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Topic: Proton

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  Proton - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Protons may be transmuted into neutrons by inverse beta decay (that is, by capturing an electron); since neutrons are heavier than protons, this process does not occur spontaneously but only when energy is supplied.
Protons and neutrons are both nucleons, which may be bound by the nuclear force into atomic nuclei.
The number of protons in the nucleus determines the chemical properties of the atom and which chemical element it is.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proton   (720 words)

 Proton (company) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
By 2002 Proton held a market share of over 60 per cent in Malaysia, which was reduced to barely 30 percent by 2005 and is expected to reduce further in 2008 when AFTA mandates reduce import tariffs to a maximum of 5%.
Proton exports cars to the United Kingdom and Australia and the company is aggressively marketing its cars in several other countries including the Middle East.
Proton began its exports with countries where (as in Malaysia) drivers use the left side of the road like New Zealand in the late 1980s, but its success was mostly limited to the United Kingdom where it entered the market in 1989.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proton_(car)   (944 words)

 Proton - MSN Encarta
Proton, elementary particle that carries a positive electric charge and, along with the electron and the neutron, is one of the building blocks of all atoms.
Protons and neutrons are the building blocks of the atomic nucleus, the center of the atom.
Protons are affected by all four of the fundamental forces that govern all interactions between particles and energy in the universe.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761577976/Proton.html   (1372 words)

 Proton Rocket Section @ LaunchBase.net (Launch Base)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Proton initially started life as a "super ICBM." It was designed to throw a 10-Megaton (or larger) nuclear warhead over a distance of 12,000 km.
Proton is fuelled by unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.
Proton launched the Salyut space stations, Mir core segment, and both the Zarya and Zvezda modules of the ISS.
www.launchbase.net /encyclopedia/Proton_rocket   (644 words)

The nuclei of other atoms are composed of neutrons and protons held together by the strong nuclear force.
The number of protons in the nucleus determines the chemical properties of the atom and what chemical element it is.
Protons are classified as baryons and are composed of two up quarks and one down quark, which are also held together by the strong nuclear force, mediated by gluons.
www.guajara.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/p/pr/proton.html   (256 words)

 AllRefer.com - proton (Physics) - Encyclopedia
The proton and the neutron are regarded as two aspects or states of a single entity, the nucleon.
The proton is the lightest of the baryon class of elementary particles.
Protons are frequently used in a particle accelerator as either the bombarding (accelerated) particle, the target nucleus, or both.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/P/proton.html   (397 words)

 Proton | UR-500 | 8K82 | SL-9
According to the representatives of Rosaviacosmos and Khrunichev enterprise, the Proton manufacturer, several problems with the interfaces of the vehicle and the hardware of the launch complex were discovered during the tests on the pad.
The contract for the launch of Amazonas onboard Proton was originally announced on Sept. 9, 2003 and the mission was previously scheduled for July 26, 2004.
The Proton rocket with the L1 spacecraft for the circumlunar mission is poised for launch in Baikonur.
www.russianspaceweb.com /proton.html   (7003 words)

 proton. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The mass of the proton is about 1,840 times the mass of the electron and slightly less than the mass of the neutron.
The total number of nucleons, as protons and neutrons are collectively called, in any nucleus is the mass number of the nucleus.
The antiparticle of the proton, the antiproton, was discovered in 1955; it has the same mass as the proton but a unit negative charge and opposite magnetic moment.
www.bartleby.com /65/pr/proton.html   (358 words)

 Proton Launch Vehicle - Russia and Space Transportation Systems
The Proton originally was introduced in 1965 as a booster for heavy military payloads and for space stations.
The Proton is among the most reliable heavy-lift launch vehicles in operation, with a reliability rating of about 98 percent.
The Proton's third and final stage measures 13.5 feet long by 13 feet in diameter, and is powered by a single engine that creates 125,000 pounds of thrust.
www.fas.org /spp/guide/russia/launch/proton.htm   (1484 words)

 Proton - Simple English Wikipedia
A proton is the one of the building blocks of an atom.
The periodic table of the chemical elements categorizes atoms from the number of protons that each has.
A proton is believed to have 3 quarks that make it up.
simple.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proton   (180 words)

 Proton Therapy Now Targets Lung Cancer -- Update
Proton therapy offers a distinct advantage over x-ray radiation therapy in that it can deliver higher doses to a localized target area (cancerous tumors), and spare damage to surrounding tissue.
Proton beams consist of particles of radiation, whereas x-rays are waves of radiation.
With proton therapy, less radiation strikes normal tissue surrounding a tumor, decreasing the chance of damage to healthy organs and cells.
www.proton-therapy.org /pr08.htm   (693 words)

 Proton-proton fusion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The fusing of two protons which is the first step of the proton-proton cycle created great problems for early theorists because they recognized that the interior temperature of the sun (some 14 million Kelvins) would not provide nearly enough energy to overcome the coulomb barrier of electric repulsion between two protons.
With the development of quantum mechanics, it was realized that on this scale the protons must be considered to have wave properties and that there was the possibility of tunneling through the coulomb barrier.
In the proton-proton fusion process, deuterium is produced by the weak interaction in a quark transformation which converts one of the protons to a neutron.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/astro/procyc.html   (403 words)

