Proto-Canaanite alphabet - Factbites
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Topic: Proto-Canaanite alphabet

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In the News (Fri 24 May 19)

 Alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Most subsequent alphabets with vowels are derived from the early Greek alphabets, and there is evidence of an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic influence in the shapes that are used to represent individual letters of the Latin (and therefore, Greek) alphabet (Ouaknin and Bacon, 1999).
Among alphabets, one may distinguish abjads, which only record consonants ; alphabets which record consonants and vowels separately, called simply alphabets and first developed by the Greeks ; and abugidas, in which the vowels are indicated by systematic modification of the form of the consonants.
An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters —basic written symbols—each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past. /index.php/Alphabet

 greek alphabet
Originally there were several variants of the Greek alphabet, most importantly western (Chalcidian) and eastern (Ionic) Greek; the former gave rise to the Etruscan alphabet and thence to the Roman alphabet.
The fact that the Greek alphabet derives from an earlier Semitic script is uncontested, the exact source(s) of the Greek alphabet are however controversial.
During the Middle ages, the Greek scripts underwent changes paralleling those of the Roman alphabet: while the old forms were retained as a monumental script, uncial and eventually minuscule hands came to dominate. /Greek_alphabet.html

 Phoenician Alphabet
All the European alphabets are descendants of the Phoenician, and all the Asiatic alphabets are descendants of the Aramaic variants of the Phoenician.
Phoenician alphabet is the ancestor of the Greek alphabet and, hence, of all Western alphabets.
The Phoenician alphabetic script of 22 letters was used at Byblos as early as the 15th century B.C. This method of writing, later adopted by the Greeks, is the ancestor of the modern Roman alphabet. /alphabet.html

 Canaan & Ancient Israel @ University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
Proto-Canaanite, which may have been an adaptation of Egyptian hieroglyphics, developed into the first true alphabetic writing system: Phoenician.
Their 22 letter alphabet consisted of pictures of objects but, rather than using the pictures to represent whole words as with pictographs, each letter represented the first sound of the word for the object.
The simple phonetic alphabet enabled the spread of literacy to the masses, rather than keeping it in the hands of the educated scribes. /Canaan/Writing.html

The Phoenician alphabet was developed around 1200 BCE from an earlier Semitic prototype, which also gave rise to the Ugaritic alphabet.
Canaanite deities like Baal and Astarte were being worshipped from Cyprus to Sardinia, Malta, Sicily, and most notably at Carthage in modern Tunisia.
The alphabets of the Middle East and India are also thought to derive, indirectly, from the Phoenician alphabet. /encyclopedia/phoenicia

 Early letter names.
If we assume that the alphabet was invented in a Canaanite city-state temple, we could expect that the early letter names and their sequence express fundamental religious ideas of the people of the temple.
When the three alphabets belong to the same tradition, we may assume that their letter names developed from the same early letter names.There are several models for explaining this.
According to the remark of Sass the South-Arabic alphabet is inspired by the Phoenician alphabet. /finn_rasmussen/MANUS.htm

 Proto-Canaanite alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Middle Bronze Age alphabets.) These early scripts may have had more letters than are found later, and may also have included letter variants (different letters that could be used to express the same phoneme).
Cross, F.M. (1979) The Invention and Development of the Alphabet in Senner, Frank (ed.) The Origins of Writing.
It is found in Levantine texts of the Late Bronze Age, by convention until a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. /wiki/Proto-Canaanite_alphabet

 Brief History of our Alphabet by Wendell Hall
Runic alphabets were commonly referred to as the futhark for the sounds of the first six letters.
Few people have a clue regarding the origin of the alphabet and would be surprised to know that it's the "oxhouse." Inscriptions recently discovered at Wadi el-Hol in upper Egypt may have set the invention of the alphabet at an earlier date than previously supposed.
The alphabet is without doubt one of the greatest creations of the human mind. /alphabet.html

 Phoenician alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Greek alphabet is thought to have developed either directly from the Phoenician alphabet, or to share a common parent in Proto-Canaanite.
The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, used to write early Hebrew, is nearly identical to the Phoenician one.
Many historians believe that the Brahmi script and the subsequent Indic alphabets are derived from this script as well, which would make it the ancestor of almost all major writing systems in use today, with the exception of the /wiki/Phoenician_alphabet

