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Topic: Protestant Reformation

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In the News (Mon 18 Mar 19)

  Reformation - ninemsn Encarta
The Protestant Reformation was a movement in The Holy Roman Empire that began with Martin Luther 's activities in 1517, with roots further back in time.
Ecclesiastical reform “in head and members” was discussed at a succession of Church councils from the Council of Constance to the 5th Lateran Council in Rome.
The Reformation in Switzerland was contemporaneous with that in Germany and an older historiography disputed the primacy of the latter in favour of the former.
au.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761562628/Reformation.html   (2799 words)

  NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a movement in Europe that began with Martin Luther's activities in 1517 and ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism.
Reformation a great number of those who, without a serious vocation, had embraced the religious life from purely human and worldly motives, and who wished to be rid of obligations towards God which had grown burdensome, and to be free to gratify their sensual cravings.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Protestant-Reformation   (3383 words)

 Protestant Reformation
The word 'reformation' was also used (more rarely) to mean a cataclysmic change in the world-order, such as the changes which heralded the end of the world and the coming of the millennium.
Any sustained discussion of the causes of the protestant reformation would have to include the fundamental changes which were made to the institutions of the church in the central Middle Ages during the Gregorian reforms.
Historians readily accept that the protestant reformation in its various manifestations was capable of generating remarkably widespread popular support and lay involvement, but these differed widely in their nature, chronology and extent depending on the particular reformation in question.
www.gla.ac.uk /centres/tltphistory/protref/intro.htm   (3003 words)

 Reformation, Protestant — GAMEO
Gradually the term "Protestant" (from the "protesting" estates at the Diet [parliament] of the Holy Roman Empire in Speyer in 1529) came to be applied to most of the new religious bodies, although it was originally designed primarily for the followers of Martin Luther.
When reformers such as Luther insisted that baptism was essential to salvation and should be administered to infants, Anabaptists responded that baptism had meaning only when it was the expression of personal and deliberate choice.
Protestants, such as Luther and Calvin, stressed the role of the preacher in spreading the new teachings.
www.gameo.org /encyclopedia/contents/R44531.html   (2845 words)

  Protestant Reformation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe.
Protestants generally trace their separation from the Roman Catholic Church to the 16th century, which is sometimes called the magisterial Reformation because the movement received support from the magistrates, the ruling authorities (as opposed to the radical Reformation, which had no state sponsorship).
Reformers in the Church of England alternated, for centuries, between sympathies for catholic traditions and Protestantism, progressively forging a stable compromise between adherence to ancient tradition and Protestantism, which is now sometimes called the via media.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Protestant_Reformation   (4093 words)

 Protestantism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Protestants believed that the Roman Catholic church obscured the teaching of the Bible, and undermined its authority, by regarding Tradition and Papal Authority as infallible, regardless of whether it over-ruled or added to the doctrines of Scripture.
The Protestants characterized the Roman Catholic concept of meritorious works, of penance and indulgences, masses for the dead, the treasury of the merits of saints and martyrs, a ministering priesthood who hears confessions, and purgatory, as reliance upon other means for justification, in addition to faith in Jesus and his work on the cross.
Many Protestant churches practice similar rituals to Catholicism—chiefly baptism, communion, and matrimony—frequently varying or de-formalizing the rites (although this is not the case in some Lutheran and Anglican parishes).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Protestant   (2577 words)

 Protestant Reformation
Church beliefs and practices under attack by Protestant reformers included Purgatory, particular judgment, devotion to Mary (Mariology), the intercession of and devotion to the saints, most of the sacraments, the mandatory celibacy requirement of its clergy (including monasticism), and the authority of the Pope.
Reformers in the Church of England alternated, for centuries, between sympathies for Catholic traditions and Protestantism, progressively forging a stable compromise between adherence to ancient tradition and Protestantism, which is now sometimes called the via media.
Harsh persecution of Protestants by the Spanish government of Phillip II contributed to a desire for independence in the provinces, which led to the Eighty Years' War and eventually, the separation of the largely Protestant Dutch Republic from the Catholic-dominated Southern Netherlands, the present-day Belgium.
www.tocatch.info /en/Reformation.htm   (6286 words)

 Reformation. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07
Nevertheless, it was with suddenness and surprise that the Reformation began.
The conflict in the empire led the Protestant princes to form a defensive union against the emperor in the Schmalkaldic League, in which the chief figures were Philip of Hesse and John Frederick I of Saxony.
The Reformation was begun with the creation of a state church and the dissolution of the monasteries.
www.bartleby.com /65/re/Reformat.html   (2355 words)

Reformation in England according to the principles of Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin.
Reformers succeeded in depriving the Church of the temporal
Reformation was the use of violence by the princes and the
www.newadvent.org /cathen/12700b.htm   (5752 words)

 What was the Protestant Reformation?
While these Protestants do not hold to apostolic succession in order to establish the authority of a “Pope” as an infallible leader, they still look to that connection to the early church in at least some small degree to establish the authority of their doctrines and practices.
Prior to the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century, men such as John Wycliffe in England, John Huss in Czechoslovakia, and John of Wessel in Germany had all given their lives for their opposition to some of the unbiblical teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.
These five points of doctrine were at the heart of the Protestant Reformation, and it was for these five essential Biblical doctrines that the Protestant Reformers would take their stand against the Roman Catholic Church, resisting the demands placed on them to recant, even to the point of death.
www.gotquestions.org /Protestant-Reformation.html   (1773 words)