 PROTON THERAPY - The National Association for Proton Therapy (NAPT) Proton Beam Therapy, Protons and Prostate Cancer
We are the resource for the most recent proton treatment studies and patient outcomes, as well as announcements regarding new patient protocols or clinical developments in the proton beam radiation field.
Major Proton Therapy Symposium announced: Fundamental Concepts of Proton Beam Therapy for a Hospital Environment Oct. 18-20, 2006 in the Palm Springs, CA area.
Future proton centers include Hampton University’s proton facility to be completed by late 2008 and the University of Pennsylvania’s plans for a proton therapy facility in Philadelphia.
www.proton-therapy.org   (580 words)

 Glossary Item - Proton
Protons are positively charged particles found within atomic nuclei.
Protons were discovered by Ernest Rutherford in experiments conducted between the years 1911 and 1919.
Protons are made from two 'up' quarks and one 'down' quark.
education.jlab.org /glossary/proton.html   (60 words)

 Proton - Summary
The Proton launch vehicle was developed in the 1960's as a two stage intercontinental ballistic missile capable of lofting the heaviest warheads in Russia's arsenal.
The heavy lift capability of the Proton was appealing to the leaders of Russia's space program as they prepared to compete against the US in the race to the moon.
The Proton is a three stage storable propellant launch vehicle.
www.spaceandtech.com /spacedata/elvs/proton_sum.shtml   (239 words)

 Proton Therapy
Although the precision of proton beam therapy has been known for decades, applications were limited to a few anatomic sites because of energy and treatment delivery limitations and the difficulty in precisely defining the tumor volume to be treated.
With intensity-modulated proton therapy, or IMPT, a single, narrow proton beam about a centimeter in diameter is swept across the tumor from multiple directions, depositing the radiation dose, mostly near the end of the beam’s range.
Because, on average, protons deliver half the dose to normal tissues that photons deliver, it may be possible to give a more intense regimen of chemotherapy in conjunction with proton therapy, with fewer side effects than can be expected with chemotherapy combined with photon therapy.
www2.mdanderson.org /depts/oncolog/articles/04/7-8-julaug/7-8-04-1.html   (1358 words)

 The animated proton   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
For most of the 20th century the proton was thought to be a point-like particle.
In the proton, two of the quarks are of 'up' type flavor while the third is 'down' type.
The neutron (neutral nucleon) is identical to the proton except it has two 'down' type and one 'up' type quark.
bama.ua.edu /~lclavell/pages/proton.html   (271 words)

Protons are heavy particles made of three quarks.
Therefore a proton is the same as a hydrogen nucleus.
The antiproton is an antimatter particle which has the same mass as a proton but carries a negative electric charge.
www.historyoftheuniverse.com /proton.html   (115 words)

 New Prostate Cancer Study Shows Success of Proton Therapy
Proton treatment for men with prostate cancer has created a proven and highly effective alternative to the traditional options of surgery, radiation or watchful waiting.
Proton treatment is a non-invasive, out-patient radiation process with minimal side effects Protons have been used for limited forms of cancer treatment for over 40 years, but it was not until Loma Linda University built the world's first clinical facility that all forms of cancer could be treated with proton beam.
The proton beam can be delivered directly to the cancer site with significantly reduced or no damage to surrounding healthy cells, tissue or organs.
www.proton-therapy.org /pr05.htm   (527 words)

 Proton: Nucleus of Russia's Space Future
The Proton rocket with the Sesat communications satellite is installed on the launch pad in Baikonur.
That rocket, called Proton, has become an instrument that serves as a bridge from the old space race to today’s new competition; shaped by a quest for profits first and prestige later.
A Proton rolled to the Baikonur launch pad with the Astra 1-F satellite sealed in its nosecone.
www.space.com /news/spacehistory/proton_history_000707.html   (1318 words)

Proton's entry into the local automobile market in 1985 has resulted in massive structural changes in the industry, which was reflected in the shift of the domestic car market, which depended on imported cars, particularly Japanese makes, to one that is dominated by locally made cars.
Proton made a major step in upgrading its engineering capabilities with the acquisition of Lotus Group International Limited, a British automotive engineering company and manufacturer of luxury sports car in October 1996.
One of the measures taken by Proton is in R and D sector.
www.american.edu /TED/proton.htm   (3534 words)

 Protons and neutrons   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The proton is a baryon and is considered to be composed of two up quarks and one down quark.
Decay of the proton would violate the conservation of baryon number, and in doing so would be the only known process in nature which does so.
The nature of quark confinement suggests that the quarks are surrounded by a cloud of gluons, and within the tiny volume of the proton other quark-antiquark pairs can be produced and then annihilated without changing the net external appearance of the proton.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/particles/proton.html   (1082 words)

 Proton car - find Proton auto: new proton and used proton   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Proton Energy Systems Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells and hydrogen generators produced by this company include unique regenerative fuel cells offering the ability to capture.
Protons are spin 1/2 fermions and are composed of three quarks, making them baryons.
In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive.
protoncarnewused.blogspot.com   (469 words)

 Russian Rockets   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Proton is used in both 3 and 4-stage versions, with the 3-stage version used for many of the Mir support missions.
The 4-stage Proton is used primarily for geostationary satellite missions.
The 3-stage Proton launch vehicle can place over 44,000 pounds into low-earth orbit and will be used for the largest of the Space Station components that are launched by the Russian Space Agency.
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov /rsa/rockets.html   (370 words)

 Proton   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The mass of the proton is 1,836 times the mass of the electron and slightly less than the mass of the neutron.
Neutrons and protons belong to a class of particles called baryons which are made up of three quarks.
Hadrons are any particles composed of quarks and which take part in the strong interaction, so a proton is also a hadron.
www.neutron.anl.gov /hyper-physics/proton.html   (143 words)

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