 Archaeology in Israel
One of the oldest fragments in the Proto-Canaanite alphabet was found on a potsherd near centre of the settlement.
The Philistines were still on the coast and had mixed with the Canaanites, but they had also founded five mighty cities, called the Pentapolis (Ashkelon and Ashdod were part of these), which ruled as independent states on the coast.
The Egyptians ruled the area indirectly, as governors of the Canaanites, the inhabitants of Israel during the Bronze Age. /38mag/afek/afek.htm

 Articles - Georgian alphabet
Armenian alphabet, but this is not generally accepted.
The modern alphabet, called mkhedruli (მხედრული, "secular" or "military writing", sometimes transliterated as "mxedruli"), first appeared in the 11th century.
Originally it had more, but some letters (lavender cells in the tables below) became obsolete as the Georgian language changed, and were dropped from the alphabet. /articles/Georgian_alphabet

 The Legacy of the Middle East
With its 22 letters, each representing a consonant, the first alphabet, called the Proto-Sinaitic, or the Proto-Canaanite, alphabet, was a totally new departure from previous writing systems that had hundreds of signs.
The Proto-Sinaitic alphabet consisted of small pictures like an ox head, a house, a fish or an eye, each representing the first sound of the corresponding word.
All alphabets ultimately originated from a first alphabet invented about 3500 years ago, probably in the region of present-day Lebanon. /ancient/mideast/ex104_21b.html

 Complete Translation Services - Writing Systems
In order to study the origin of the alphabet by the Canaanites somewhere in the middle of the 2nd Millennium B.C., we must first examine how writing was invented by the Sumerians some 1,500 years earlier.
Alphabets and syllabaries are now used for all written languages apart from Chinese characters used in China and Japan.
Alphabets were not initially based on the substitution of conventional symbols for sounds. /writing.htm

An alphabet consists of written symbols that each represents a given sound or sounds, which can be combined to form all the words of a language Our alphabet as we know it today is the result of over four-thousand years of transformation.
Where most alphabets were used to record deeds, important decrees and the like, the Germanic runes were used to perform mystical religious purposes and magic.
The Cyrillic alphabet, in various forms, is used currently in Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, and Bulgarian writing. /~maria29/alphabet.html

 South Arabian
It is thought to have diverged from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet as early as 1300 BC, and a developing form appeared in Babylonia and near Elath of the Gulf of Aqaba around the 8th/7th centuries BC.
The South Arabian alphabet was used primarily in the Sabaean and Minaean kingoms in the Southern edge of the Arabian Peninsula.
There were also contemporary relatives of this alphabet further to the north to write down the Lihyanite, Thamudic and Safaitic languages. /arabian.html

 The Legacy of the Middle East
An alphabet is a writing system that consists of a set of letters, each standing for a single sound of voice. /ancient/mideast/ex104_21.html

 ANA Map
During this period the Phoenician-Hebrew alphabet was developed out of Proto-Canaanite, the first law-codes and the first histories (Hebrew sources J and E).
The alphabet was passed to the Greeks and the Homeric epics may have been recorded. /~zulick/300/ANEmap.html

 Articles - Syriac alphabet
The alphabet consists of 22 letters, all of which are consonants.
The oldest and classical form of the alphabet is estrangelâ (the name is derived from the Greek description στρογγυλη, strongylê, 'rounded').
The East Syriac dialect is usually written in the madnhâyâ ('eastern') form of the alphabet. /articles/Syriac_alphabet

 Articles - Glagolitic alphabet
The Cyrillic alphabet is derived from the Greek alphabet, with (at least 10) letters peculiar to Slavic languages being derived from the Glagolithic.
Some of the students of the Ohrid academy went to Bohemia where the alphabet was used in the 10th and 11th century, along with other scripts.
The alphabet was then used in Great Moravia between 863 (when Cyril and Methodius arrived there) and /articles/Glagolitic_alphabet?...

