proteoglycans in Cartilage - Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics
Synthesis of chondrocytic keratan sulphate-containing proteoglycans by human chondrosarcoma cells in long-term cell culture.
Ultrastructural modifications of proteoglycans coincident with mineralization in local regions of rat growth plate.
Electron microscopic studies of cartilage proteoglycans: Direct evidence for the variable length of the chondroitin sulfate rich region of proteoglycan subunit core protein.
www.wheelessonline.com /ortho/proteoglycans_in_cartilage   (223 words)

The bio-synthesis of proteoglycans and the glycosaminoglycan chains attached is examined.
This is a group of small interstitial proteoglycans which have a high degree of homology in their protin core sequence.
The proteoglycan field is changing rapidly, many new proteoglycans being identified, and proteins which have been isolated are being found to be proteoglycans.
bssv01.lancs.ac.uk /gig/pages/pgpage.htm   (489 words)

 Extraction and characterization of proteoglycan from human meniscus.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
This study consists of (1) the extraction of proteoglycan from the human meniscus under dissociative conditions, (2) an investigation of the changes that occur in the abundance and structure of this proteoglycan with age and (3) a comparison of these findings with those for human articular-cartilage proteoglycan.
Differences were, however, noted in the structure of the proteoglycan between the two tissues: dermatan sulphate was found in the meniscus proteoglycan preparation and the core proteins exhibited some dissimilarities.
A proteoglycan structure of this type would be compatible with its participation in meniscus elasticity, especially as the material is localized in a specific area.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_6892987.html   (194 words)

 The Individualist: Proteoglycan
The glycosaminoglycans of the proteoglycans are linear polymers of up to about 200 repeating disaccharide units that consist of a hexosamine (D-glucosamine or D-galactosamine) alternating with a uronic acid (D-glucuronic or L-iduronic) or a neutral sugar (D-galactose).
This linkage region is identical in most of the proteoglycans (chondroitin sulfates, dermatan sulfate, heparin, and heparan sulfate), but is different in keratan sulfate.
Because of their content of uronic acid and/or ester sulfate, the glycosaminoglycans of the proteoglycans are anionic polyelec- trolytes and have been referred to as 'acidic glycosaminoglycans' (equivalent to the older term 'acid mucopolysaccharides').
www.dadamo.com /wiki/wiki.pl/Proteoglycan   (318 words)

 A sulfated proteoglycan is necessary for storage of exocrine secretory proteins in the rat parotid gland -- Venkatesh ...
A sulfated proteoglycan is necessary for storage of exocrine secretory proteins in the rat parotid gland -- Venkatesh and Gorr 283 (2): C438 -- AJP - Cell Physiology
A sulfated proteoglycan is necessary for storage of exocrine secretory proteins in the rat parotid gland
that inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis causes rerouting of
ajpcell.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/283/2/C438   (4802 words)

 Proteoglycan and Glycosaminoglycan Structure Laboratory
he mission of this laboratory is to catalyze progress in proteoglycan biochemistry by gaining insight into the biological implications of the structural diversity of these molecules.
Proteoglycans are found on the surfaces of every mammalian cell and in extracellular matrices, yet their functions are not well understood.
Research focuses on sequencing glycosaminoglycans using mass spectrometry and determining the domain structure and protein binding properties of these molecules.
www.bumc.bu.edu /Dept/Home.aspx?DepartmentID=386   (144 words)

 Synthesis, secretion, and subcellular localization of serglycin proteoglycan in human endothelial cells -- Schick et ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Intact proteoglycans and the chondroitinase and heparitinase digests from cells and culture medium were chromatographed on the Sepharose CL-6B column.
Purification and analysis of the core protein of the protease-resistant intracellular chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan from the interleukin 3-dependent mouse mast cell.
Co-sedimentation of chondroitin sulfate A glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans with the cytolytic secretory granules of rat large granular lymphocyte (LGL) tumor cells, and identification of an mRNA in normal and transformed LGL that encodes proteoglycans.
www.bloodjournal.org /cgi/content/full/97/2/449   (7001 words)

 Chondroitin sulfate and cytoplasmic domain-dependent membrane targeting of the NG2 proteoglycan promotes retraction ...
Burg, M., Nishiyama, A. and Stallcup, W. A central segment of the NG2 proteoglycan is critical for the ability of glioma cells to bind and migrate toward type VI collagen.
NG2 proteoglycan and the actin-binding protein fascin define separate populations of actin-containing filopodia and lamellipodia during cell spreading and migration.
The human homologue of rat NG2, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is not expressed on the cell surface of normal hematopoietic cells but is expressed by acute myeloid leukemia blasts from poor-prognosis patients with abnormalities of chromosome band 11q23.
jcs.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/114/12/2315   (7947 words)

 Proteoglycans - NG2 proteoglycan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
This proteoglycan is a cell membrane-associated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan present in nervous tissue cells that have not yet specialized into oligodendrocytes, but they have been found also in developing mesenchyme and human melanoma cells.
Treatments changing the appearance of NG2 proteoglycan alter the appearance of collagen type VI similarly [Stallcup et al, 1990], suggesting that NG2 proteoglycan could mediate cell-matrix interactions by binding to collagen type VI.
The primary structure of NG2 proteoglycan consists of 2325 amino acids that code a 252 kDa core protein [Nishiyama et al, 1991].
www.uku.fi /anatomia/PG/ng2_pg.htm   (193 words)