 The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation is the name given to a religious and political development in the early 16th century.
The reformation was led by Martin Luther, a monk from Germany.
In particular reformation was required with regards: the language that the Bible was produced in: most people couldn't read Latin; the selling of forgiveness, this was considered to be immoral by Luther but had been standard practice by some monks and priests for years.
www.schoolshistory.org.uk /protestantreformation.htm   (354 words)

 Protestant Reformation - Conservapedia
The Protestant Reformation was the 16th century movement which led to the Protestant churches separating from the Roman Catholic Church.
Protestants rejected what they perceived as false doctrines and malpractices within the Roman Catholic Church.
During the reformation many martyrs to the Protestant Faith were killed by Roman Catholics.
www.conservapedia.com /Protestant_Reformation   (94 words)

 The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Reformation ended the unity imposed by medieval Christianity and, in the eyes of many historians, signaled the beginning of the modern era.
The term Protestant was not initially applied to the reformers, but later was used to describe all groups protesting Roman Catholic orthodoxy.
www.u-s-history.com /pages/h1136.html   (703 words)

 Protestant Reformation
The morning star was Erasmus, for most Reformers were trained humanists, skilled in the ancient languages, grounded in biblical and patristic sources, and enlightened by his pioneer Greek NT of 1516.
The Reformers' target may be generally described as degenerate late medieval Catholicism, over against which they set the faith of the apostles and the early fathers.
Reformers almost insisted on clerical marriage, by their own example elevating the importance of family life.
mb-soft.com /believe/txc/protrefo.htm   (1468 words)

 Protestant Reformation - Theopedia
He insisted on reforms including: the congregational singing of the Psalms as part of church worship, the teaching of a catechism and confession of faith to children, and the enforcement of a strict moral discipline in the community by the pastors and members of the church.
Hence the Reformers were calling the church back to the basic teaching of Scripture where the apostle Paul states that we are "saved by grace through faith and that not of ourselves, it is the gift of God," Eph.
The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox concept of the priesthood was seen as having no warrant in Scripture, viewed as a perversion and mis-application of the Old Testament Aaronic or Levitical priesthood which was clearly fulfilled in Christ and done away with by the New Testament.
www.theopedia.com /Reformation   (1188 words)

 ::The Reformation::
The English Reformation was to have far reaching consequences in Tudor England.
Henry VIII decided to rid himself of his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, after she had failed to produce a male heir to the throne.
Few monks protested as they were given pensions or jobs where their monastery was.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /reformation.htm   (1226 words)

 The Reformation in France
She raised her children to be Protestant and she gave protection and support to the Huguenot cause wherever she could.
It is both ironic and indicative of the difficulty of Catherine's positon that she had begun the year trying to win Huguenot support to counterbalance the Guise faction, yet now had to turn to that same family for defense of the realm.
In the wake of this, Catherine betrothed her daughter Margaret to Henry of Navarre (son of the staunchly Protestant Jeanne d'Albret), hoping to create a future alliance, and again hoping to counterbalance the influence of the Guise faction at court.
www.boisestate.edu /courses/reformation/france/16thc.shtml   (7173 words)

 Lecture 3: The Protestant Reformation
The Reformation was dominated by the figure of MARTIN LUTHER (1483-1546).
JOHN CALVIN (1509-1564) represents the second wave of the Protestant Reformation.
In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904), the German sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920) asked why it is that the world's most wealthy men were of Protestant origin.
www.historyguide.org /earlymod/lecture3c.html   (3799 words)

 Liberty Magazine
The road from the Protestant Reformation to the religious freedom of the American republic was full of unexpected turns, switchbacks, and delays.
Protestant historians generally ignore this aspect of the Diet, and make little effort to explain the apparent contradictions it reveals.
On the eve of the Reformation, while church and state were technically distinct entities, they were viewed as inseparable and organic parts of society as a whole.
www.libertymagazine.org /article/articleview/630/1/98   (3087 words)

 ProtestantErrors.com - The plain truth about Protestantism
Yet the Protestant reformers, despite making the most drastic changes to the Catholic Church since its founding, have never shown a miracle or any other sign to prove their mission, as would have occurred elsewhere in Scripture with such a drastic change to the faith.
Some Protestant reformers claim some books were rejected because they were not in Hebrew or Chaldaic, though some other books that were kept by the Protestant reformers were not in these languages either, so this excuse cannot be used.
It is one thing for the Protestant reformers to dare cut off entire books, chapters, sentences and words from Scripture, but even more, the books that they chose not to cut off they have corrupted and violated by their translations.
www.protestanterrors.com   (12887 words)

 Protestant Reformation - Christianity Knowledge Base
The Protestant Reformation is a general name for a series of movements begun in 1517 by Martin Luther and his nailing of the 95 Theses to the door of the Catholic church in Wittenberg, Germany, protesting the selling of indulgences by the Church.
The term "Protestant" came about later, when the Holy Roman Empire decided to enforce Catholicism, and several princes and cities protested the decision.
English Reformation: Sometimes considered a misnomer, since it was initially only a change of the hierarchy and not an actual reformation of church practices.
christianity.wikia.com /wiki/Protestant_Reformation   (230 words)

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