 Jewish Liturgy: The Amidah prayer, also known as the Shmoneh-Esreh
The basic thesis of this book is to show that the alphabet that we know today in our Western languages is derived from an alphabet that was created more than 3,500 years ago and which is known as proto-Sinaitic.
If it was the Phoenicians who caused the alphabet to spread beyond the confines of the Near East thanks to their international overseas trading contracts, it was the Aramaeans who spread the alphabet through the Near East thanks to their extensive travel and the movements of their caravans.
The birth of the modern alphabet created from abstracdt characters is linked to the revelation and the civing of the law. /ancient-Hebrew.html

We have discovered a script in the Negev of Israel that appears to be a local variation of Proto-Canaanite [a generic formative script widely used among Canaanite peoples during the second millennium B.C.].
Speculation on the origin of West Semitic alphabets was based largely on the Bible, or traditional attempts to reconstruct the past.
Petrie reached the conclusion that the inscriptions were alphabetic but made no attempt to identify any related offshoots. /~imaging/negev/Origins.html

 Talk Reason
The alphabet of the "Hebrew script" consisted of 22 letters as did the "Jewish script," and though the form of the letters was different, their names, alphabetic order, and the sounds they denoted remained basically the same.
The Canaanite Cities: The Scripture magnifies the strength and the fortifications of the Canaanite cities that were conquered by the Israelites: 'great cities with walls sky-high' (Deuteronomy 9:1).
The pagan Canaanite goddess Asherah is described here not only as a deity blessing her believers, but also as the favored one of the deity YHWH — a title usually referring to one's female consort. /PrinterFriendly.cfm?article=/articles/list.cfm

 Legal Opinion on Languages and Alphabets
The Cirth seems obviously inspired by a number of ancient languages: Proto-Canaanite, Semitic, early Etruscan, Germanic Rune, Arabic, and even ancient petroglyphic and pictographic symbols are all apparent in the Cirth and other Tolkien alphabets.
Similarly with respect to the individual letter symbols of the alphabets, which despite all their angles and squiggles are not individually original enough to qualify for copyright protection, even if they didn't often resemble the earlier linguistic efforts of numerous cultures.
In my view, Tolkien's alphabet symbols come from common sources, appear to be mere variations of these public domain language elements and not copyrightable because of 1) a lack of sufficient originality and 2), because they are "mere variations of typographic ornamentation [or] lettering". /Athens/Parthenon/9902/legalop.html

 Google Search: arabic_script
It is the alphabet of the language of the Quran,...
alphabet, since both are historically traceable back to a script current on...
The Arabic alphabet is the principal script used for writing

 Ancient Symbols
The Proto-Hebrew or Early Aramaic alphabet was developed sometime during the late 10th or early 9th century BC and replaced Assyrian cuneiform as the main writing system of the Assyrian empire.
The Etruscan alphabet is thought to have been developed from the Greek alphabet by Greek colonists in Italy.
The original alphabet was developed by a Semitic people living in or near Egypt. /ancient.htm

 Articles - Coptic alphabet
Hellenistic period, of using the Greek alphabet to transcribe Demotic texts, with the aim of recording the correct pronunciation of the Demotic.
By the 4th century the Coptic alphabet was "standardised", particularly for the Sahidic dialect.
It is often, though incorrectly, thought that Old Nubian used the entire Coptic alphabet directly, but this is not the case. /articles/Coptic_alphabet?mySession=95c239c68bbca7b984ba269f5c4fe30e

 Phoenician alphabet
The Phoenician alphabet developed from the proto-Canaanite alphabet, which was created sometime between the 18th and 17th centuries BC.
The Greek and Hebrew alphabets are thought to have developed from the Phoenician alphabet.
The Phoenician alphabet consists of 22 letters, many of which have a number of different forms, and does not indicate vowel sounds /writing/phoenician.htm

 The Schoyen Collection: 4. Palaeography -- 4.1. The beginning of writing and the first alphabets
BC, is the direct descendant of the Proto-Sinaitic/Proto-Canaanite alphabetical script (see MS 715), which again, developed into the Greek alphabet around 800 BC (see MS 108), that was the basis of the Latin alphabet.
The Alphabet is repeated over and over, and contains the North Semitic (Phoenician) number of letters (22), ayin/aleph to taw/tau in Phoenician and Greek order, written in continuous retrograde lines.
Since the language is Canaanite West Semitic and not Egyptian, the invention probably took place in Israel/Palestine/Lebanon. /baser/schoyen/4/4.4/441.html

 Egyptian Symbols to Phoenician Alphabet
According to Proto-Canaanite and Phoenician, "Proto-Canaanite, also known as Proto-Sinaitic, was the first consonantal alphabet. /ctesibos/alphabet/gpt2pnc.html

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