 Proteoglycan and Collagen Biochemical Variations during Fluoroquinolone-Induced Chondrotoxicity in Mice -- Simonin et ...
Proteoglycan synthesis was assayed as described by Van den Berg et al.
The effect on proteoglycan synthesis of a single oral dose (400 mg/kg) of pefloxacin depended on the tissue studied.
S ex vivo 24 h after a single oral dose (400 mg/kg), relative to the levels of incorporation in controls receiving the same volume of saline solution (A), and 48 h after a single oral dose (400 mg/kg), relative to the levels of incorporation in controls receiving the same volume of saline only (B).
aac.asm.org /cgi/content/full/43/12/2915   (4037 words)

 Decreased Glomerular Basement Membrane Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan in Essential Hypertension -- Heintz et al. 25 (3): ...
heparan sulfate proteoglycan from human aorta and kidney.
proteoglycan is distinct from the large basement membrane–associated
increase in heparan sulfate proteoglycan excretion was significantly
hyper.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/abstract/25/3/399   (466 words)

 Chondrodysplasias due to proteoglycan defects -- Schwartz and Domowicz 12 (4): 57R -- Glycobiology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The importance of proteoglycans as constituents of the ECM and
Pettway, Z., Domowicz, M.S., Schwartz, N.B., and Bonner-Fraser, M. (1996) Age-dependent inhibition of neural crest migration by the notochord correlates with alterations in the S103L chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan.
Shinomura, T. and Kimata, K. (1992) Proteoglycan -Lb, a small dermatan sulfate proteoglycan expressed in embryonic chick epiphyseal cartilage, is structurally related to osteoinductive factor.
glycob.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/12/4/57R   (7219 words)

 Serglycin Proteoglycan Synthesis in the Murine Uterine Decidua and Early Embryo -- Keith Ho et al. 64 (6): 1667 -- ...
serglycin proteoglycan in the murine embryo and uterine decidua
Chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycan are sequentially expressed in the uterine extracellular matrix during early pregnancy in the rat.
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is a constituent of the basement membrane in the rat embryo parietal yolk sac.
www.biolreprod.org /cgi/content/full/64/6/1667   (5960 words)

 Disc Aging
Since water is held within the disc by proteoglycan molecules (proteoglycan aggrecan) any loss of proteoglycan discal content will cause dehydration (desiccation) of the disc.
Causes for this proteoglycan loss are still being discovered but 'nutritional compromise' is certainly one of the major factors.
The main mechanisms for nutritional compromise are from either damage to the blood vessels of the capillary beds in the subchondral bone (that supplies nutrients for the disc), or blockage of the 'diffusion path' from the blood supply into the disc.
www.chirogeek.com /000_Natural-Disc-Aging.htm   (1534 words)

 Insulin-Like Growth Factors I and II Are Autocrine Factors in Stimulating Proteoglycan Synthesis, a Marker of ...
Proteoglycan synthesis was determined by measuring the incorporation
proteoglycan synthesis was measured at 0, 24, and 48 h.
Inoue H, Kato Y, Iwamoto M, Hiraki Y, Sakuda M, Suzuki F 1989 Stimulation of cartilage-matrix proteoglycan synthesis by morphologically transformed chondrocytes grown in the presence of fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta.
endo.endojournals.org /cgi/content/full/138/10/4390   (7171 words)

 Androgens Stimulate Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proteoglycan Biosynthesis and Increase Lipoprotein Binding -- ...
migration of radiolabeled proteoglycans was assessed by SDS-PAGE.
Proteoglycans are complex macromolecules that are composed of
S]sulfate were assessed for proteoglycans by the CPC precipitation assay.
endo.endojournals.org /cgi/content/full/146/4/2085   (3635 words)

 Phosphacan, a Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan of Brain that Interacts with Neurons and Neural Cell-Adhesion Molecules, ...
The 30 N-terminal amino acids of the 3H1 chondroitin/keratan sulfate proteoglycan of brain are identical to those of the 3F8 proteoglycan, and six internal tryptic peptide sequences also matched those found in sequenced peptides of the 3F8 proteoglycan and/or amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNA clones.
We therefore conclude that the 3H1 chondroitin/keratan sulfate proteoglycan and the 3F8 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan represent glycosylation and possible extracellular splicing variants of a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase.
These proteoglycans may modulate cell interactions and other developmental processes in nervous tissue through heterophilic binding to cell-surface and extracellular matrix molecules, and by competition with ligands of the transmembrane phosphatase.
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/abstract/91/7/2512   (1765 words)

 Lysophosphatidylcholine Regulates Synthesis of Biglycan and the Proteoglycan Form of Macrophage Colony Stimulating ...
Peak 2 proteoglycans from SMCs treated for 48 hours were evaluated for their lipoprotein-binding capacity in a gel mobility shift assay.
retention of lipoproteins by proteoglycans and the subsequent
Deduced protein sequence of bone small proteoglycan I (biglycan) shows homology with proteoglycan (decorin) and several nonconnective tissue proteins in a variety of species.
atvb.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/full/23/5/809   (3397 words)

 Proteoglycans and Glycosaminoglycan home page
These pages are concerned with proteoglycans and with glycosaminoglycans, the links below take you to the pages.
The Forum - an arena for discussions on proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans.
The Proteoglycan and Glycosaminoglycan World Wide Web pages are maintained by Bob Lauder R.Lauder@Lancaster.ac.uk.
bssv01.lancs.ac.uk /gig/pages/toppage.htm   (513 words)

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